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GRAMAR DÙBAILT, 
BEURLA 'US GÀELIG, 

ANNS AM 

BHEIL STEIDHEAN NA DÀ CHAINNT 

MINICHTE GU SOILLEIR; 
v 

a' co-ghiulan 

NAN AINMEAN, NAM BRIGHARDAN AGUS NAN 
RIALTAN GRÀMARAIL, 

LE CLEACHDAIDHEAN 

LIONMHOR air PAIRTEACHADH agus CEARTACHADH, 

Ann an Ordugh Co-cheangailte agus Dealaichte, anns an Dà Chainnt ; 



FREAGARRACH RIS AN RIAN IONNSACHAIDH LEASAICHTE. 



&tt#ott irìrlattl) gjgotleatt agujcs ^gotleatatt goiiavacf). 

Le iain foirbeis, 

MAIGHSTEAR-SGOILE CHILLE-CHUIMEIN ; 

Bàll Urramach de Chomunn Oissianach Ghlascho, agus de Chomunn na Gàelig 
'an Lunuinn, fyce. 

DUNEDIN: 
UILLEAM BANACH 'S A CHUID. LEABHAR-REICEARAN 
DO'N BHAN-RIGH DHUBHARAICH; OLIBHER'usBOID: 
GLASCHO, I. & P. CAIMBEUL : D. MAC-BHEATHAIN : 
ABAIRREAN, S. MAC-ILLEATHAIN : IONARNIS, S. 
GOBHA : IONARFEORAN, S. CEITEACH. 

1843. 

[Prìs Ceithir Tasdain, ceangailte.~\ 



TO 

THE CONVENER, 
AND THE OTHER MEMBERS 

OF THE 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY'S EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE 

OF 

THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 
THIS WORK 
IS, WITH PERMISSION, 

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



LE 

MOR-URRAM, THA 'N OBAIR SO, 
LE CEAD, 

IAR A CUR A-MACH, FO THEARMUNN, 
A' CHO-GHAIRMEIR, AGUS NAM BALL EILE 

DE 

CHO-BHUIDHEANN OILEANAIL ARD-CHO-THIONAIL 
EAGLAIS NA H-ALBA, 



PREFACE. 



Manners vvith fortunes, humours turn with climes, 
Teuets with books, and principles with times. — POPE. 

In introducing* the following work to the Public, the Author 
would briefly observe, that he was, from practical experience 
in teaching for several years, led to furnish the Double 
Grammar, as an attempt to supply an educational want 
which had too long existed in the Highlands of Scotland, — 
that of a Grammar from which the natives might learn the 
structure of both English and Gaelic, or either, through the 
medium of the Gaelic itself, their vernacular language. Such 
a work has been long and eagerly desired by many in the 
Highlands. 

In teaching the structure of any language, it will be readily 
admitted by every person in the least acquainted with the 
principles of tuition, that the only rational and successful 
method of conveying a proper knowledge of it to the learner, 
is through the medium of the language which he already in 
some measure understands ; and pursuant to this principle, our 
country has been abundantly supplied with elementary books, 
in which the principles of foreign languages are explicitly un- 
folded in English, for the benefit of such as are capable of 
studying them through that important language. 

Seeing, then, such ample provision made for facilitating the 
attainment of foreign or dead languages, such as Greek and 
Latin, &c., which, though not spoken by us, are highly cul- 



VÌ PREFACE. 

tivated amòng us, and richly remunerate their being so : it 
certainly becomes equally imperative upon us to provide si- 
milar assistance for facilitating the acquirement of English or 
Gaelic Grammar to the people whose only language is the 
Gaelic, — a living and a spoken language of acknowledged ex- 
cellence, by means of which alone, instruction can be com- 
municated with profitto thousands of our fellow-countrymen. 

It is a well known and an acknowledged fact, that many in 
the Highlands who can read and spell English fluently, can 
scarcely connect a single idea with the words read by them ; 
being taught only the art of reading the language or sounding 
its vocables, — an essential object, certainly ; but as the end of 
learning to read is to enable the reader to understand the 
meaning and purport of the subject perused, reading and 
meaning of words should go hand in hand ; that is, the one 
should be taught along with the other ; for a child is fully as 
capable of recollecting the meaning of a word as he is of re- 
collecting its constituent letters and the sounds they produce. 
Therefore, as soon as he is able to enunciate a word or sen- 
tence properly, he should be next taught its meaning, other- 
wise his knowledge consists of (to him) a number of unmean- 
ing sounds ; being left to chance or his own isolated exertions 
for an acquaintance with the ideas conveyed by them. 

In schools where the analytic system, or rather the prac- 
tice of translating from English into Gaelic, and from Gaelic 
into Englishj is pursued, the case is different, for under this 
system the pupil picks up the meaning of a number of 
English words : so far well ; but without a knowledge of their 
grammatical relations, he can never express his ideas by them 
with precision and confidence. For every one unacquainted 
with Grammar is, when he has a subject of importance to 
treat of, seized with fear of blundering, " whereas one who 
lias an accurate knowledge of the structure and phraseology 
of the language he speaks, will seldom fail to utter his 
thoughts with superior confidence, energy, and effect." There- 
fore, in pursuing the translative system, let the pupil, after 



PREFACE. 



vii 



being well initiated into the art of reading both languages, be 
actively employed in acquiring a grammatical knowledge, 
along with the meaning of their vocables, and the result will 
be doubly profitable. 

Though the inhabitants of the Highlands do now, for the 
most part, acquire the art of reading English and Gaelic to 
a competent degree, only a limited number ever becomes 
acquainted with the Grammar of the former, while that of 
the latter is entirely neglected. This sad neglect is to be 
much regretted, as a grammatical knowledge of the Gaelic* 
would evidently conduce much to facilitate the art of reading 
and understanding it, and also English, perfectly ; render the 
task more pleasant and valuable to the learner ; at the same 
time preserve the purity of the language, and arm it against 
the inroads of numerous corruptions. 

Among the few Gaelic Grammars hitherto published, we 
find none defining the principles of Grammar in both lan- 
guages. In these the subject is generally treated of in a style 
of hard English, either too lofty or too prolix for the capacity 
of a Highland schoolboy, whose familiar language is the 
Gaelic, it being more suited to the capacity of the " learned." 
To place an English Grammar, defined in Latin or Gaelic, as 
a class-book in the hands of an Edinburgh boy understanding 

* In regard to the Gaelic it may be remarked, that its character is often misre- 
presented by those, and only those, who are entirely iguorant ot its genius and 
excellent qualities, or irnperfectly acquainted with its structure. Some inveigh . 
against an exuberance of silent vowels and consonants constituting many of ìts 
words, though these are in most cases indispensably necessary to distinguish 
one word from another ; pronouncing the task of learning the lauguage insur- 
mountable, but perhaps omittiug to observe that similar or greater anomalies 
occur in English also ; take, for instance, the ugly words check, cough, knee, 
knight, phlegm, through, strength, &c. ; and in the French there is scarcely a 
word without a silent letter. The fact is, as known from experience, that a per- 
son equally unacquainted with both languages will, under proper tuition, find it 
fully as easy, if not easier, to read Gaelic as English; for according to ShawJ 
"the English and French are infinitely more difficult to read and pronounce, 
and have many more silent and mute letters than the Gaelic." But though our 
venerable language may have suffered at the hands of its degenerate or prejudiced 
vilifiers, it delights us to see, it can rank among its warm admirers and zealous 
cultivators, many of the greatest philologists, and of the most distinguished men 
for learning and exalted station in almost every part of Europe, as well as in the 
unsophisticated valleys of Caledonia. — See ShaW'S Analysis qf the Gaelic Lan- 
guage, and M'LEAN'S History of the Celtic, &c. 



VIII 



PREFACE. 



English onlj, could not be more absurd than to place an 
English or Gaelic Grammar defined in English, as a class- 
book in the hands of a Hìghland schoolboy understanding 
Gaelic only. With these views, and under these urgent cir- 
cumstances, the Author has been induced and strongly en- 
couraged by many of his countrymen to provide this system, 
which isj in every point, sufììciently scientific and practical 
for the purpose of teaching the Grammar of both languages. 

The Author has, in common with other compilersof school 
books, unscrupulously availed himself of the suggestions ofhis 
predecessors. To Dr Stewart and Mr Munro's Gaelic Gram- 
màrs, and Dr Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, the best and 
most learned works known to him upon the subject, he has 
most to acknowledge in the Celtic department. The English 
department is in many points based upon the plan adopted by 
Dr M'Culloch inhis English Grammar, a gentleman to whom 
the country is highly indebted for his excellent series of school 
books. But from this eminent grammarian the Author of 
this system has, on account of the design of his work, found 
it necessary to difFer in many respects ; and while he does not 
arrogate originality to himself, he has certainly aimed at a 
higher character than that of a mere compiler, in having pro- 
duced a Double System of Grammar defining the principles of 
two languages, by terms and rules couched in a language in 
which, consistent with his knowledge, they had never ap- 
peared before ; but which will be found to be as descriptive 
of the sense intended to be expressed by them, as their cor- 
respondents in other languages. 

The subject of Orthography is reduced to a compendious 
size. The difFerent sounds of the vowels in both languages, 
and the aspirated sounds of the Gaelic consonants, are briefly 
exemplified in the keys. A verbose exposition of the powers 
of each letter is intentionally avoided? because it is seldom 
attended to, as the learner must be pretty well versed in the 
art of reading from other books, ere he commences to study 
grammar systematically. 



PREFACE. ÌX 

The most approved autliors, chiefly the Gaelic version of 
the Bible, are strictly followed in the spelling of the Celtic 
words and phraseologies composing the work. In a few in- 
stances a bristly consonant or vowel, contributing nothing to 
sound or distinguish a word, but rendering it clumsy, is 
thrown out ; such as airis for aithris, earran for earrann, 
oiche for oìdhche, &c. The improvement of the English lan- 
guage, by abridging many of its words in this manner, within 
the last two centuries., fully supports this innovation. " Who 
would expect to find chirurgeon in our modern surgeon, or 
èleemosynie in alms, ovfantasy in fancyV 

Under the head of Etymology, the parts of Speech are classi- 
fied and inflected in their proper order. The English verb is 
followed in all its variations by its proper Gaelic ; and when 
the Gaelic verb assumes a form peculiar to itself, it is so inflect- 
ed. Progressive exercises on Parsing are also provided in both 
languages, and of such varied character, as to call the pupils' 
discriminative faculties into action, at every stage. 

To the General Rules of Syntax, are subjoined such Special 
Rules as pertain to them_, both followed by exercises sufìicient 
to test the pupils' knowledge in regard to their import. 

Prosody is also treated of, in both languages, to an extent 
sufìiciently great to initiate the learner into the principles of 
that part of Grammar. Several other improvements have been 
introduced, such as models of letters and accounts, Latin and 
French phrases, and a Grammatical Vocabulary. These and 
many others will be better seen and understood upon a 
perusal of the work. 

In short, every definition and rule is concisely expressed in 
plain and simple words, but sufnciently perspicuous through- 
out to convey their iniport to the understanding. Use- 
less discussions upon dubious points are studiously avoided, 
as being more calculated to perplex and bewilder, than assist 
the learner. Viewing language as one of the great productions 
of nature, from which all principles and rules are deduced, 
it has been the Author's special object to exhibit the usages 



X 



PREFACE. 



of both languages, as they really are, and not to dictate what 
they ought to be. 

That this work is entirely free from imperfections, is a 
thought which the Author does not presume to entertain. 
In sending it forth to the world, he anticipates it will, 
more or less, share in the commendations and obloquy inci- 
dent to all literary works. But be it remembered, that a work, 
which often proves generally useful, is not such as would, in 
every point, satisfy the penetrative or presumptuous eye of 
criticism. 



Fort Augustus, \ 
School-House, June, 1843. f 



ROIMH-RADH. 



Iar dliomh mòran de mo làithibh, a bhuileachadh a' cruinn- 
eachadh eòlais air Beurla 's Gàelig maille ri càinntibh èile, 
agus fòs a' teagasg òigridh a-rèir na lathaiW a leanas, Beurla 
's Gàelig a lèughadh 's a thuigsinn gu ceart, ghluais agus sheòl 
fiosrachadh m' oifige, maille ri mòr-mhisneachd o dhaoin- 
ibh ionnsaichte,* mi gus an leabhar so ullachadh, mar oi'rp, 
air beàrn a bha ro fhada falamh ann an sgoilibh na Dùcha 
Tuathaich so, a lionadh. 

Tha e fèin-shoilleir gur h-ann leis a' chàinnt air am beil 
neach car-eòlach cheana, is urrainnear eòlas air eàinnt èile a 
theagasg dha. Uime sin, is i a' Ghàelig a-mhàin an deas- 
mheadhon trid am fèum an Gaèl nach tuig ach i, a bhi iar a 
threòrachadh gu eòlas fhaotainn oirre-fèin, no air a bana- 
choimhearsnach, a' Bheurla. Fèumar brigh, no seadh an 
f hocail Bheurla a chur gu riochdail ann a Gàelig do 'n sgoilear 
Ghaèlach mu 'n tuigear leis e. Is ann fo'n bheachd agus leis 
an dearbhadh sin, a dh'-ullaicheadh an Gràmar ùr so, anns 
am faigh an Gaèl (ni nach d' fhuair e riamh roimhe, le fios 
domh-sa) Brighardan agus Rialtan labhairt agus sgriobhaidìi 
na Beurla 's na Gàelig, iar an cur sios, taobh ri taobh, gu 
brisg, òrdail, soilleir, iomlan, anns an dà chàinnt. Agus a-nise, 

* Glacam am fàth so, a thoirt mòr-thàinge do na Mìnistearan, na Maighstear- 
an-sgoile, agus na daoine urramach èile,annsgach aite, a mheudaich mo chomas 
'us mo mhisneachd gus an obair soullachadh. Agus tha mi'n dòchas gu'n dean 
A' CHLEIR agus na FlR-THEAGAlSG Ghaelach, o so suas, (oir„is ann le 'm 
beachd-san, a ta an Duich, gu ceart, iar a stiùradh ann au roghnachadh leaòh- 
raichean-sgoil,) an uile dhichioll caoineil, gus a' Ghràmar so, a chur ann &n 
làrahan na h-òigridh anns na sgoilean a ta fo 'n riaghladh san. 



XÌÌ ROIMH-RADH. 

chuireadh air aghaidh An Gramar Dubailt, a dh'-ionnsuidh 
òigridh na Gaèltachd, le dòchas agus mòr-dhùrachd gu 'm 
faighear e taitneach, fèumail, agus freagarrach, a theagasg na 
Beurla 's na Gàelig dhòibh gu h-eagarra. 

Thigeadh do luchd-àiteachaidh na Gàelig a thoirt fainear, 
nach fior eòlas idir, air na mìltibh de bhriathran àluinn a ta 
'n an cainnt, na focail chearbach a thachras dhòibh ionnsach- 
adh mu 'n teallaich, no le tuiteamas j gu 'm fèum iad, ma 's 
àill leò 'bhi comasach, air seadh gach focaila thig 'san rathad 
a thuigsinn, — ùine 'bhuileachadh ri foghlum nam briathran 
lionmhor a ta innte. Is ann o dhearmad air a' phùng àraid 
so, a chluinnear cuid ri gearan mi-chiatach an aghaidh f hocal 
ionnsaichte nach tuigear leò, 'nuair a choinnicheas an leithìd 
sin iad, ann a co-labhairt, no ann a co-sgriobhadh. 

Is ion dhuibh-se, A luchd-labhairt cainnt Ossein Chliàiteich 
o shean, bhur n-inntinn a thogail ris na briathran fior a leanas, 
o bhèul an sgoileir Ghàelig ainmell, — an t-Ollamh Mac- 
Leoid. 

" Mar a's eòlaiche chinneas sibh air maise, airmilsead agus 
snasmhorachd na Gàelig 's ann a's taitneiche bhitheas i leibh." 

IAIN FOIRBEIS. 

Tigh- Sgoil Chille- Chuimein, \ 
An Seathamh Mios 1843. j 



CONTENTS. 



AN CLAR-INNSIDH. 



Page. 

Art of Teaching Grammar, 17 

Division of Grammar, 19 

L— ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Letters, . 19 

English Vowels, . 22 

Gaelic . 24 

Consonants, 26 

Syllables, . 27 

Spelling, . 28 

Broad to Broad, &c. ib. 

Rules for spelling English, 29 

Queries on Orthography, 32 

Exercise on 34 

II ETYMOLOGY. 

Classification of words, 37 

Article, . ib. 

Noun, . 38 

Adjective, . ib. 

Pronoun, . 39 

Verb, . ib. 

Participle, . 40 

Adverb, . ib. 

Preposition, . ib. 

Interjection, . ib. 

Conjunction, . ib. 
Queries on the Classification 

of Words, . 41 

Exercise on . 42 

Inflection of Words, 50 

Number, . 5 1 

Gender, . 55 

Number of Gaelic Nouns, 60 

Case in English, . 62 

Collective Nouns, . 64 

Case in Gaelic, . ib. 



Taobk. 

Eòlas Teagaisg Gràmair, 17 
Ro'inn Gràmair, . 19 

I. — LITIREACHADH. 
Litrichean, . 1 9 

Fuaimragan Beurla, 22 

Gaelig, 24 

Cònnragan 26 

Smidean, . 27 



Cùbadh, 


28 


Leathan ri Leathan &ce. 




T?ìalfan cru PiinarlVi Rpnr-la 


9Q 


Cèistean air Litireachadhj 


32 


Cleachdadh air - 


34 


II.— FOCLACHADH 




Seòrsachadh Fhocalan, 


37 


Pùngar, 


ion. 


Ainmear, 


38 


Buadhar, 


ion. 


Riochdar, 


39 


Gniomhar, 


ion. 


Pàirtear, 


40 


Co-ghniomhar, 


ion. 


Roimhear, 


ion. 


Clisgear, 


ion. 


Naisgear, 


ion. 


Cèistean air Seòrsachadh 




Fhocalan, 


41 


Cleachdadh air 


42 


Teàrnadh Fhocalan, 


50 


Aireamh, 


51 


Gin, 


55 


Aireamh Ainmearan Gàelig, 60 


Car 'am Beurla, 


62 


Ainmearan Lòdach, 


64 


Car 'sa Ghàelig, 


ion. 



14 C0NTENT3. 



AN CLAR-INNSIDH. 



Pa qe. 

Gaelìc Article, . 64 

Formation of Cases in Gaelic,ib. 
Fir'st Declensionin Gaelic 65 
Special Rules for the geni- 70 
tive, 

Irregùlar Nouns, . 73 
Nour^ beginning with 7, n, 

or r, • 75 

Second Decìension, . ib. 
Special Rules, , 77 

Irregular Nouns, . 79 
Third Declension, . ib. 
Proper Name Declined, 83 
Inflection of Adjectives, ib. 
Gaelic Adjectives, . 85 

Comparison, . 89 

Irregular Comparison, 91 
Numerals, . 94 

Pronouns, . 97 

Elision and Contraction, 105 
Verbs, . 106 

Conjugation of Verbs, 112 
First Gaelic Conjugation, 120 

Second — 136 

Participles, . 141 

Irregular English Verbs, 143 

Gaelic Verbs, 150 

Absolute Form of the Gaelic 

Verb, - - 169 

A Concise Viewof the Gaelic 

Verb, - - 170 

Defective Gaelic Verbs, 172 

Auxiliary Gaelic Verbs, 175 

Composite Gaelic Verbs, 179 

Adverbs, - - 183 

Prepositions, - - 188 

Conjunctions, - - 191 

Interjections, - - 193 
Observations on the English 

Parts of Speech, 194 

Shall and Will Explained, 196 



Taobh. 

Am Pùngar Gàelig, 64 
Deanamh Charan 'an Gàelig,ion. 
Cheud Teàrnadh 'an Gàelig, 65 
Rialtan Araid airson a' 

ghintich, . 70 

Ainmearan Neo-'rialtach, 73 
Ainmearan a' toiseachadh le 

l, n, no r, . 75 

An Dara Teàrnadh, ion. 
Rialtan Araid, . 77 

Ainmearan Neo- rialtach, 79 
An Treas Teàrnadh, ion. 
Ainm Ceart Teàrnte, 83 
Teàrnadh Bhuadharan, ion. 
Buadharan Gàelig, . 85 

Coimeasachadh 89 

Coimeasachadh Neo-'rialtach,91 
Cùnntaich, . 94 

Riochdaran, . 97 

Gearradh agus Giorrachadh, 105 
Gniomharan, . 106 

Sgeadachadh Ghniomharan, 112 
Cheud Sgeadachadh Gàelig, 120 

An Dara, 136 

Pàirtearan, . 141 

Gniomharan Neo-'rialtach 
Beurla, . 143 

Gàelig, 150 

Staid Fhèineil a* Ghniomh- 

air Ghàelig, . 169 

Gearr-Shealladh de 'n 

Ghniomhar Ghàelig, 170 
Gniomharan Gaoideach 

Gàelig, . . 172 
GhniomharanTaiceil Gàelig,l75 
Gniomharan Ealtach Gàelig, 1 79 



Co-Ghniomharan, . 183 

Roimhearan, . 188 

Naisgearan, . . 191 

Clisgearan, . . 193 
Beachdachadh air na Pàirt- 

ean Cainnt Beurla, 194 

Shall 'us Will Mìnichte, 196 



CONTENTS. 



AN CLAR-INNSIDH. 15 



Page. 

Exercises on the Inflection 

ofWords, . 198 

Irregular Formation of the 

Infinitive of Gaelic Verbs, 224 
Derivation of Words, 230 

III. — SYNTAX. 

ENGLTSH CONSTRUCTION. 

Article and Noun, . 245 

Adjective and Noun, 246 

Nouns and Pronouns, 247 

Subject and Verb, . 250 

Verb and its Object, 252 

Prepositions, . 256 

Conjunctions, . 257 

ENGLISH ARRANGEMENT. 

Position of the Article, 260 

Position of Adjectives, 261 

Position of Pronouns, 262 

Subject and Verb, - 263 

Verb and its Objeet, ib. 

Position of Adverbs, 264 

Position of Prepositions, 267 

Position of Conjunctions, ib. 

Ellipsis, . . 269 

Promiscuous Exercises, 271 

Style, . . * . 274 
Improper English Expres- 

sions, . , 275 

GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 
CONCORD. 

Article and Noun, . 281 

Nouns in Apposition, 282 

Adjective and Noun, 284 

Numerals, . . 286 

Pronouns, . . 287 

Subject and Verb, . 290 

GOVERNMENT. 



OfNouns, . . 293 

Of Adjectives, . 296 

Of Pronouns, . 300 

Verb and its Object, . 301 

Of Adverbs, . 307 

Of Prepositions, . 308 

Of Conjunctions, . 314 



Taobh. 

Cleachdadh air Teàrnadh 

Fhocalan, . . 198 
Cumadh Neo-'rialtach Feart- 

aich Ghniomharan Gàelig, 224 
Freumhachadh Fhocalan, 230 

III RIALTACHADH. 

CO- c RIANACHADH BEURLA. 

Pùngar 'us 'Ainmear, 245 
Buadhar 'us Ainmear, 246 
Ainmearan 'us Riochdaran, 247 
Cùisear 'us Gniomhar, 250 
Gniomhar 's a Chuspair, 252 



Roimhearan, . . 256 
Naisgearan, . . 257 

SUIDHEACHADH BEURLA. 

Ait a' Phùngair, . 260 
Aite Bhuadharan, . 261 
Aite 'Riocharan, . 262 



Cùisear 'us Gniomhar, 263 

Gniomhar 's a Chuspair, ion. 

Aite Cho-ghniomharan, 264 

Aite 'Roimhearan, . 267 

Aite 'Naisgearan, . ion. 

Beàrn, . . 269 

Cleachdadh Measgte, 271 

Stàil, ... 274 
Seòllairtean Beurla Mi- 

cheart, . . 275 

CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 
CORDADH. 

Pùngar 'us Ainmear, 281 
Ainmearan 'an Co-chòrdadh,282 

Buadhar 'us Ainmear, 284 

Cùnntaich, . 286 

Riochdaran, . 287 

Cùisear 'us Gniomhar, 290 

SPREIGEADH. 

'Ainmearan, . 293 

Bhuadharan, . 296 

'Riochdaran, . 300 

Gniomhar 's a Chuspair, 301 

Cho-ghniomharan, . 307 

'Roimhearan, . 308 

'Naisgearan, . 314 



16 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

GAELIC ARRANGEMENT. 

Position of the Gaelic 

Article, . . 315 

Position of Gaelic Adjec- 

tives, . . 316 

Position of Gaelic Pro- 

nouns, . . 317 

Subject and Verb, . 318 

Verb and its Object, . 319 
Position of Gaelic Ad- 

verbs, . . 320 

Improper Gaelic Expres- 

sions, . . 322 

PUNCTUATION, . 323 

Marks used in Composi- 

tion, . . 338 

Abbreviations and Initials, 331 

Directions for addressing 

persons, . . 333 

Latin Phrases, . 336 

French Phrases, . 342 

Notion of Business, . 345 

Letter Writing, . 346 

Models of Letters, . 347 

Forms of Accounts, &c. 350 

IV. PROSODY. 

Versification, . 353 

Iambic Measure, . 354 

Trochaic Measure, . 356 

Anapaestic Measure, 357 

Gaelic Versification, 358 

Poetical License, . 360 

Different kinds of Poetry, 361 

FIGURES OF SPEECH. 

Figures of Etymology, 362 

Figures of Syntax, . 363 

Figures of Rhetoric, . 365 

Grammatical Vocabulary, 369 

Errata, . . 378 



AN CLAR-INNSIDH. 

Taobh. 

SUIDHEACHADH GAELIG. 

Ait a' Phùngair Ghaelig, 3 1 5 

Aite Bhuadharan Gaelig, 316 

Aite 'Riochdaran Gaelig, 317 

Cùisear 'us Gniomhar, 318 
Gniomhar 's a Chuspair, 319 
Aite Cho-ghniomharan 

Gaelig, . . 320 

Seòllairtean Gaelig Mi- 



cheart, . . 322 

PUNGACHADH, , 323 

Comharan gnàthaichte 

'an Co-sgriobhadh, 338 
Giorrachaidhean 'us Tus- 

agan, . . 331 

Seòlaidhean gu co-labhairt 

ri pearsaibh, . 333 

Seòllairtean Laidinn, 336 

Seòllairtean Fràngach, 342 

Beachd Gnothaich, . 345 

Litir Sgriobhadh, . 346 

Samhuiltean 'Litrichean, 347 

Rianan Chùnntasan, &ce. 350 

IV. RANNACHADH. 

Ranntachd, . 353 

Tomhas Iàmbic, . 354 

Tomhas Trochaic, . 356 

Tomhas Anapestic, , 357 

Rànntachd Ghàelic, . 358 

Saorsa Bhàrdail, . 360 

Caochla Seòrsa Bàrdachd, 361 

figearan cainnt. 

Figearan Foclachaidh, 362 

Figearan Rialtachaidh, 363 

Figearan Oir-chainnt, 365 

Foclair Gramàrail, 360 

Clò-Chearban, . 37S 



17 

ART OF TEACHIXG GRAMMAR. 

I>~ respectfullv submitting a few hints regarding tlie 
mode of teaching Grammar. it is not intanded either to 
dictate or prescribe anj plan to the efficient and ex- 
perienced Teacher, who never fails to seleet, in the 
course of instruction, snch passages of Grammar as are 
best suited to the capacitj and circumstances of his 
pupils : the hints are offered for the benefit of those 
who maj be tyroes in the art, as being necessarj to 
direct in going OTer the following svstem. 

The Defìnitions and Rules, in the larger tvpe, are in- 
tended to be got thoroughlv bj heart, while the obser- 
vations and notes, in the smaller characters, are to be 
made the subject of frequent reference and careful per- 
usal. It will be of great service to the scholar, in ad- 
vancing his knowledge of Grammar, to be made to applj 
the dennitions and rules in course of reading in other 
books, and to be frequentlv called upon to give gram- 
matical authoritj for his own expressions, as well as fbr 
those that pass before bim in reading. Let him nnder- 
stand that his progress ought to consist in acquiring a 
well grounded knowledge of the contents of his book, 
and not in progressing from its beginning to its end. 

Everj lesson ought to be mastered bj the pupil, and 
firmìj fìxed on his understanding before he proceeds to 
another ; if this is not the case, the preceding lesson will 
afford but little light to his mind on the succeeding one ; 
the consequence is that his steps are broken or obscured, 
and he himself becomes bewildered, and heartless. 

Periodical repetitions of the Defìnitions and Rules are 
of vital importance, and' these should be again so varied 
in the language of the pupil himself, as to warrant the 
conclusicn that he has digested their import. 

E 



18 ART OF TEACHING GRAMMAR. 

The Rules of Syntax are laid down in the order of the 
parts of Speech, beginning with the Article, and each 
followed by exercises to be corrected by the pupil, after 
he has perfectly committed the Rule to memory ; but 
as the exercises on English Construction are wholly con- 
fined to the Rule under which they stand, it is of little 
consequence with which Rule the pupil commences first. 

The Rules of Gaelic Syntax are also placed in the order 
of the parts of speech, each followed by its own quota of 
exercises in Gaelic, to be constructed or arranged into 
ciassical Gaelic, answering in every point to the English 
in the left hand column, for which the learner is for the 
most part furnished on the right hand side with the 
Article (an) in its unchanged form ; Nouns and 
Adjectives in the nominative singular ; Pronouns in the 
Ist person singular ; and the root or second person 
singular imperative of the Verb ; except in cases where 
the exercises are given contrary to Rule, in correcting 
which, he is again to be guided by the Rule. 

Here it will be necessary for the learner to com- 
mence with the first Rule of Syntax, studying each suc- 
cessively, for under each subsequent Rule he will often 
have occasion to apply a preceding one, in correcting 
the exercises ; but no Rule is anticipated till he comes to 
the exercises, headed with this mark 3? which he is not 
to touch till after he has mastered the Rules and ex- 
ercises before the black P, when he may commence at 
the first section headed P and read the whole even on 
to the end : here he will have to bring the Rules which 
he had formerly learned into play again. 

In going over the Rules and Exercises on Construction, 
it will be proper for the pupil to learn a corresponding 
Rule of arrangement to each of Construction. 



DOUBLE GRAMMAR, 

OR AN 

EAGLISH-GAELIC GRAMMAE. 



GEAMAR DUBAILT, 



GRAMAR HEl RLA-GAELIG. 



Exglish or Gaelic Gram- 
mar is the art of speaking, 
reading, and writing the 
English or Gaelic language 
correctly. 

Grammar is the art of reading, 
guage according to general usage 

It is divided into fonr 
parts, namelj, Orthographj, 
Etymoìogy, Syntcuc, and 
Prosody. 

PaRT I. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Orthography treats of 
letters, syllables, and the 
just method of spelling 
words. 

OF LETTERS. 

A letter is a character 
representing an articulate 
sound of the yoice. 

An articulate sound is a 
distinct sound produced bj 
the organs of speech. 



Is e Gramar Beurla no 
Gaelig alt labhairt, leugh- 
aidh, agus sgriobhaidh na 
cainnt Bheurla no Ghaelig 
gu ceart. 

speaking, and writing any lan- 

and established rules. 

Tha e roinnte 'na 
cheithir earranan eadhon 
Litireachadh, Fochlachadh, 
Riàltachadh* agus Rann- 



achadh. 



Earrax I. 



LITIREACHADH. 

Tha Litireachadh a teag- 
asg mu Litrichean, smid-^ 
ean, agus mu cheart achd 
cùbaidh fhocal. 

MTJ LITRICHIBH. 

Is i Utir comharradh a ta 
riochdachadh fuaim pungail 
a ghuth. 

Is e fuaim pungail, fuaim 
soilleir deanta leis na buill- 
labhairt. 



* Rialtacbadh, Syntax, aud rialt, rule, are contracted for riaghailteachadh and 
riaghaUt, to save room and time. 



20 ORTHOGRAPHY. 

The English consists of 
twenty-six letters, and the 
Gaelic of eighteen, both di- 
vided into Roman and Ita- 
lic capitals and small : — 



Rom. 
Rom. 
Ital 
Ital. 



Cap. 
Small 
Cap. 
Small 



LITIREACHADH. 

Tha sea Utrichean Jich' 
ead 'sa Bheurla agus ochd- 
deug 'sa Ghaelig, araon 
roinnte 'nan ceanntagan 
agus 'nam meanbhagan, 
Romanach agus Eadal- 
tach : — 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, 
P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z. 

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, 
s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z. 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, 
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z. 

a, b, c, d, e,f, g, h, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, 



The Letters of the Gaelic are A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, 
M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U. 



The fìrst word of everj 
sentence, of every line in 
poetry, the first letter of 
every proper name, and of 
every important word, be- 
gins with a capital. 

CLASSES OF LETTERS. 

Letters are divided into 
Vowels and Consonants. 

A Vowel is a letter wliich 
makes a perfect sound of 
itself ; as a, o. 

A Consonant is a letter 
which cannot be sounded 
without a vowel along with 
it ; as, b, l, m. 

The Vowels are a, e, i, o, 
u, and often w and y; but 
the other nineteen letters of 
the English Alphabet, and 



Tha cheud fliocal de 
gach ciallairt, de gach 
sreath 'an rannachd, a 
cheud litir de gach ainm 
ceart, agus de gach focal 
araid a toiseachadh le 
ceanntaig. 

EOINNEAN LITRICIIEAN. 

Tha na litrichean roinnte 
'nam Fuaimragan agus 
'nan Cònnragan. 

Is i Fuaimrag litir a ni 
fuaim làn leatha fèin ; mar, 
a, o. 

Is i Cònnrag litir nach 
dean fuaim gun f huaimrag 
leatha ; mar, b, l, m. 

Is iad na Fuaimragan a, 
e, i, o, u, agus gu tric w 'us 
y; 'sa Bheurla ach tha na 
naoi litrichean deuff eile 



OKTHOGRAPHY. 



the thirteen of the Gaelic, 
are always Consonants. 



LITIREACHADH. 21 



de 'n Abideil Bheurla, agus 
na tri deug de 'n Ghaelig, 
a ghna 'nan Cònnragan. 

Observe. — W and y are Consonants only when they begin a 
word or syllable ; as a week, a 7/olk. 

Obs. — The vowel sounds are 
produced by the opening, and 
the consonant sounds by the 
joining or shutting of the human 
organs of speech. 

COUPLING OF VOWELS. 

Diphthongs & Triphthongs. 

A Diphthong is the union 
of two vowels in one word 
or syllable ; as, ou in out. 

Obs. — When both vowels are 
sounded, the Diphthong is called 
Proper, as oi in vo«ce ; when 
only one is heard, it is an Im- 
proper Diphthong, as o in boat. 



A Triphthong is the 
union of three vowels, as, 
eau in beauty* 

The Diphthongs in both 
languages are numerous, 
but the Triphthongs in 
English are three, eau, ieu, 
iew, and in Gaelic five. 
Vide p. 25. 

CLASSES OF CONSONANTS. 

The consonants are di- 
vided into two classes, viz. 
mutes and semi-vowels. 



When the Gaelic example does 
not correspoud in meaning to the 
Euglish, it is marked with an n. 



Faic Tha fuaimean nam 

fuaimragan deanta le fosgladh, 
agus nan cònnragan le aonadh, 
no dunadh buill-labhairt an 
duine. 

AONADH FHUAIMRAGAN. 

Da-ghuthan & Tri-ghuthan. 

Is e Dà-ghuth aonadh 
dà fhuaimraig ann an aon 
f hocal no smid ; mar, ui 'am 
mm'gh. 

Faic. — 'Nuair a sheinnear an 
dà fhuaimrag theirear Colionta 
ris an an Da-ghuth, mar ei 'an 
eiàh ; 'nuair nach cluinnear ach 
aon a mhain theirear Mi-cho- 
lionta ris an Dà-ghuth ; mar, a 
'an culaidh. 

Is e Tri-ghuth aonadh 
thri fhuaimragan ; mar, iui 
ann a ciam. Dt 

Tha na Dà-ghuthan lion- 
mhor 'san dà chainnt ach 
cha n'eil ach tri Tri- 
ghuthan 'sa Bheurla, eau, 
ieu, iew, agus cuig 'sa 
Ghaelig. Faic. t. 25. 

ROINNEAN CHONNRAGAN. 

Tha na cònnragan iar an 
sgaradh 'nan dà roinn, 
eadh tosdaich agus letli- 
fhuaimragan. 

* 'Nuair nach t'reagair an samplair 
Gaelig 'an seadh do 'n fhear Bheurla, 
tha e comharraichte le n. 



22 ORTHOGRAPHY. 

The mutes are such as emit 
no sound without the help of a 
vowel; as,6, d, p, k, q, and c and 
g hard. 

The semivowels, are such as 
emit animperfect sound of them- 
selves; as,/, 1, m, n, r, s, v, x, z. 

The consonants have received 
other names from the organs 
chiefly employed in uttering 
them, thus : à, t, s, z, are named 
Dentals, or letters of the teeth; 

b, f, m, p, Labials, or letters 
of the lips ; 1, n, r, Linguals, 
or letters of the tongue ; and 

c, g, Palatials, or letters of the 
palate. 

Obs. — As the letters of a language ought to correspondin num- 
ber with its elementary sounds, the English Alphabet is both re- 
dundant and defective. 

It is redundant, because i and y represent the same sound, and 
q is equivalent in sound to k, w to u, x to gs or ks, and every 
sound of c may be represented by k or s. 

Defective, because it wants proper letters to represent the initial 
sounds of words beginning with ch, sh, th, and the final sounds of 
words ending in ng, and each of the five letters a, e, ì, o, u, 
is employed to express a variety of sounds. 

Tha fuaimean nam fuaimragan 
araon'sa Bheurlaagus'sa Ghaelig 
suidhichte anns na h-iuchraich- 
ean a leanas leis na h-ainmean, 
lan; open, rèidh ; shut, fann. 



LITIREACHADH. 

Is iad na tosdaich iadsan 
nach leig a mach fuaim air bith 
gun chomhnadh fuaimraig ; mar, 
b, d, p, k, q, agus c'usg cruaidh. 

Is iad na leth-fhuaimragan 
iadsan a leigeas amach fuaimfann 
leò fèin; mar,/, I,m, n, r, s, v,x,z. 

Thugadh ainmean eile do na 
cònnragan gu sonruichte bho na 
buill-labhairt a ghnathaichear 
'gan sèinn. Mar so theirear 
fiaclaich nolitrichean nam fiaclan 
ri d, t, s, z ; lipich no litrichean 
nam bilean ri b, f, m, p ; teang- 
aich no litrichean na teanga i i 
1, n, r ; agus càranaich, no li- 
trichean nan càireanan ri c, g. 



The sounds of the vowels in 
both English and Gaelic are de- 
termined in the following keys, 
by the terms, 
long, fad; short, grad; broad 
ENGLISH SOUXDS. 

1. Key. 

1 a long, às in fate. 

2 a long, as in far. 

3 a broad, as in fall. 

4 a short, as in fat. 

1 e long, as in me. 

2 e short, as in met. 

1 i long, as in pine. 

2 i short, as in pin. 

3 i like u before r. as in fir. 



open, 

FUALMEAN BEURLA. 

] . Iuchair. 

1 o long open, as in 

note. 

2 o long shut, as in 

move. 

3 o broad, as in or, for. 

4 o short, as in not, pot. 

1 u long, as in tube, cube. 

2 u short, as in cup, sup. 

3 u broad, as in, bull, full. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 23 



GAELIC VOWELS. 

Tlie Gaelic vowels are 
divided into two classes, 
viz. broad and smaìl ; and 
hence the famous rule for 
spelling Gaelic, " Broad to 
broad, and small to small/* 
The broad are a, o, u, and 
the small e, i. 

Each GaeHc toicel ex- 
presses long and short 
sounds of differentqualities, 
as exemplifìed in the fbllow- 
ing key. 



FUAIWRAGAX GAELIG. 

Tha na fuaimragan Gae- 
lig roinnte 'nan dà sheòrsa, 
eadh. leathan agus caol ; 
agus o so tha 'n rialt 
ainmeil gu cùbadh Gaelig, 
•• Leathan ri leathan, is 
caol ri caol." Tha a, o, u. 
leathan, agus e, i, caol. 

Tha fuaimean fad agus 
grad de ghnè eu-coltach, 
aig gachfuaimraig Ghaelig, 
mar chithear anns an iuch- 
air a leanas. 



A vowel marked with tbe Fuaimichear fad fuaimrag 

grave accent (') over it is always leis an t-stràe mhallthairis oirre ; 

sourided long ; as, bàrd, a poet. mar, bòrd ; a table. 

A vowel without the grave Fuaimichear grad fuaimrag 

over it is sounded short, as aJt, \ gun an strac mall thairis oirre ; 

a joint. mar, ros, seed. 

The vowel e, expressing the 'Nuair a tha an fhuaimrag e, 

soundof àin/a^,is marked with a toirt fuaim a 'am fate comh- 

the acute accent (') as tèum, a arraichear i leis an t-srac bhrisg ; 

bite. mar, tè, a she one. 

The dash (-) marks a long j Comharraichidh an sìnean (-) 

sound, and the breve (~) a short fuaim fad, agus am brisgean (~) 

one in both languages, as dan, a fuaim grad, 'san dà chainnt ; 

poem, sòdàn, joy. | mar, ban, white, can say. 

The accented svllables of English words are uniformly marked 
in English Dictionaries with the acute accent, but such a mark of 
accentuation is scarcely necessary in Gaelic, when the pupil is told 
that almost every word in the language is accented on the first 
syllable. 

In the following key, the different sounds of each of the Gaelic 
vowels are represented as nearly as possible by English words and 
one French word (eu.r), in which similar sounds occur ; but some 
of them, especially 3, -±, and 5 a, and 6 o, and diph. ao, are to be 
acquired to advantage by the ear- 



24 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 



YOWEL SOUHDS. 

2. Key. 
1 a fad 'an àrd, Mgh. 

cas, /oot 



FFAIMEAN FITU AIiLR AGAN. 

2. Iuchair. 



2 a grad 

3 a fad 

4 a grad 

5 a fann 

1 e fad 

2 e grad 

3 e fad 

4 e grad 
lifad 

2 i grad 

3 i fann 

1 o fad 

2 o grad 

3 o fad 

4 o grad 

5 o fad 
o grad 



adh, 



lagh, o: Zai0. 

an, a', i^e. 
è, ee, A<?. 



gràdh, love " 
cath, octttfo ' 
adhradh, wor- 

ship 
cladh, church- 

yard 
ma, if " 
gnè, kind " 
teth, Aoi 
cè, the earth " 
duinte, shut " 
sìth, pe«ce ' 
bith, being " 



I 



a in far. 
à in fàt. 
ao in tgobh 
or French 
eu in eux, 
or u in uh. 
e in risen. 
e in there. 
e in let. 
à in fate. 
è in her. 
eè in see. 
i in pin. 
i in this. 
o in corn. 



leth, hoJf 
tè, a she one. 
duine, a man. 
cir, a cornb. 
min, rneal. 
is, am, art, &c. 
òl, drink. hròg, a shoe 

mo, my, do, thy. lon, ousle " - - - 
tòm, a hilhck. tòll, a hole " o in how. 
lomadh, clipping cònnadh,yVte? " - - - 
fòghlum, learning sògh, luxury " o in owl. 
fòghar, autumn. roghuinn, choice " - - - 

1 u fad " ùr, fresh. mgh, juice " ooinmoon. 

2 u grad " rud, a thing. dubh, black " - - - 

N.B. — A vowel is never doubled in the same syllable of a 
Gaelic word,* like double oo in English, nor is there any silent 
vowel like final e in English. 



Diphthongs.—There are 
thirteen diphthongs in Gae- 
lic, viz. ae, ai, ao, ea, ei, eo, 
eu, ia, io, iu, oi, ua, ui; of 
these ao, eu, ia, ua, are al- 
wajs long, the rest are both 
long and short. 

DIPHTHONG SOHNDS. 

3. Key. 
ao tàobh, taov, a side. 



Da-ghuthan.—Thsi tri da- 
ghuthan deug 'sa Ghaelig 
eadh, ae, ai, ao, ea, ei, eo, 
eu, ia, io, iu, oi, ua, ui, dhiu 
sin tha, ao, eu, ia, ua, a 
ghna fad, a chuid eile 
araon fad agus grad. 

FUAIMEAN NAN DA-GHUTH'. 

3. Iuchair. 
ao craobh, kraov, a tree. 



• Except dee, false gods. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

eu lèum, tjeme, a bite. 
ia fìadh, feu-gh, sl deer. 
ua cuan, ku-an, sea. 

Long sound. 
ae Gael, gyalì, a Celt. 
ai iàidh, faey, a prophet, 
ea ceann, ke-ann, a head. 
ei beist, beisj, a beast. 
eo ceòl, keoll, music. 
io iolach, eùlach, a shout. 
iu iuchair, eu^ar, a key. 
oi foid, foig, a turf . 
ui suigheag, sui-ag, a rasp. 

Triphthongs.—Theve are 
fìve triphthongs in Gaelic, 
viz. aoi, €oì, iai, iui, uai ; in 
each of these the two first 
vovrels have their diph- 
thongal sounds ; and final 
t is ahvays short, but is 
scarcelv heard before a 
sounded lingual or palatial. 



TRIPHTHOXG SOUXDS. 

4. Key. 
aoi caoidh, kao'e, lament. 
eoi treòir, tro'r, strength. 
iai fìaire, fear'a, more crooked. 



LITIREACHADH. 25 

eu glèus, glace, gun-lock. 
ia biadh, beu-gh, food. 
ua sluagh, slua-gh, people. 

Short sound. 

ae claish, Mash, a furrovr. 
ea bean, ben, a vrife. 
ei ceist, heisg, a question^ 
eo deòch, dyoch, a drinlsr 
io fiodh, feu-gh, timber. 
iu tiugh, chew, thick. 
oi toit, toige, steam. 
ui fuil, fooil, blood. 

Tri-ghuthan.—Tha, cuig 
tri-ghuthan 'sa Ghaelig. 
eadh. aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai ; 
anns gach aon diù sin tha 
fuaim da-ghuthail aig a 
cheud dà fhuaimraig ; agus 
tha an i dheireannach a 
ghna grad, agus is gann 
a chluinnear i roimh thean- 
gach, no càranach fuaim- 
ichte. 

FUADIEAX THRI-GHUTH'. 

4. Iuchair. 
laoigh, llo'e, calves. 
geòigh, keoy, geese. 



iui ciuin, kexi'n, calm. 
uai fuaim, fuy'm, sound. 

OF COXSOXASTS. 

A consonant is aspirated 
by annexing h to it ; as, 
baile, bAaile. 



fliuiche, fl.ueche, v/etter. 
cruaidh, kruey, hard. 

MU CHOXXRAGAIBH. 

Seidichear cònnrag le h 
a chur ri 'cul ; mar, baile, 
bAaile. 



26 ORTHOGRAPHY. 

A consonant without the 
h annexed to it is plain, as 
bean. 

Examples of the plain 
and aspirated sounds of the 
consonants are here sub- 
joined. 

5. Key. 
Fuaim Lom. Plain Sound. 

b, blais, blaish, to taste. 
'baist, baisht, to baptise. 
bligh, ble, to milk. 

c, cèum, Jceum, step. 
caol, Jcaol, a frith. 
crom, Jcrom, to bend. 

d, dòrn, dorn, a fist. 
druigh, druey, to impress. 
dìt, to condemn. 

f, fasan, fausan, fashion.t 
m,feill, to fold. 
freagair, freker, to answer. 

g, gradh, gradh, love. 
gealag, gyalag, a grilse. 
glac, catch. 

m, mor, morr, big. 
marbh, marw, to kill. 
mil, meel, honey. 
p, paidh, pae'y, to pay. 

peasair, pesar, pease. 

pronn, prown, pound. 
s, seas, shes, stand. 

sabh, saav, to saw. 

sin, sheen, to stretch. 
t, tilg, teelig, to throw. 

toll, towll, to bore. 

traisg, traisk, to fast. 

• A Greek letter. 

t F aspirated, becomei silent, or 
eclipsed. 



LITIRE ACH ADH . 

Tha cònnrag gun h ri 'cul 
lom, mar bean. 

Tha samplairean de 



fuaimean lom ag 


p us seidichte 


nan connragan 


iar an cur 


sios an so. 




5. Iuchair. 


Fuaim Seidichte. 


Asp. Sound. 


hh-v bhlais, 


vlaish. 


bh-'w bhaist, 


vaisht. 


hh-v bhlidh, 


vle. 


ch-# (chi)* cheum, ^e». 


ch-# (chi) chaol, %aol. 


ch-# (chi) chrom, %rowm. 


dh-y dhorn, 


yorn. 


dh-2/ dhruigh, 


yruey. 


n n • j_ 

dh- dhit, 


yijt. 


//ì-t/Aasan, 


asan. 


fh-fhiH, 


eeil. 


/A-/Areagair, 


reker. 


gh-y ghradh, 


yradh. 


gh-y ghealag, 


yealag. 


gh-y ghlac, 


ylak. 


mh-v mhor, 


vor. 


mh-v mharbh, 


varv. 


mh-v mhil, 


veel. 


ph-/ phaidh, 


fae'yh. 


ph/ pheasair, 


fesar. 


ph-/ phronn, 


frownn. 


sh-A sheas, 


hes. 


sh-h shabh, 


haav. 


sh-h shìn, 


heen. 


th-h thilg, 


heelig. 


th-A tholl, 


howll. 


th-hr thraisg, 


hraisk. 



• Litir Ghrèugach. 
+ Tha /seidichte, samhach, no neul- 
aichte- 



ORTHOGRÀPHY. 

I, n, and r are always 
plain, and the only Gaeìic 
consonants doubled in a 
syllable, as* 

ToU, a hole ; sànnt, a 

Obs. 1 The aspirated 

sounds of eight of the conso- 
nants are represented in the 
foregoing key by the five single 
letters v, y, f } and h, which, 
being evidently too few to pre- 
vent ambiguity, are never used 
to represent the secondary or as- 
pirated sounds of any of the con- 
sonants in Gaelic orthography. 

Obs. 2. — A consonant joined 
in the same syllable with a, o, 
or m has a broad sound, and a 
consonant with i or ei has a 
small sound. 



Sc, sg, sm, sp, st are 
never aspirated in the be- 
ginning of a word. 

SYLLABLES. 

A syllable is a single 
sound, a word, or part of a 
word, as a, ant ; mak in 
maker. 

There must be at least 
one voiuel in every syllable. 

A word of one syllable is 
called a Monosyllable, as 
pen. 

A word of two syllables, 
is called a Dissyllable ; as, 
er-ror. 



LITIREACHADH. 27 

Tha l, n, agus r a ghna 
lom, agus is iad na h-aon 
chònnraganGaelig asheasas 
dubailt ann an smid ;* mar, 
desire ; torr, a heap. 

Faic. 1. — Tha fuaimean sèid- 
each ochd de na cònnragan, iar 
an riochdachadh annsan iuchair 
roimh so, leis na cuig litrichean 
singilt v, Xt y<f* ' us h, agus iar 
dhoibh sin a bhi gu soilleir ro 
bheag gu da-sheadh a sheach- 
nadh; cha do ghnathaicheadh 
riamh iad, gu fuaimean sèideach, 
aoin air bith de na cònnragan 
a riochdachadh, 'an litireachadh 
Ghaelig. 

Faic. 2. — Tha fuaim leathan 
aig cònnraig naisgte 'san aon 
smid ri a, o, no u, agus fuaim 
caol aig cònnraig 'san aon smid 
ri i no ei. 

Cha shèidichear sc, sg, 
sm, sp, st 'an tùs focail, uair 
air bith. 

SMIDEAN. 

Is i smid fuaim singilt, 
focal, no pairt a dh-f hocal ; 
mar, a, balg, agus mead 
'am meadar. n 

Feumaidh an car a 's 
lugha aon fhuaimrag a bhi 
anns gach smid. 

Theirear Aon-smid ri 
focal aoin smid ; mar, peann. 

Theirear Da-smid ri focal 
dà smid ; mar, mear-achd. 



• For the secondary sounds of l, n, r, see list of irregular nouns of the first 
declension. 



28 ORTHOGRAPHY. 

A word of three syllables 
is called a Trisyllable ; as, 
mul-ti-ply. 

A word of more than 
three syllables, a Polysyl- 
lable ; as, mul-ti-pli-ca-tion. 

SPELLING. 

Spelling is the art of ex- 
pressing words by their pro- 
per letters. 

The spelling of the English. 
and Gaelic languages is chiefly 
regulatedby the prevailingmode 
of pronunciation. 

The chief anomalies in the 
orthography of both languages 
arise from the number of silent 
letters used in many words, and 
the difficulty of describing their 
situations by general rules. 



The foliowing are instances 
of English words in which the 
letters b, c, d, g, and h are 
silent. 



LITIREACHADH. 

Theirear Tri-smid ri focal 
thri smid ; mar, lion-mhor- 
ich. 

Theirear Ioma-smid ri 
focal ioma smid ; mar, 
lion-mhor-ach-adh. 

CUBADH. 

Is e cùbadh alt deanaimh 
suas fhocal le 'n ceart 
litrichean fèin. 

Tha cùbadh na Beurla 'sna 
Gaelig gu mor air a riaghladh 
leis an achd-fhuaimachaidh 
chumanta. 

Tha mhor-chuid de na mi- 
rialtan ann an litireachadh 
na da chainnt ag èiridh o ri 



aireimh, litrichean sàmhach a ta 
iar an gnathachadh ann an iom- 
adh focal agus dorradas an aite 
chomharrachadh a mach le rialtan 
cumanta. 

Is iad na samplairean a leanas 
focail Bheurla anns a bheil na 
litrichean b, c, d, g, 'us h samh- 
ach. 

T)ebt,fiachan ; dumò, balbh 3 suètle, carach ; 6dellium'* 
dit ; victuals, lòn ; hanofeome, maiseach ; pleo?ge, geall } 



geinn ; ^nat, meanbh-chuilleag 
oighre ; as^ma, luas-analach ; tAyme 
labhairt ; scent, boladh. 

GAELIC SPELLINGr. 

Ride. — Broad to broad 
and small to small. 

Thus explained : — In 
words of more than one 
syllable, the last vowel of 
each preceding syllable, 
and the first of each suc- 
ceeding one, must be of the 



phle^rm, uisgeachd ; 
mionnt : rAetoric 



indict, 
wec?ge, 
Aeir, 
, snas- 



CUBADH GAELIG. 

Bialt. — Leathan ri leath- 
an 'us caol ri caol. 

Minichte mar so :— 'Am 
focail anns a bheil na's mò 
na aon smid feumaidh an 
fhuaimrag dheireannach de 
gach smid thoisich agus a 
cheud fhuaimrag de 'n ath 



* Bith luachmhor a gheibhear 'san aird« 'u ear. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 29 



>ame class, i.e. both broad 
or both sinall ; as, 

cazleag, a girl ; 
It would be false ortho- 
graplrv to write words 
thus :— 



smid a bhi dhe 'u aon 
seòrsa, i.e. araon leathan no 
caol; mar, 
feorag, a squirrel. 

Bhitheadh e 'na fhocal- 
achadh brèugach focail a 



sgriobhadh mar so :— 
ca?lag, feor-eag, cui-lag, lwr-eag, czV-adh, bcoreadh. 
Obs. — The application of this rule, whicli is borrowed from 
the Irish, softens the h3rsh sounds of consonants, and gives a 
mellow sound to the language, but in many instances its use might 
be set aside, for it is by a strict observance of it that so many 
diphthongs are used in words where a single vowel is sufficient to 
express the vocal sound. And it interferes materially with the 
primitive simplicìty and purity of the language. However, any 
material deviation from this mode of spelling in the system of or- 
thography now established would introduce much confusion and 
inconvenience. 



The following are 



m- 



stances of Gaelic words in 
which the letters a, e, i, o, 
fi gh, m, t, s are silent, or 
very faintly heard. 



Is iad na samplairean a 
leanas focail Ghaelig anns 
a bheil na litrichean a, e, i, 
o, f, gk, m,t,s sàmhach, no 
iar an cluinntinn o-le fhann. 



Peasair, pease ; cuileag, a fiy ; faic/A^adaù*(?achd, pro- 
phecy ; bioclag, a dvrk ; thugmbh, give ye ; on/Aadh, 
raging of the elements ; caimean, a mote ; leint^an, 
shirts ; ^heinn, did sing ; caisd<?al, a castle ; reòih, to 
freeze ; sai(jr/«dear, a soldier. 



Rules for speìUng English 
words. 
E is the principal fìnal 
yowel in English. 

1 . E final is always silent, ex- 
cept in a few words of foreign 
origin ; as, 



Bialtan gu Cùbadh fhocail 
Bheurla. 

Is i e a phriomh fhuaim- 
rag dheiridh 'sa Bheurla. 

1. Tha e deireannach a ghna 
samhach, ach ann am beagan 
fhocail o stoc coimheach : mar t 



epitomè, sraecdochè, similè. 



2. E sounded at the end of a 
word is generally doubled ; as. 



2. Tha e fuaimichte aig deir- 
eadh focail gu cumanta dubuilt 
mar, 

see, tree, free ; donee ; except the, be, me, he, we, ye, she. 



30 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 



3. All the consonants, except 
i, q, v, and c and g soft, are 
used as final letters in English. 

4. A word ends in silent e 
when its final vowel has its long 
or name sound : as, 



3. Thana cònnragan uile, ach 
i, q, v, agus c 'us g, bog iar 
an cleachdadh mar litrichean 
deireannach 'sa Bheurla. 

4. Dunaidh focal le e sàmh- 
ach 'nuair tha fuaim fad aig 
'fhuaimraig dheireannaich, mar, 

fate, relate, mete, impede, pine, divine, note, remote, tube, 
refuse. 



EXCEPTiOiSrs. 
1. Some words end in e 
silent when their preceding 
vowels have not their long 
sounds ; as, . 



OBAIDHEAN. 

1. Tha beagan fhocail a dun- 
adh le e 'samhach'nuair nach eil 
am fuaimean fad aig am fuaim- 
ragan toisich ; mar, 

are, have, give, come, done,' some, one, &c. 

2. Is ainmig a ghabhas foc- 
ail a dunadh le e samhach da 
chonnrag 'nan deigh, mar, 



consonants seldom take a silent 
e after them ; as, 



bath, hath, such, rich, night, help, strong; except such as horde, 
ache, bronze, change, niche, and h sometimes precedèd by t, as 
bathe, clothe, tithe, and t preceded by s, as paste, taste. * 

3. Silent e is required after I 3. Feumar e samhach an 
v, and c and g soft ; as, | dèigh v agus c 'us g bog. 

live, save, perceive, face, peace, age, lodge. 

4. Monosyllables double final 
/, l, or s, after a single vowel, 
but s used as the augment 



of a noun or verb, is single 
thus we write, 



(4.) Dublaichidh aon-smidean 
/, l, no s deireannach an dèigh 
aoin fhuaimraig, ach tha s gnath- 
aichte mar mheudan ainmeir, no 
gniomhair, singilt ; mar so 
sgriobhaidh sinn, 
chaff, staff, stiff, stuff, scofF, all, hall, bell, tell, ell, hill, riìl, ass, 
pass, glass, class, less, loss, truss, puss, except if, of, as, gas, has, 
was, yes, is, his, this, wis, us, thus. 

5. In words of more than 5. 'Am focail anns a bheil 
one syllable final,/ or s preced- na's mò na aon smid tha yno s 
ed by a single vowel, is generally dèireannach le aoin fhuaimraig a 
double ; as, dol roimpe gu cumanta dubailt, 

mar, 

distaff, mastiff, rebuff, harass, surpass, oppress, &c; except alas, 
atlas, chorus, &c 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

6. In monosyllables final 
consonants, except f l, s, are 
generally single, as 



LITIREACHADH. 31 

6. Tha cònnragan deireann- 
ach, ach f, l, s, gu cumanta sing- 
ilt 'an aon-smidean, mar, 



bud, rub, frog, hog, oh, ham, tin, son, map, fir, pet, fox, &c; ex- 
cept add, odd, ebb, egg, inn, err, purr, butt. 



7. No monosyllable ends in 
c hurd without a k, as 



% Cha dhun aon-smid le c 
cruaidh gun k, mar, 
sick, stock, suck, lock, &c. except zinc- 



8. C is used as a final letter 
after t, and the diphthong ia in 
words of more than one syllable, 



9. Words are materially 
changed in their final letters, by 
the addition of such terminations, 
as able, ible, ing, ish, y, ous, 
ed, er, eth, est, ment, ness. 

10. Words ending in silent 
e, upon receiving an affix be- 
ginning with a vowel generally 
drop the e, but retain it before 
an affix beginning with a con- 
sonant, as, 



(8.) Tha c gnathaichte mar 
litir dheireannach an deigh i agus 
an da-ghuth ia 'am focail ann3 a 
bheil na's mò na aon smid, mar, 
music, public, maniac, zodiac. 
AFFIXES. ICEAN. 
Words are materially 9. Tha focail iar an atharr- 
achadh gu mòr 'nan litrichean 
deireannachle leasachadh a leith- 
id so de dh-icean able, ible, ing, 
ish, y, ous, ed, er, eth, est, ment, 
ness. 

10. Tilgidh focail a dunadh 
le e samhach gu cumanta an e, 
'nuair a tha an ìc a toiseachadh 
le fuaimraig ; ach cumaidh iad i 
roimh ìc a toiseachadh le cònn- 
raig, mar, 
decline, decìining, life, life/ess. 



11. Silent e is retained after 
v and c or g soft before a vowel, 
but it is changed into i after c 
soft, before ous, as 



11. Cumar e smàhach an 
dèigh v, agus c no g bog roimh 
fhuaimraig, ach muthar e gu ian 
dèigh c bog, roimh ous, mar, 
move, moveaò/e, peace, peaceaò/e, change, changeaò/e grace, 
gracious, price, precious. 



1 2. Words ending in y, pre- 
ceded by a vovvel, generally re- 
tain the y ; but y preceded by 
a consonant is changed into i 
upon assuming an affix : y is 
always retained before'm^ and 
ìsh, as 

boy, boys, boyish ; holy, hoh'er 



marries, marrying, fly, flies, flying. 



12. Cumaidh focail a dun- 
adh le y agus fuaimrag roimpe 
gu cumànta y ; ach tha y le 
cònnrag roimpe iar a tionndadh 
gu i ann a gabhail na h-ice : 
cumar y a ghna roimh ing agus 
ish-, mar 

holiest, fancy, hnciful, marry, 



32 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 



13. Words ending in ty> 
upon takingthe affix ous, change 
y into e, as, 



13. Atharraichidh focaìl a 
dunadh le ty, ann a gabhail na h- 
ice ous, y gu e, mar, 



bounty, bounteous. 



14. Words accented on the 
last syllable, and monosyllabic 
words, ending in a single conso- 
nant preceded by a single vowel, 
double the final consonant be- 
fore ed, est, eth, ing, as, 



14. Dublaichidh focail stracta 
air an smid dheireannaich, agus 
focail aon-smideach a dunadh 
le aoin chònnraig an dèigh 
aoin fhuaimraig, a chonnrag 
dheireannach roimh ed, est, eth, 
ing, mar, 

allot, allotteaf, allottes^, allotteM, allottm^. 
blot, blotted, blottesf, blotteM, blotU*w<7. 



Several English words, aye, 
and Gaelic words too, are spelt 
and used with propriety in two 
different ways, thus : — 



Tha iomadh focal Beurla, 
seadh, agus focail Ghaelig cuid- 
eachd iar an cùbadh 'us iar an 
gnathachadh le còir air dà dhòigh, 
mar so : — 

Connection or connexion ; enquire or inquire ; favour or favor ; 
enclose or inclose ; honour or honor ; inflection or inflexion ; nego- 
ciate or negotiate, shew or show, &c. 

Abhal, ubhal, an apple. Abhainn, amhainn, a river. Briogais, 
brigis, apair of breeches. Cumanda ; cumanta, general- Co, comh, 
together. Eaia, ealadh, a swan. Focal, facal, a word. Ionnas, 
ionnus, so that. Mèin, mèinn, ore, disposition. Nadar, nadur, 
nature. Oidhche, oiche, night. Osmag, ospag, a sigh or sob. 
Pong, pung, a point. Riasan, ièuson, a reason or cause. Smaoin, 
smuain, a thought. Tarsuing, tarsuinn, transverse. Uisg, uisge, 
water } Scc. 

QUERIES 

ON 

ORTHOGrRAPHY. 



Wbat is English or Gaelic 
Grammar ? 

Into how many parts is Gram- 
mar divided ? 

Of what does Orthography 
treat ? 

What is a letter ? How many 
letters are in English, and in 
Gaelic ? 



CEISTEAN 
LITIREACHADH. 

Ciod e Gramar Beurla no 
Gaelig ? 

Cia lion earran gus a bheil e 
roinnte ? 

Ciod mu bheil Litireachadh a 
teagasg ? 

Ciod i litir ? Cia lion a tha 'sa 
Bheurla, agus anns a Ghaelig ? 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

What words begin with a 
capital ? 

Wliat is a vowel? and a 
eonsonant ? * 
Name the vowels and the con- 
sonants in both languages. 

What letters are used in Eng- 
lish both as vowels and conso- 
nants ? 

How are the vowel and con- 
sonant sounds produced? 

What is a diphthong ? — a 
triphthong ? 

Give an example of each. 
When is a diphthong called pro- 
per? 

Into how many classes are 
consonants divided ? _Name the 
mates and the semi-vowels. 

What other names have con- 
sonants received from the organs 
employed in uttering them *? 

What other letter represents 
the same sound as i? What 
other the same as k? How 
manv sounds has c ? 

How manv sounds has the 
vowel a ? How many e, i, o, u 
respecrively ? 

Give wor ds in which the dif- 
ferent sounds of each vowel oc- 
cur. Explain the difference be- 
tween a vowel and a consonant. 

Into how many classes are 
the vowels in Gaelic divided? 
?^ir-i ziz "_:;ìì. ir. i ::. _r_.il".. 

What is the famous rule for 
spelling Gaelic ? What species 
of sounds does each Gaelic 



LITIREACHADH. 33 

Ciod iad na focail a thoisicheas 
le ceanntaig ? 

Ciod i fuaimrag ? agus cònn- 
rag ? 

Ainmich na fuaimragan agus 
! na connragan. 'san dà chainnt. 

Ciod iad na litrichean a ta 
iar an gnathachadh 'sa Bheurla 
araon mar fhuaimragan agus 
mar chònnragan. 

Cia mar iha fuaimean rinm 
fuaimrag agus nari eònnrag 
deanta ? 

Ciod e dà-ghuth? Tri- 
ghuth ? 

Thoir samplairean de gach 
aon. Cuin a theirear colionta 
| ri dà-ghuth ? 

Cia lion roinn gus am beil na 
cònnragan iar an sgaradh ? Ain- 
mich na tosdaich agus na leth- 
: fhuaimragan. 

Ciod iad na h-ainmean eile 
: fhuair na cònnragan o na buill- 
labhairt a ghnathaichear 'gan 
[ seinn ? 

Co i an litir eile riochdaicheas 
f uaim co-ionann ri, i ? Co i an 
; te eile co-ionann ri k ? Cia lion 
fuaim a ta aig c ? 

Cia lion fuaim a tha aig an - 
fhuamraig a ? Cia lion aig c, i, 
I o, it fa leth ? 

Thoir focail anns am beil 
caochla fuaim gach fuaimraig 
ri dilumntinn. Minich an t-ead- 
ar-dhealachadh a tha eadar 
f uaimrag agus cònnrag. 

Cia lion seòrsa gus am beil na 
' fuaimragan Gaeligroinnte. Ain- 
mich na leathan agus na eaol. 

Ciod i an rialt ainmeil gu 
cùbadh Gaelig. Ciod iad na 
| gnè fhuaimean a tha aig gach 



34 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH, 



vowel express ? How is a long 
vowel marked ? 

Give examples from the key 
of the long and short sounds of 
each of the Gaelic vowels a, e, 
i, o, u. 

How many diphthongs are in 
Gaelic ? 

Give examples of their long 
and short sounds. Name the 
triphthongs, and give words in 
which they occur. 

How is a consonant aspi- 
rated ? 

What consonants are always 
plain, or never aspirated ? As- 
pirate and pronounce b, c, f g, 
&c. 

What is a syllable ? What is 
a word of one syllable called ? 
Of two syllables, &c. 

Explain the rule, Broad to 
broad, &c. 



EXERCISES ON ORTHOGRAPHY. 

How many vowels and con- 
sonants are in each of the fol- 
lowing words ? — 

America^ serial, bottle, fea- 
ther, duty^ fìg-tree, horn. 

Put the capital letters in 
their proper places in the words 
of the following sentences. — 

edward the first, King of 
england, an Able and Spirited 
prince, Son of edward the elder, 
Succeeded his brother athelstane 
anno 941 ; he conquered cum- 
berland, Which he Bestowed 
on malcolm, King of scotland ; 
he was Stabbed at A banquet 
by leolf, an outlaw, And, i re- 
gret to say, Noble edward im- 
mediately expired of the Wound, 
in the Sixth Year of his Reign. 



fuaimraig Ghaelig ? Cia mar tha 
fuaimrag fhad comharraichte ? 

Thoir samplairean o 'n iuchair 
dhe fuaimean fad agus grad 
gach aoin de na fuaimragan 
Gaelig a, e, i, o, u. 

Cia lion dà-ghuth tha 'sa 
Ghaelig ? 

Thoir samplairean dhe 'm 
fuaimean fad agus grad. Abair 
na tri-ghuthan 'us thoir focail 
anns am beil iad. 

Cia mar a shèidichear conn- 
rag? 

Ciod iad na cònnragan a tha 
ghnà lom, no nach 'eil idir 
sèidichte? Sèidich agus fuaim- 
ich b, c, f g, &ce. 

Ciod i smid ? C'ainm th' air 
focal aoin smid. Air focal dà 
smid, &ce. 

Minich an rialt, Leathan ri 
leathan, &ce. 



CLEACHDADH AIR LITIREACHADH. 

Cia lion fuaimrag agus cònn- 
rag a tha anns gach focal a 
leanas ? — 

America, àdharail, botul, ite, 
dleasannas, crànn-figis, cròc. 

Cuir na ceanntagan 'nan ait- 
ean fèin anns na ciallairtean a 
leanas 

thainig edeart a h-aon, righ 
Shasuinn, prionnsa Comasach 
agus Smearail Mac edeirt bu 
Shine 'an Ait' A bhrathar athel- 
stain 'sa bh. 941 ; thug e buaidh 
air cumberland, A bhuilich e air 
calum, righ nah-alba; Shàthadh 
e aig fleadh le leòlf fear-air- 
charn, C/o^arac^) Agus, is duilich 
leam a radh, dh'èug edeart Uasal 
air ball leis an Lot, 'san t-Sèath- 
amh bliadhna de 'Rioghachadh. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 35 



come Gentle spring, Ethereal 

mildness come, 
and From the Bosom of yon 

dropping cloud, 
while music Wakes arouiftr', 

veiled in A shovver 
of Shadowing Roses, on our 

plains Descend. 

Divide the following words 
into Syllables, and tell how 
many there are in each, — cor- 
recting the Spelling of the 
Gaelic 

Absent, ancìent, abstemious, 
arrogant, antler, boiler, 
bachelor, carter, capricious, 
condemnation, coalition, coeval, 
design, delicious, effect, 
efficacious, effrontery, foster, 
fierce, ferocious, filter, 
gorgon, gesture, humour, 
heterogeneous, imprudent, 
immediately,jeopardy,judicious, 
kaleidoscope, luminary, music, 
musician, novice, onomatopeia, 
onion, pendulum, poison, query, 
quaternion, recruit, solar, 
society, Socinian, transient, 
trigonometry, union, universal, 
verse, vermilion, wonderful, 
yellowish, zoology. 



SPELLING. 

What is Spelling ? How is 
the spelling of the English and 
Gaelic Language chiefly regu- 
lated? 

Correct the false spelling in 

the following English words 

Apear, asend, acuse, 
beginn, benin, consise, 

• The words marked with a || are 
properly spelt. 



o ! earraich Chaoin, a chiùine 

nèamhaidh diùchd, 
's, a' uchd an Neòil ud a ta 

Braonadh driùchd, 
air raontaibh alba Toir leum am 

measg ciùil, 
is sgail-fhras Ròs, a comhdach- 

adh do ghnùis. 

Roinn na focail a leanas gu 
Smidean agus airis cia lion a 
tha anns gach aon, — a ceartach- 
adh cùbadh na Gaelig. — 

Neo-lathairach, sen, mesarra, 
ladara, cabir, goiladar, 
fleasgeach, cairtar, neòneach, 
ditadh, aonnadh, comh-aossda, 
rùnn, millis, eifachd, 
eiffeachdach, laddarnas, àrich, 
borbb, fiadhech, siolidh, 
uile-bhest, gluassad, toilaich, 
iol-ghneithach, gòrrach, 
gu gradd, cunart, tuigsach, *inn- 
eal-sgiomhachaidh||, sollus, còl, 
fillidh,ùragan || ,ainm-dheanamh |j 
uinan, crochadan,||nimh, ||ceest, 
ceithar, leasich, grianeil, 
comun, Socinianach, || failasach, 
triantanachd, aoneadh, uilach, 
ran, eorcur,|j ionganteach, 
car-buidh, || cunntas-ainmhidh. | j 



CUBADH. 

Ciod e cubadh ? Cia mar tha 
cubadh na Beurla 's na Gaelig 
gu mor iar a riaghladh ? 

Ceartaich an cùbadh mearachd- 
ach'snafocail Bheurla 'leanas. — 
Seall, dirich, dìt, 

toisich, caoimhneil, geàrr, 

• Tha na l'ocail comharraichte le || 
cubta gu ceart. 



36 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITIREACHADH. 



eom, 


clim, 


devid, 


desin, 


dout, 


desent, 


eg, 


ensin, 


forse, 


forein, gramar, granfather, 
grievious, hampper, hankerchief 


hamer, 


inocent, 


insekt, 


joyfull, 


joinner, 


nife, 


kyte, 


lom, 


lof, 


milston, 


mucbkin, 


mersy, 


musle, 


novis, 


nois, 
ofspring, 


negrow, 


organn, 


peny, 


pensil, 


quarel, 


quoshent, 


quadrupped, reson, 


rog, 


reumatism, 


sene, 


septre, 


shugar, 


siner, 


sience, 


simpal, 


tacher, 


truble, 


twise, 


uper, 


unles, 


velosity, 


venigar, 


vise, 


windo, 


wilo, 


welcom, 


thonder, 


tubb. 



thig, streap, roinn, 

rùn, teagamh, tearnadh, 
ubh, bratach, eignich, 
coimheach, gramar, sean-athair, 
searbh, cliabh, neapaig, 
ord, glan, cnùimh, 

aoibhneach, saor, sgian, 
clamhan, criadh, builionn, 
clach-mhuilinn, bodach, trocair, 
feith, plò, fuaim, 

nigear, organ, sliochd, 
sgillinn, peannar, trod, cuibh- 
rionn, ceithir-chosach, aobhar, 
crochaire, alt-ghalar, sealladh, 
slat-rioghail, siucar, peacach, 
ealdhain,simplidh, fear-teagaisg, 
dragh, dà-uair, uachdrach, 
mur, luathas, fìon-gèur, 
olc, uinneag, seileach, 
failte, tairneanach, ballan. 
Explain why each of the fol- Minich, c'arson tha gach aon 
lowing words ends in e silent. dena focailaleanas a dunadhle e 
(see Rules 1, 3, 4, &c.) sàmhach. (faic Ri. 1, 3, 4, &c.) 

Ale, age, blade, cane, cone, courage, drive, dice, done, fìre, 
five, give, gale, grace, have, here, move, pensive, precipice, pique, 
some, tune, use, verge, were. 
Correct the wrong spelling 



(see 



Ceartaich an cubadh mear- 
achdach anns na ciallairtean a 
leanas ; (faic Ri. 5, 6, 'us 7.) 
feedd the as, tel uss your news, 



in the following sentences ; 
Rules 5, 6, and 7.) 

Ring the bel, the muf is warm, 
this boi cann spel beter than al the rest, putt out the gass, the 
rich should nott oppres the poor, the old man leans upon his staf 
and is stil able to begg his bread. Untill you learn to cutt and 
mend your own penn, you must be at a los whenn you have occa- 
ssion to writ. 



Ceartaich cùbadh nam focal 
a leanas le Rialt. 8 'us 9. 

logick, musick, sic, 



Correct the spelling of the 
following words by Rules 8 & 9. 

Attac, ecclesiastik, gymnastick, lic, 
schismatick, trac, teriifìck, zodiack. 

Correct — Iff natur hass denied Britin the fruitfull vin, the 
fragrant myrtel, thee spontaneous soill, and the beautifull climat, 
she has also exempted her fromm the parching drought, the deadli 
siroc, and the frightfull tornado. Iff other nashuns furnish uss 
with the materials of our manufactures, oure skil and industry 
have enhanced their valu a thousandfoldd. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 37 



Part II. 
ETYMOLOGY. 

Etymology treats of the 
different parts of speech 
into which words are di- 
vided, and their Glassifica- 
tion, Infiection, and Derwa- 
tion. 

CLASSIFICATION OF WQRDS. 

The words of the English 
and of the Gaelic language 
may be divided into ten 
classes, or parts of speech. 

The names of the parts 
of speech are, the Article, 
the Noun, the Adjective, 
the Pronoun, the Verb, the 
Participle, the Adverb, the 
Preposition, the Conjunc- 
tion, and the Interjection. 

1. The Article.—An Ar- 
ticle is a word placed before 
a noun, to point out its 
meaning; as, a man, the 
apple. 

There are two articles in 
English, viz. a or an and 
the ; and one in Gaelic, viz, 
an, the. 

A or an is one and the 
same article in English, but 
an is used instead of a be- 
fore a vowel or silent h; as, 
an ox, an hour. 

A or an is called the in- 
definite article, and is used 



Earran II. 
FOCLACHADH. 
Tha Foclachadh a teag- 
asg mu gach seòrsa focail 
air leth gus am beil foc- 
ail na cainnt air an 
roinn, an Seorsachadh, an 
Tearnadh, agus am Freum- 
hachadh. 

SEORSACHADH FHOCALAN. 

Faodar focail na cainnt 
Bheurla 'us Ghaelig a roinn 
gu deich seorsan, no pair- 
tean cainnt. 

Is iad ainmean nam pair- 
tean cainnt : am Pungar, 
an t-Ainmear, am Buadh- 
ar, an Riochdar, an 
Gniomhar, am Pairtear, an 
Co-ghniomhar, an Roimh- 
ear, an Clisgear, agus an 
Naisgear. 

1. Am Pungar. — Is e 
Pungar focal a chuirear 
roimhainmear gu'sheadh a 
chomharrachadh a mach; 
mar, duine, an t-ubhal. 

Tha dà phungar 'sa 
Bheurla eadhon a no an 
agus the ; agus aon 'sa 
Ghaelig, eadh. an (the). 

Is aon phungar a no an 
'sa Bheurla ach gnathaich- 
ear an anaita, roimh fhocal 
a toiseachadh le fuaimraig 
no h samhach,(damh,uair.) 

Theirear am pungar neo- 
chinnteach ri a no an agus 



to denote one of a kind, 
but not any particular one ; 
as, a man ; an apple. 

The is called the definite 
article, and is used to point 
out a particular person or 
thing; as, the man, the king, 
the apples. 

2. The Noun. — A Noun 
is a word which is either the 
name of a person, animal, 
place, thing, or idea ; as, 
John, ox, London,pen, truth. 



There are two kinds of 
nouns, proper and common. 

Proper nouns are the 
names given to persons, 
places, or things, to distin- 
guish such from the rest of 
the species; as, James, Lon- 
don, Nile. 

A common noun denotes 
any one of a whole kind or 
species; as, man, city, river. 

3. The Adjectwe.—An Ad- 
jective is a word which ex- 
presses quality or degree, 
and it is joined to a noun 
or pronoun ; as, a good boy, 
a new book, a fat ox ; you 
are diligent. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

gabhar e gu aon air bith de 
ghnè a nochdadh a mach, 
ach ni h-eadh aon air leth, 
(duine, ubhal.) 

Theirear am pungar 
cinnteach ri the, agus gabh- 
ar e gu neach, no ni air leth 
a nochdadh a mach ; mar, 
an duine, an righ, na h- 
ubhlan. 

2. Ari t-Ainmear. — Is e 
Ainmear focal a ta 'na 
ainm pearsa, ainmhidh, 
aite, ni, no smuain ; mar, 
Iain, damh,Lunuinn,peann, 
firinn. 

The noun is the only part of speech which expresses a distinct 
idea without the help of another word. 

Tha dà sheòrsa ainm- 
earan ann, eadhon ceart 
agus cumanta. 

Is iad ainmearan ceart 
na h-ainmean a bhùineas 
do chrèutairibh, aitibh, agus 
nithibh, gu'n eadar-dheal- 
achadh o 'n leithid eile ; mar, 
Sèumas, Lunuinn, Nìlus. 

Tha ainmear cumanta a 
nochdadh aoin air bith de 
'n t-seòrs' uile ; mar, duine, 
baile, abhainn. 

3. Am Buadhar.—ls e 
buadhar focal a tha nochd- 
adh buaidh no cèum, agus 
buinidh e do dh-ainmear no 
riochdar ; mar, balachan 
math, leabhar ur, damh. 
reamhar; tha sibh dichioll- 
ach. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 39 



Thus when we use the noun u day," the term is indefinite, be- 
cause we do not express what sort of a day it is; but when we 
say cold day, hot day, dry day, vret day, fyc. we express four qua- 
lities of the noun day, by the adjectives cold, hot, dry, wet. 

Tha buadharan 'sa Bheurla iar 



Adjectives^ in English, are 
turned into nouns, by adding 
ness, as, coldness, hotness, dry- 
ness, icetness, and the like. 
Such nouns as these are called 
Adjectival or Abstract nouns. 

Some nouns are used as ad- 
jectives, as gold-rmg, silver- 
box. peat-moss, coal-pit.* 

Some nouns are used both as 
nouns and adjecrives^ as Chris- 
tian, divine, good, evil, cold, 
original. 

•i. The Pronoun. — A 
Pronoun is a word used in- 
stead of a noun, to repeat 
the idea, as John reads his 
book, but he abuses ii not. 

5. The Yerb. — A Yerb 
is a word which affirms what 
is said ofpersons andthings; 
as, I ai/i. he foìded, we are 
struclc. 



an deanamh 'nan ainmeardn, le 
! ness, a chur riu, (fuairead, 
teothad, tiormachd, Jìiuichead,) 
agus an leithid sin. Theirear 
ainmearan Buadhal no Sgairte 
riu so. 

Gnathaichear beagan ainm- 
earan mar bhuadharan-fainn'- 
oir, bosd-airgid, blaLr-moine, 
toU-guail.* 

Gnathaichear beagan ainm- 
earan araon mar ainmearan,agus 
mar bhuadharan, — Criosduidh, n 
naomh, math^ olc, fuair_, n 
: . ..... 

4. An Bìochdar. — Is e 
Riochdar focal a chuirear 
an ait ainmeir, a riochdach- 
adh an ainm ; mar, lèugh- 
aidh Iain a leabhar, ach cha 
mhil l se i. 

5. An G-niomhar. — Is e 
gniomhar focal a thanochd- 
adh ciod a theirear mu 
phearsaibh agus nithibh ; 
mar, tha mi, phaisg e, tha 
sinn luaiìte. 

The subject or nominative is either anoun or pronoun of which 
the verb speaks. The verb may justly be called the life or essence 
of the sentence, for without it nothing can be affirmed or said of 
any person or thing. For instance : The horse a noble animal, 
he on grass, a coach or cart, no reason, and his 

body to the earth. Nothing is here affirmed of the horse, 

(the subject); but use, in the blanks, the verbs is, lives, draics, 
has, returns, in their order, and see what the sense wiU be then. 
* Such noQLS as these are commonly callei compound nourtsin both langua^es. 



40 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



6. The Participle. — A 
Participle is a word derived 
from a verb, and partakes 
of the nature of a verb, an 
adjective, or anoun, and is 
formed by adding ing, d, or 
ed, to a regular verb. 

Thus from tbe verb walk are 
formed tbree participles, two 
simple, and one compound ; as, 
walhing, walked, having walk- 
ed. 

7. TheAdverb. — AnAd- 
verb is a word joined to a 
verb, a participle, an adjec- 
tive, or another adverb, and 
generally expresses time, 
place, or manner ; as, Peter 
is now here learning very 
diligently. 

8. The Preposition. — A 
Preposition is a wordplaced 
before nouns and pronouns, 
to express the relation be- 
tween them ; as, The slate 
lies before me on the desk. 
From side to side. 

9. The Interjection. — An 
Interjection is a word which 
expresses a sudden emotion 
ofthe mind; as, Oh! Alasl 
pity me ! 

10. The Conjunction. — 

* For the formation of Gaelic partici- 
ples, see page 



6. Am Pairtear. — Is e 
Pairtear focal a thig o 
ghniomhar agus a tha giùl- 
an ann naduir gniomhair 
buadhair no ainmeir, agus 
iar a dheanamh le ing, d, 
no ed, a chur ri gniomhar 
rialtach. 

Mar so, Tba tri pairtearan iar 
an deanamh, dhà singilt agus 
aon measgta bbo 'n ghniomhar, 
Imich; mar, imeachd,* imichte, 
iar imeachd. 

7. An Co-ghniomhar. — 
Is e Co-ghniomhar focal a 
bhuineas, do ghniomhar, do 
phairtear, do bhuadhar, no 
do cho-ghniomhar eile, agus 
atha gu cumant'a nochdadh, 
time, aite, no dòigh ; mar, 
Tha Peadar an so, nis ag 
ionnsachadh gu fir-dhìchioU- 
ach. 

8. An Biomhear. — Is e 
Roimhear focal a chuirear 
roimh aimnearan agus 
riochdaran, a nochdadh an 
t-seasaimh a ta eatorra ; 
mar, Tha 'n sgleat 'na luidh 
romh^m. air an daisg. 
thaobh gu taobh. 

9. An Clisgear. — Is e 
Clisgear focal a tha nochd- 
adh gluasaid ghraid na h- 
inntinn ; mar, Oh ! Och ! 
mo thruaigh, mise ! 

10. An Naisgear. — Is e 

• Gu deanamh phairtearau Gaelig, 
faic taobh 



ETYMOLOGY. 

A Conjunction is a word 
used to connect words and 
sentences togetlier, as Peter 
and John are happy, because 
they are good. 

QUERIES 

ON 

ETYMOLOGY. 
Classification of Words. 
Of what does Etymology 
treat ? 

Howmany parts of speecb. are 
in English ? and in Gaelic ? 
Name them. 

What is an article? How 
many articles are there in En- 
glish? and in Gaelic ? Where 
is an used? Explain the dis- 
tinction between the indefìnite 
and definite article. 

What is a noun ? How many 
kinds of nouns are there ? Ex- 
plain the distinction between a 
proper and a common noun. 

What is an adjective ? Give 
examples of nouns and adjec- 
tives. How are adjectives turn- 
edinto nouns in English? What 
are such nouns called ? Are 
nouns ever used as adjectives ? 

What is a pronoun ? 

What is a verb ? What is 
its subject or nominative? What 
may the verb be justly called ? 

What is a participle ? Of 
what nature does it partake ? 
How many participles are dedv- 



FOCLACHADH. 41 
Naisgear focal a ghabhar 
gu focail agus ciallairtean 
a nasgadh ri chèile ; mar, 
Tha Peadara^ws Iain sona, 
do òAn^gu'mbeiliadmath. 

CEISTEAN 

AIR 

FOCLACHADH. 

Scòrsachadh Fhocalan. 

Ciod mu 'm beil Fochlachadh 
a teagasg? 

Cia lion pairt cainnt th' anns 
a Bheurla, — 's anns a Ghaelig ? 
Ainmich iad. 

Ciod e pungar ? Cia lion 
pungar th' anns a Bheurla ? 'S 
anns a Ghaelig ? C' ait a 
gnathaichear, an f Minich an 
t-eadar-dhealachadh tha eadar 
am pungar neo-chinnteach agus 
cinnteach. 

Ciod e ainmear? Cia Kon seòrsa 
ainmearan a ta ann? Minich 
an t-eadar-dhealachadh tha eadar 
ainmear Ceari agus Cumanta. 

Ciod e buadhar ? Thoir sam- 
plairean a dh-ainmearan agus de 
bhuadharan. Cia mar tha buadh- 
aran iar an deanamh 'nan ainm- 
earan 'sa Bheurla ? C' ainm a 
theirear ri leithid sin a dh-ainm- 
earan? An gnathaichear ainm- 
earan mar bhuadharan idir ? 

Ciod e riochdar ? 

Ciod e gniomhar? Ciod e a 
chùisear, no 'ainmeach ? Ciod 
a dh-fhaodar a cheart-radh ris a' 
gniomhar ? 

Ciod e pairtear ? Ciod e 
nadur a tha e 'giulan ann ? Cia 
lion pairtear a bheirear bho'n 



42 ETYMOLOGY. 

ed from the verb walk ? Give 
other examples. 

What is an adverb ? To what 
is it joined ? and what does it 
generally express ? 

What is the use of a pveposi- 
tion ? What is the use of an 
interjection ? and of a conjunc- 
tion ? 

EXERCISES ON THE PARTS OF 
SPEECH, OR CLASSIFICATION 
OF WORDS. 

1. Point out first the 
Articles, then the Nouns and 
Adjectives, in thefollowing 
sentences : — 

A diligent scliolar. Obe- 
dient children. The lofty 
trees. An illustrious king. 
Goodness divine. Beauti- 
ful and fragrant flowers. 
The night is dark, cold, and 
wet. King Alfred was good, 
wise, and great. A good 
boy. A fair girl. Cold 
weather. Beautiful flowers. 
The holy Bible. ExceUent 
scholars. The King of the 
Jews. Industrious persons 
shall receive their just re- 
ward, but slothful people 
shall have nothing. 

2. Point out the Proper 
and the Common Nouns in 
the following sentences : — 



FOCLACHADH. 

ghniomhar imich ? Thoir sam- 
plairean eile. 

Ciod e co-ghniomhar ? Co 
dha bhuineas e agus ciod a tha 
e nochdadh gu cumanta ? 

Ciod e fèum a th' ann an 
roimhear ? clisgear, agus 
naisgear ? 



CLEACHDADH AIR PAIRTEAN 
CAINNT, NO SEORSACHADH 
FHOCALAN. 

1. Comharraich amach air 
tus na Pungaran, an deigh 
sin na h-ainmearan agus na 
Buadharan anns na Ciall- 
airtean a leanas : — 
Scoileargniomhach. Clann 
umhal. Na craobhan arda. 
Righ ainmeil. Maitheas 
neamhaidh. Blàthan 
riomhach agus cubhraidh. 
Tha 'n oiche dorch, fuar 'us 
fliuch. Bha righ Alfred 
math, glic, agus mor; Bal- 
achan math. Caileag bhan. 
Aimsir fhionnar. Gucagan 
boidheach. Am Biobull 
naomh. Scoilearan gasda. 
Righ nan Iudhach. Gheibh 
pearsan aghartach an duais 
dhligheach, ach bithidh neo- 
ni aig sluagh lunndach. 

2. Comharraich a mach 
na h-ainmearan Ceart agus 
Cumanta anns na Ciallairt- 
ean a leanas : — 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 43 



London is tlie chief city 
of Britain. Edinburgk is 
the capital city of Scotland, 
and Dublin of Ireland. 

Moses, the son of Amram, 
led the Israelites ont of the 
land of Egvpt ; — the Lord 
opened the Red Sea, so that 
they went over on dry land. 
They sojourned forty years 
in the mLderness of Arabia. 
Joshua, the son of ~N\m, 
conducted them across the 
river Jordan into Canaan. 



The Forth, the Tay, the 
Tweed, the Clyde, and the 
Spey, are the principal 
rivers of Scotland. Ben- 
Nevis and Cairngorm are 
lofty mountains of the same 
country. 

3. Point out tJie Abstract 
Xouns ancì Adjectiyes inthe 
folloicing sentences : — 

The wetness of the sea- 
son has renderedtheground 
very wet. In cold v-eather, 
we complain of coldness. 
A degree of bashfulness is 
more commendable thau 
undue forwardness. The 
meekness of Moses, the 
patience of Job, and the 
wisdom of Solomon, have 
been celebrated in every 



Is e Lunuinn ard-bhaile 
Bhreatuinn. Is e Dun-èdin 
ard-bhaile na h-Alba, agus 
Baileclia, na h-Eirinn. 

Threòraich Maois mac 
Amraim na h-Israelich a 
mach a tir na h-Eiphit ; — 
Sgoilt an Tighearna a 
Mhuir Ruadh, air chor is 
gu'n deachaidh iad a null 
air talamh tioram. Bha 
iad air chuairt dà f hichead 
bliadhna ann am fàsach 
Arabia. Stiur Ioshua mac 
Xuin, iadthairis airabhainn 
Iordain do Chanààn. 

Is i Bùisg, Tah, Tuaid, 
Cluaith, agus Spe, priomh 
abhnaichean na h-Alba. Is 
i Beinn-Xibheis, agus an 
Carngorm ard bheanntan 
na tire ceudna. 

3. ComJiarraich a mach 
na h-Ainmearan sgairte 
agus na Buadharan anns na 
ciallairtean so : — 

Tha fliuichead na h- 
aimsire iar deanamh na 
talmhuinn fìor bhog. Ri 
sìd f huair gearanaidh sinn 
air fuachd. Tha cuimse 
de naire na 's ion-mholta 
na danadas mòr. Mholadh 
ciùineachd Mhaois, foigh- 
idinn Iob, agus gliocas Shol- 
aimh anns gach linn. Bu 
choir duinn spàirn a dhean- 



U ETYMOLOGY. 

age. We should strive to 
be meek, and patient, and 
wise, like those good men. 

4. Point out when Chris- 
tian, cold, cunning, divine, 
evil, good, missionary, origi- 
nal, are Nouns, and when 
Adjectives, in the following 
sentences : — 

The Christian religion is 
little understood by many 
a man who considers him- 
self a Christian. The fox 
is cunning, but his cunning 
is often baified by man. A 
healthy man often catches 
a sickening cold, when the 
weather is cold and chang- 
ing. Good men sometimes 
do evil, but evil men sel- 
dom do good. The young 
man who was reckoned a 
great divine, has gone 
abroad as missionary to the 
heathen ; he seems to be 
richly endowed with a mis- 
sionary spirit, and support- 
ed by the Divine presence. 
Many of his sentiments are 
original, and congenial to 
the original of our holy 
faith. 

5. Point out the Pro- 
nouns, and tell the Nouns 
to which ihey refer in the 
following sentences: — 



FOCLACHADH. 

amh gu bhi ciùin, foighid- 
neach, agus glic coltach ri 
na daoine math sin. 

4. Comharraich a mach 
c'uin tha Chriosduidh, 
fuar, n càrach, n diadhair, n 
olc, msuth, searmonaiche, n 
priomh, n 'nan Ainmearan 
agus 'nam Buadharan anns 
na ciallairtean a leanas : — 

Is beag tuigse tha aig 
iomadfear atha 'ga chunnt- 
adh fein na Chriosduidh air 
a chreidimh Chriosduidh. 
Tha'n sionnach càrach ach 
millear a chuir gu tric le 
duine. Is tric a ghlac- 
as duine slainteil droch 
f huachd 'nuair/tha 'n aimsir 
fuar agus muthtach. Ni 
daoine math olc air uairibh 
ach is tearc a ni daoin' olc 
math. Tha 'n t-oigear a 
bha iar a chunntadh na 
dhiadhair mor iar dol gu 
tir chèin mar shearmonaiche 
do na cinnich; tha e coltach 
ri bhi gu mor iar a lionadh 
le spiorad abstoil,agus iara 
neartachadh le lathaireachd 
Neamhaidh. Tha moran 
de 'smuaintean priomh agus 
a co-chordadh ri priomhachd 
ar creidimh naomh. 

5. Comharraich a mach 
na Riochdaran, agus innis 
na h-Ainmearan aVam buin 
iad anns na ciallairtean a 
leanas : — . 



ETYMOLOGY. 

John read his lesson, and 
spoke so distinctly that he 
pleased all who heard him. 
Ann could not read a line 
of her task ; she was there- 
fore ordered out of the class 
by the master, to get it 
better. Both John and Ann 
ought to consider that their 
time at school is very pre- 
cious, and that it is uncer- 
tain how long they may be 
able to avail themselves of 
the privilege of learning. 

6. Point out the Verbs 
and Participles in the fol- 
lowing sentences: — 

I am cold. He is hot. 
They are strong. The horse 
eats oats. The boy reads 
his lesson. The candles 
burn. The cow chews her 
cud. The sun sets. An 
idle boy grieves his teacher, 
disappoints his parents, and 
ruins himself. I can for- 
give him. They may have 
forgotten their task. Pre- 
pare thy lesson. Thou 
thinkest right. He rejoices 
when good news are told. 
He is encouraged. They 
were condemned by the 



FOCLACHADH. 45 

Lèugh Iain a leasan agus 
labhair e cho poncail as gu 
'n do thoilich e na h-uile a 
dh-èisd ris. Cha b'urrainn 
Anna sreath dhe tàisg ai- 
ris, uime sin dh-orduich- 
eadh i as a chlas gu ionns- 
achadh na's fearr. Thig- 
eadh do lain agus do Anna 
araon, smuanachadh gu'm 
beil an tim 'san scoil gle 
luachmhor, agus nach 'eil 
fhios cia fad a bhitheas e 
comasach dhoibh sochair 
an ionnsachaidh f haotuinn. 

6. Comharraich a mach 
na Gniomharan agus na 
Pairtearan anns na ciall- 
airtean a leanas: — 

Tha mi fuar. Tha e teth. 
Tha iad laidir. Tha 'n t- 
each ag ith coirce. Tha 'm 
balachan a lèughadh a 
leasain. Tha na coimilean 
a losgadh. Tha a' bhò a 
cnamh a cìre. Tha 'ghrian 
a dol fo. Craidhidh bal- 
achan leasg, 'fhear-teagaisg 
meallaidh e'pharantan,agus 
sgriosaidh se e fein. Is urr- 
ainn mi maitheadh dha. 
Faodaidh iad a bhith iar 
di-chuimhnachadh an tàisg. 
Ullaich do leasan. Tha thu 
a smuanachadh gu ceart. 
Bithidh e ait 'nuair a dh- 
innsear deadh sgèul. Tha 
emisnichte. Dhiteadh iad le 



46 ETYMOLOGY. 

judges. You may be dis- 
covered by the spies. The 
child was caressed. Our 
hearts are deceitful. To 
see the sun is pleasant. 
Promoting others welfare, 
they advanced their own 
interest. Having resigned 
his office, he returned. 

Who is this beautiful 
virgin that approaches 
clothed in a robe of light 
green ? She has a garland 
of flowers on her head, and 
flowers spring up wherever 
she sets her foot. The 
snow which covereth the 
fìelds, and the ice which 
was on the rivers, melt away 
when she breathes upon 
them. The young lambs 
frisk about her, and the 
birds warble to welcome her 
coming : when they see 
her, they begin to choose 
their mates and to build 
their nests. Youths and 
maidens, have you seen 
this beautiful creature ? If 
you have, tell me who she 
is, and what is her name. 

7. Point out the Adverbs 
in each of the following 
sentences, stating, at the 
same time, what other part 
of speech it modifies : — . 



FOCLACHADH. 

na breitheamhan. Faodard' 
f haicinnle nabeachdairean. 
Thaladhadh an leanabh. 
Tha ar cridheachan aingidh. 
Is taitneach a' ghrian fhaic- 
inn. A meudachadh sonais 
muinntireile dh-àrdaichiad 
an leas fèin. lar dha 'dhre- 
uchd thoirt suas, phill e. 

Co i an oigh sgìamhaeh 
so a tha teachd, sgeadaichte 
le trusgan gorm glas ? Tha 
crùn de bhlathan aice mu 
'ceann, agus tha blathan a 
fàs suas anns gach ait an 
leig i a càs. Leaghaidh 
an sneachd a tha comhd- 
achadh nan achaidhean 
agus an eigh a bh' air 
na abhnaichibh air-falbh, 
'nuair a shèideas i orra. 
Tha na h-uain oga ri mìre 
mu'n cuairt di, agus na h- 
eoin a sèinn, a failteachadh 
a teachd ; 'nuair a chi iad 
i toisichidh iad ri taghadh 
an cèilean, agus ri deanamh 
an nid. Oigearan 'sa ghru- 
agaichean am faca sibh an 
crèutair boidheach so ? Ma 
chunnaic, innsibh dhomh, 
co i, agus ciod is ainm dhi. 

7. Comharraich a mach 
na Co-gniomharan anns 
gach aon de na ciallairtean 
a leanas ag ìomradh aig an 
am cheudnaciod na pairtean 
coinnt eile a ta iad a neart- 
achadh : — . 



ETYMOLOGY. 

She speaks well. Your 
conduct is not perfectlj 
correct. He has certainly 
been diligent, and will pro- 
bablj succeed. He has 
been here twice, but I saw 
him onlj once. You act 
foolishly. I am truly sorrj 
for jour follj. He spoke 
elegantlj, but not prudent- 
lj. The pen is too soft, it 
does not write nicelj. 



The boj is not jet suffi- 
cientlj educated for the 
office of a clerk in the bank ; 
he must applj verj assidu- 
ouslj to the studj of com- 
position, arithmetic, and 
book-keeping, in order to 
be soon qualìfìed for a situa- 
tion so highlj important. 



PARSLNG. 

Parsing is the analjzing 
of a sentence, or the ex- 
plaining of all its words 
according to the defìnitions 
and rules of grammar. 

A grammatical defìnition 
is a concise description of 
a part of speech, or a figure 
of speech. 

A rule of grammar is a 



FOCLACHADH. 47 

Tha i a labhairt gu math. 
Cha n 'eil do ghiùlan fior- 
cheart. Tha e iar a bhith 
gu cinnteach dichiollach, 
agus a rèir coltais, soirbh- 
ichidh leis. Tha e iar a 
bhith an so dà uair ; ach 
chunnaic mise e aon uair a 
mhain. Tha sibh a dean- 
amh, gu h-amaideach. Tha 
mi gu dearbh duilich airson 
bhur gòraich. Labhair e 
gu snasmhor, ach gu neo- 
churamach. Tha 'm peann 
ro bhog cha 'n 'eil e a 
sgriobhadh gu grinn. 

Cha 'n 'eil am balachan 
fathast ionnsaichte gu leòir 
airson oifig clèirich anns a 
bhanc, fèumaidh e teannadh 
gu fìor-dhùrachdachri ionn- 
sachadh co-sgriobhaidh, 
cunntais, agus leabhar- 
chumail, chum a bhi gu 
luath deasaichte airson 
aite cho ard-fhèumail. 



PAIRTEACHADH, 

Is e Pairteachadh eadar- 
sgaradh ciallairte, no min- 
eachadh a h-uile focal a ta 
ann a rèir brighardan agus 
rialtan gramair. 

Is e brighard gramarail 
min-chunntas mu fhocal 
cainnt, no mu fhigear 
cainnt. 

Is i rialt gramair, lagh 



48 ETYMOLOGY. 

law by which custom regu- 
lates and prescribes the 
right usage of language. 

The mode of parsing a 
sentence is thus exempli- 
fied :— 

Lo ! the sagacious dog 
is always ready to execute 
the duty required of him. 
Lo! an Interjection. — An in- 
terjection is a word which 
expressesa sudden emotìon 
of the mind. 

The, an Article An article is 

a word placed before a 
noun, to point out its mean- 
ing. 

Sagacious, an Adjective. — An 
adjective is a word which 
expresses quality or degree, 
and is joined to a noun or 
pronoun, to describe it. 

Dog, a Noun. — A noun is the 
name of a person or an 
animal, &c. 

Is y a Verb A verb is a word 

which affirms what is said 
of persons and things. 

Always, an Adverb. — An ad- 
verb is a vvord joined to a 
verb or participle., an ad- 
jective, or another adverb, 
to modify it. 

Heady, an Adjective. — An ad- 
jective is a word, &c. 

To execute, a Verb. — A verb is 
a word, &c. 

The, an Article. — An article is, 
&c. 

Duty, a Noun. — A noun is, &c. 
JRequired, a Participle. — A par- 
ticiple is a word derived 



FOCLACHADH. 

leis am beil àbhaist a riagh- 
ladh agus a seòladh ceart 
chleachdadh na cainnt. 

Tha rian pairteachaidh 
ciallairte iar a leigeil ris ; 
mar so, — 

Feuch ! tha 'n cù gèur a 
ghnà deas gus an dleasan- 
nas sirte air a dheanamh. 

Feuch ! Clisgear Is e clisgear 

focal a tha nochdadh glua- 
said ghraid na h-inntinn. 

Tha, Gniomhar Is e gniomh- 

ar focal a tha nochdadh ciod 
a theirear mu phearsan agus 
nithe. 

'N (an), Pungar. — Is e pungar 
focal a chuirear roimh ainm- 
ear gu' sheadh a chomharr- 
achadh a mach. 

Cà, Ainmear — Is e ainmear 
focal a tha 'na ainm pear- 
sa, ainmhidh, aite, ni, no 
smuain. 

Gèur, Buadhar Is e buadhar 

focal a tha nochdadh buaidh 
no cèum, agus buinidh e do 
dh-ainmear no riochdar. 

A ghnà, Co-ghniomhar. — Is 
e co-ghniomhar focal a 
bhuineas do ghniomhar do 
phairtear do bhuadhar, &ce. 

Deas, Buadhar. — Is e buadhar 
focal a tha nochdadh 
buaidh, &ce. 

Gus, Roimhear. — Is e roimhear 
focal a chuirear roimh ainm- 
earan agus riochdaran a 
nochdadh an t-seasaimh a 
tha eatorra. 

An, Pungar. — Is e pungar focal 
a chuirear roimh, &ce. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 49 



from a verb, and partakes 
of the nature of a verb 
and an adjective. 

Of, a Preposition. — A preposi- 
tion is a word placed before 
nouns and pronouns, &c. 

Him, a Pronoun — A pronoun 
is a word used instead of a 
noun, to repeat the idea. 



What is parsing ? What 
is a grammatical definition, 
and a rule of grammar ? 
Parse the foìlowing sen- 
tences as the foregoing one. 

Alexander the Great 
used to say, that "he was 
more obliged to Aristotle, 
his tutor, for his learning, 
than to Philip, his father, 
for his life." 

Reason tells us, that 
the acquisitìon of know- 
ledge, particularly that 
which respects the works 
and the wajs of the Most 
High, is the noblest exer- 
cise in which the active 
powers of the mind can be 
employed, and a source of 
the most refìned enjoyment 
of which an intellectual 
being is capable. let us 
expatiate wide in the fields 
of wisdom, and explore the 
traces of infinite beauty 
which radiate from them. 



Dleasannas, Ainmear Is e 

ainmear focal, &ce. 
Sirte, Paiitear. — Is e pairtear 

focal a tha iar a thoirt bho 

gniomhar, &ce. 
Air (air e), Roimhear. — Is e 

roimhear focal a chuirear, 

&ce. 

A dheanamh, Gniomhar. — Is e 
gniomhar focal a tha nochd- 
adh, &ce. 

Ciod e pairteachadh ? 
Ciod e brighard gramarail, 
agusrialt gramair? Pairtich 
na ciallairtean a leanas mar 
tha 'm fear tha roimhe so. 

Bu ghnà le Alasdair 
Mor a radh gu-n robh, " e 
na's mò 'an comain Aristo- 
tuil, 'oide-ionnsuich, airson 
'fhoghluim na Philip, 'athar 
airson a bheatha." 

Tha reusan a teagasg 
dhuinn gur e buannachadh, 
eòlais gu h-araid an t-eòlas 
sin a tha foillseachadh 
slighean agus oibrichean an 
Ti a's Airde, gniomh a's 
òirdheirce anns an urrainn- 
ear comasan beòthail na 
h-inntinn a chleachdadh, 
agus tobar o'm beil antoil- 
inntinn a's ailte air an ruig 
bith tuigseach, a sruthadh. 
leudaicheamaid gu fars- 
uinn air raontan an eòlais, 
agus rannsuicheamaid na 
cèuman de mhaise neo- 
chriochnach a tha dealradh 
uatha. 



50 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADIL 

Tha 'n abhainn Nìlus, 
'san Eiphit, ag at suas 
thairis air a bruachan agus 
a taomadh a mach gach 
bliadhna air an duthaich. 
Thug an t-iongantas so na 
h-Eiphitich air tus gu cè- 
thomhas fhaotainn a'mach, 
air do 'n criochan fearainn 
a bhith gu lèir iar an dubh- 
adh as, 'nuair a thraogh na 
h-uisgeachan,b*eiginndoibh 
an tir ath-thomhas, gach 
aon airson an tomhas-fear, 
ainn a bha roimh aige. 

" Cease every joy to glimmer on my mind, 
But leave, O leave, the light of hope behind." 

** My honour is my life ; both grow in one^ 
Take honour from me, and my life is done." 
Again, rist,— - 

4 ' Sguireadh gach aoibhneas 'bhoillsgeadh air m'inntmn., 
Ach fanadh, fanadh, solus dochais innt'." 
'Si m'onoir mo bheatha, mar aon a fàs ; 
Thoir onoir uaim 'us cha bheò dhomh ach bàs." 



The river Nile, in Egypt, 
werflows its banks, and in- 
undates the country annu- 
ally ; this phenomenon led 
the Egyptians first to the 
discoveryofgeometry; their 
land-marks being totally 
defacecl, when the waters 
subsided, they had recourse 
to land measuring, every 
one for his former extent 
of territory. 



INFLECTION OR DECLENSION OF 
W0RDS. 

Declension is that change 
which words undergo to 
express their various rela- 
tions. 

Thus, s in books, er in 
milder, se in whose and ed 
in walkcc?, are the inflec- 
tions of ì)oak y mild, who, 
and walk. 

Both the beginning and 
termination of Gaelic words, 



TEARNADH N0 CLAONADH 
FHOCALAN. 

Is e Tèarnadh an t-ath- 
arrachadh a nithear air 
focail gu 'n iomad seasamh 
a nochdadh. 

Mar so is e an ri roìan, 
e ri ciùine, is ri leis, agus 
te ri ìmichfe, na tearnaidh- 
ean aig rol, ciùin, le, agus 
imieh. 

Oabhaidh araon toise- 
ach agus deireadh fhocal 



ETYMOLOGY . 

and only the termination 
of English words, admit of 
inflection. 

The parts of speech 
which suffer inflection are, 
the Article (in Gaelic only), 
the Noun, the Adjective, 
the Pronoun, and the Verb. 



FOCLACHADH. 



51 



INFLECTIONS OF ENGLISH 
WORDS. 

The Noun. — A Noun is 
the name of any object; as, 
boy, schooì. 

A Noun is varied by 
Number, Gender, and Case. 

Number. — Number is 
one, or more than om. 

There are two Numbers, 
the Singular&nàthePlural. 

The Singular expresses 
only one ; as, boy, pen. 

The Plural expresses any 
number more than one ; as, 
boys, pens. 

The Plural number is 
generally formed by adding 
s to the Singular ; as, book, 
books, pen, pens. 

1. Nouns ending in e, x, ck 
soft, sk, ss, take es to form their 
plural ; as, 



Ghaelig, ach cha ghabh 
ach deireadh fhocal Bheur- 
la teàrnadh. 

Is iad na pairtean cainnt 
a dh-f huiligeas an teàrnadh 
am Pungar ('sa Ghaelig 
a-mhain), an t-Ainmear, 
am Buadhar, an Riochdar, 
agus an Gniomhar. 



TEARNADH FHOCALAN BEURLA. 

Àn t-Ainmear. — Is e 
Ainmear ainm cuspair air 
bith ; mar, balachan, scoil. 

Tearnar no muthar 
ainmear le Aireimh, Gin, 
agus (7ar. 

Aire&mh. — Tha Aireamh 
ag ciallachadh aoin, no na's 
mò na h-aon. 

Tha dà Aireamh ann 
eadhon Aonar agus Iom- 
adh. 

Tha Aonar a nochdadh 
aokt a-mhain mar, balach- 
an, peann. 

Tha Iomadh a nochd- 
adh aireimh air bith a's 
mo na h-aon ; mar, balach- 
anan, peanntan. 

Tha 'n aireamh Iomadh 
deanta gu cumanta le 5 a 
chur ris an Aonar. n 

1 . Tba ainmearan a dunadh 
le o, x, ch bog, a gabhail es a 
dheanamh an iomadh ; mar, 



heroj^ heroes, fox, foxes, church, ehurches, brush, brushes, class^ 
classes. 



* Here the Rule being for Engliah only, a Gaelic version of the examples is 
omitted, because it would be apt to perplex the learner too much at this atage*. 



52 ETYMOLOGY. 

2. Nouns in io, and ch hard, 
take s only ; as, folio, folios, 
monarch, monarchs. 

The follovving in o make 
their pliiral now in s, viz. canto, 
grotto, junto, portico, quarto, 
solo, tyro ; as, cantos, &c. 

3. Several nouns in /or/e, 
change / or fe into ves in the 
plural; as, half, halves, life, lives. 

4. Many nouns in / follow 
the general rule ; as, 



FOCLACHADH. 

2. Gabhaidh ainmearan 'an 
io agus ch cruaidh, s a-mhain ; 
mar, — 

Tha chuid a leanas 'an o a 
deanamh an iomadh le s, a-nis 
eadhon, — 

3. Tha iomad ainmear le / 
nofe a tionndadh / no fe gu ves 



san iomadh ; mar, — 
4. Tha moran ainmearan an 
/ a leantuinn na riailte cum 
anta ; mar, 

brief, chief, fìef, grief, handkerchief ; hoof, proof, reproof, roof ; 
dvvarf, scarf, wharf; gulf, turf; cliff, sheriff, skiff, whiff; cuff, 
muff, puff, ruff, snuff, stuff; fife, strife, safe. 



5. Nouns in y, with a con- 
sonant before it, change the y 
into ies in the plural, as city, 
cities. 

But y preceded by a vowel is 
not changed into ies, as boy, 
boys. 

Except money, chimney, val- 
ley, attorney, journey, which 
take s or ies. 

6. Some nouns form their 
plural not according to rule ; as, 

Sing. Plur. Aonar. 
Alderman,aldermen,/ear-n"aa/i- 
laidh 

Cow, kine bò* 
Child, children, leanabh 
Footman, footmen, gille-coise 
Foot, feet, cas 
Goose, geese, geadh 

7. Some nouns form their 
plural in two different ways, to 
express a different meaning, 
thus — 



5. Tha ainmearan 'ara y le 
cònnraig a dol roimpe a tionnd- 
adh na y gu ies 'san iomadh ; 
mar, body, bodies. 

Ach cha thionndaidhear y le 
fuaimraig a dol roimpe gu ies ; 
mar, day, days. 

Ob. Money, chimney, valley, 
attorney, agus journey, a 
ghabhas s, no ies. 

6. Tha cuid a dh'ainmearan 
a deanamh an iomadh gu mi- 
rialtach. 

Plur. 
lice, 
men, 
oxen, 
teeth, 
swine, 
women, 

7. Tha cuid a dh'ainmearan 
a deanamh an iomadh air dà 
dhoigh air leth, a nochdadh 
caochla seadh ; mar so — 



Sing. 
Louse, 
Man, 
Ox, 
Tooth, 
Sow, 
Woman, 



Aon. 
miol 
duine 
damh 
fiacail 
muc 
bean 



• The corresponding Gaelic Nouns are given in the singular, to be putintothe 
plural, according to the rules laid down for the formation of the plural of Gaelic 
Nouns ; i'or bo, see List p. 74.; also Rules 5, 21, 22, 23. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Sing. Aon. 

Brother, brathair, 



Brother, brathair, 



FOCLACHADH. 



53 



Die, 

Die, 

Genius, 

Genius, 
Index, 



disne, 

stamp-cuinnidh, 

neach ealamh, 

spiorad, 
clar-innsidh 



Index, samhla-eunntaidh, 



Penny 
Pea, 



sgillinn, 
graine peasrach, 



Plur. 

makes brothers, when denoting sons of 

the same parents. 
" brethren, when persons of the 

same society. 
" dice, when denoting a little cube 

used in gaming. 
" dies, when denoting a stamp for 

coining. 

" geniuses, when signifying per- 

sons of cleverness. 
te genii,when denoting aerial spirits. 
11 indexes, when expressing the 

contents of a book. 
f indices, when denoting an alge- 
braic quantity. 

Jpennies^vhen signifying a real coin. 
.1 



8. Some nouns are alike in 
both numbers ; as, 
Flesh, feoil 
Gold, or* 
Rye, seogal 
Gravity, cudthrom 
Swine^ muc 
Wheat, cruineachd 
Deev,jìadh 

Benevolence, deadh-ghean 

9. Some nouns want the 
singular form altogether ; as, 
Alms, deirce 
Annals, eachdruidhean 
Archives, aite cumail sgriobh- 

aidh 

Billiards, bord-cluich 
Economics, grunndalas 
Ethics, modhannan 
Hydraulics, uisg-phiobachadh 



pence, when signifying their value 
in computation. 
peas or pease. 

8. Tha cuid a dh-ainmearan 
co-ionann 'san dà aireimh; mar, 
Hydrostatics, uisg-thomhas 
Hysterics_, tinneas-cuim 
Hose, osan 
Iron, iarunn 
Tea, tì 
Coffee, coffi 
Sheep, caora 
Marl, marla 
Sugar, siucar 
Brass, umha 

9. Tha cuid a dh'ainmearan 
a dh'easbhuidh an aonar gu leir, 
Lungs, sgamhan 
Mathematics, tomhas-iul, 

sgoilearachd 
Means, coghnadh 
Measles, griàthrach 
Mechanics, ceardachd 



* Nouns of this class take a plural to express mrietìes of the substances de- 
noted by them ; thus we can say, golds, ryes, when we wish to describe different 
kinds ot' gold, &c. 



54 ETYMOLOGY. 

Metaphysics, eòlas-inntinn 
News, naigheachd 
Oats, coirc 
Odds, corr 
Optics, eolas-leirsinn 
Pains, saothair 
Physics, eolas-naduir 
Pneumatics, ail'-eolas 

There are several Greek, 
Hebrew, Latin, French, and 
Italian words, introduced into 
the English language, and these 
retain their original spelling in 
both numbers. 

10. The terminations is or x 
make es ; and on or um makes 
a ; and us makes iu or i ; and 
a makes ae ; in the plural of 
the following foreign words. 

FROM THE GREEK. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Politics, iulan riaghìaidh 
Riches, beartas 
Scissors, siosar 
Snuffers, smaladair 
Statistics, staid-radh 
Summons, gairm, sumanadh 
Tactics, eòlas cogaidh 
Vespers, urnuigh-fheasgair. 

Tha moran fhocail Ghrèugach, 
Eabhrach, Laidinn, Fhrangach y 
agus Eadaltach, air an toirt a 
stigh do'n chainnt Bheurla, agus 
tha iad sin a cumail am priomh 
chubaidh 'san dà aireimh. 

10. Tha na h-icean is no x 
a deanamh es; agus on no um a 
deanamh a ; agus us a dean- 
amh ui no i ; agus a 'deanamh 
ae ; ann an iomadh nam focal 
coimheach a leanas. 

BHO 'N GHREUGAIS. 



Antithesis 


antitheses 


trasd-chainnt, trasdaa 


Automaton 


automata 


beart-fein-ghluasad 


Basis 


bases 


stèigh 


Crisis 


crises 


cruadhas 


Criterion 


criteria 


dearbhadh 


Ellipsis 


ellipses 


bearn 


Hypothesis 


hypotheses 


barail 


Metamorphosis 


metamorphoses 


cruth-atharachadh 


Phenomenon 


phenomena 


sealladh, tongantas 


Thesis 


theses 


argumaid 


FROM 


THE LATIN. 


BHO *N LAIDINN. 


Addendum 


addenda 


meudachadh 


Animalculum 


animalcula 


meanbh-bhith 


Apex 


apices 


binnean 


Appendix 


appendices 


leasachadh 


Arcanum 


arcana 


diomhaireachd 


Axis 


axes 


aisiol 


Calx 


calces 


cailc, aol 


Datum 


data 


comas* 



* Firinn Shuidhichte. 
Note.—Some of the nouns in class 9th, though of a plural form, admit of beins 
used iu either number, according to the view of their meaning present to the 
niind of the speaker, or writer, vvhen he applies them. 



ETYMOLOGY. 


FOCLACHADH. 


Desideratum 


desiderata 


easbhuidh 


Dictum 


dicta 


radh 


Effluvium 


effluvia 


faile, boladh 


Erratum 


errata 


mearachd 


Focus 


foci 


spod-coinnimh 


Genus 


genera 


seòrsa, gnè 

teine sionnachain* 


Ignis fatiras 


ignes fatui 


Lamina 


laminae 


leachd thana 


Larva 


larvae 


bocan, tasg 


Magus 


magi 


druidh 


Mediura 


media 


meadhon 


Memorandum 


memoranda 


stoc cuimhne 


Miasma 


miasmata 


toth grod 


Nebula 


nebulae 


ceo, neul 


Oasis 


oases 


àilean 


Radius 


radii 


roth, spog 


Radix 


radices 


bun 


Stamen 


stamina 


brigh, stuth 


Stimulus 


stimuli 


sporadh 


Stratum 


strata 


oreatti 


Vertex 


vertices 


mullach 


Vortex 


vortices 


cuairt-shlugan 



35 



FROM THE HEBREW. BHO N EABHRA. 

Cherub cherubim aingeal 

Serapb. serapbim ard-aingeal 

FROM THE FREXCH. BHO *S FHRAEnGIS. 

Beau (pr. bo) beaux (pr. bo-s) spalpearra 

Belle (pr. beÙ) belles (pr. bell) stèudag 

Depòt (pr. depo) depòts tigh-stor 

FROM THE LTALIAX. BHO 'jp EADAILTEACH. 

Bandit ") L , . 

robair 



Banditto J 
Cognoscente 
Conversazione 
Dilettante 
Viftuoso 



banditti 

cognoscenti 
conversazioni 
dilettantì 
virtuosi 



GEXDER. 

There are three Genders 
in English, the Masculine, 
the Fe m in i n _ , and the Xeuter. 



fear-eblach 
cuideachd 
fear-eblais 
fear-ionnsuichte 
GL\. 

Tha tri Ginean 'sa 
Bheurla, am Fearanta, am 
Boireanta,a?u$ an Neòtuir. 



Spiorad-lodan. 



ETYMOLOGY. ' FOCLACIIADH. 

Chan 'eil ach a mhain 
da ghin 'sa Ghaelig, am 
Fearanta agus am Boir- 
eanta* 

Tha 'm fearanta a ciall- 
achadh a ghineil f hirionn, 
no eh; mar, duine, tarbh. 

Tha 'm boireanta a ciall- 
achadh a ghineil bhoirionn, 
no ise ; mar, bean, bò. 

Tha 'n neòtair a ciall- 
achadh cuspair sam bith 
gun bheath ainmhidh; mar, 
table, tree. 

As there are only two sexes, thereought to be but two genders, 
the Masculine and the Feminine. But it has been found conve- 
nient to add a third, the Neuter, in English. This word signifies 
neither, and therefore intimates that the objects to whieh it is 
applied are neither of the masculine nor of the feminine gender. 

The English is almost the only language which, in the distribu- 
tion of gender, follows the order of nature. 

Theirear gu 'm beil ainmear a 
ta freagarrach do 'n dà ghineal 
de 'n ghin chumanta ; mar, 



There are onlj two Gen- 
ders in Gaelic, the Mascu- 
line and Feminine* 

The masculiìie denotes 
the male sex, or the hee ones ; 
as, man, bull. 

Thefeminine denotes the 
female sex, or shee ones; as, 
woman, cow. 

The neuter denotes anj 
object without animal life, 
or the itt ones, as stone, pot. 



A noun, which is applicable 
to both sexes, is said to be of 
the common gender, as parent, 
grandchild. 



parant, ogha. 



Highlanders, whopossess but scanty knowledge of English, often 
apply he and she to objects destitute of sex. We hear some say, 
"That is a bad pipe, she does not draw well," instead of it does not 
draw well. " Keep from the fire, for he is very hot," instead of 
it is, &c. This misapplication arises from the Gaelic (their native 
language) having but the masculine and feminine gender, and want 
of acquaintance with the neuter in English. 



There are three modes of dis- 
tinguishing sex in English; 1, 
by different words ; 2, by a 
change of termination ; and, 3, 
by prefixing or affìxing a separate 
word to indicate the gender. 



Tha tri doighean eadar-dheal- 
achaidh ghineil 'sa Bheurla ; ] , 
le caochla focail ; 2, le muth 
deiridhean ; and, 3, le roimh- 
iceadh,no ri-iceadh focail air leth 
a nochdadh a' ghin. 



* So in French and Italian ; as, Fr. 
vent. rn. wind, gaoth, pierre, f. a stone, 
clach. 



• Mar sin 'san Fhraingis agus 'san 
Eadailteach. Ita.fuòco, m. fire, teine, 
camera, f. a room, seomar. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

There are also three modes 
of distinguisbing sex in Gaelic ; 
1, by different words; 2, by 
prefixing the term ban* or bain, 
she, or fear, he ; 3, by affixing 
firionn, male, or boirionn, female. 

1. DIFFERENT WORDS. 



Male. 


Female. 


Bachelor 


maid, spinster 


Beau 


belle 


Boar 


sow 


Boy 


girl 


Bridegroom 


bride 


Brother 


sister 


Buck 


doe 


Bull 


COW 


xJullOCk 


heifer (hefer) 


Cock 


hen 


Colt 


filly 




bitch 


Drake 


duck 


Earl 


countess 


Father 


mother 


Gaffer 


gammer 


Gander 


goose 


Hart 


roe 


Horse 


mare 


Husband 


wife 






Lord 


lady 


Man 


woman 


Milter 


spawner 


Monk 


nun 


Nephew 


niece 


Ram 


ewe 


Sir 


madam 


Sloven 


slut 


Son 


daughter 



Gille 
Stèudair 
Cullach, torc 
Balachan 
Fear-bainnse 
Brathair 
Boc 
Tarbh 
Damh 
Coileach 
Bioraìche 
Cù 
Dràc 
Iarla 
Athair 
Sean duine 
Ganra 
Boc-earba 
Each 
Cèile 
Righ 
Tighearn 
Duine 
lasg firionn 

Manach 

Mac brathar, 
no peathar 
Reithe 
Sir 

Slaodair 
Mac 

ban, or bain, or bana, used as a sexual prefix, suffers no fi 



FOCLACHADH. 



57 



Tha mar an cèudna tri doigh- 
ean eadar-dhealachaidh ghineil 
'sa Ghaelig; 1, le caochla focail ; 
1, le roimh-iceadh na lide ban no 
bain, no fear ; 3, le ri-iceadh 
firionn, no boirionn. 

1. CAOCHLA FOCAIL. 

Firionn. Boirionn. 



oigh 

ribhinn 

muc 

caileag 

bean-bainnse 

piuthair 

earb 

bò 

atharla, agh 

cearc 

loth 

galla 

tunnag 

ban-iarla 

mathair 

sean bhean 

geadh 

earb 

lar, capull 
bean, bana-chèile 
ban-righ 
bain-tighern 
bean, boirionnach 

iasg boirionn 
f bana-mhannach, 
| cailleach-dhubh 
nighean brathar, 
no peathar 
caora 

bain-tighearn 
f brèunagj 
\ botrumaid 
nighean 
nal change in any case. 



58 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Male. 
Stag 

Uncle 

Widower 
Wizard 



Female. 
hind 

aunt 

widow 
witch 



CHANGE OF TERMINATION. 



Abbot 
Actor 

Adulterer 

Ambassador 

A dministrator 

Arbiter 

Author 

Baron 

Benefactor 

Chanter 

Conductor 

Count 

Czar 

Dauphin 

Deacon 

Director j- 

Duke 

Elector 

Emperor 

Executor 

Fornicator 

Giant 

Governor 

Heir 

Hero 

Host 

Hunter 

Heritor 

Infante 



abbess 
actress 

adultress 

ambassadress 

administratrix 

arbitress 

authoress 

baroness 

benefactress 

chantress 

conductress 

countess 



dauphiness 

deaconess 

directress 

directrix 

duchess 

electress 

empress 

executrix 

fornicatrix 

giantess 

governess 

heiress 

heroine 

hostess 

huntress 

heritrix 

infanta 



FOCLACHADH. 

Firionn. Boirionn. 
Damh fèidh èilid 
Brathair athar, piuthar athar, no 
no mathar mathar 
Aonaranach bantrach* 
Buidseach ban-bhuidseach 

2. MUTH DEIRIDHEAN. 



Aba 

Cleasaiche 

Adhaltrannach 

Teachdaire 

Riaghladair 

Breitheamh 

Ughdair 

Baran, ridir 

Caraid 

Oranaiche 

Fear-stiùraidh 

Iarla 

An t-iompair 
Ruisianach 

Mac righ na 
Frainge 

Diacon, eilder 

Stiùradair 

Diùchd 
Taghadair 
Iompair 
Cileadair 
Striopadair 
Famhair 
Riaghladair 
Oighre 
Gaisgeach 
Osdair 
Sealgair 
Uachdaran 
Prionnsa 
Spainneaeh 



ban-aba 

ban-chleasaìche 
f ban-adhal- 
( trannach 

ban-teachdaire 

ban-riaghladair 
ban-bhreitheamh 

ban-ughdair 
bana-bharan, &c. 

bana-charaid 

ban-oranaiche 

bean-stiùraidh 

ban-iarla 

bhan-iompair, 
&ce. 

nighean righ na 
Frainge 

ban-diacon, &c. 

ban-stiùradair 

ban-diùchd 

bon-taghadair 

ban-iompair 

ban-chileadair 

striopach 

ban-fhamhair 

ban-riaghladair 

ban-oighre 

ban-ghaisgeach 

òsdag 

ban-shealgair 
ban-uachdaran 
bana-phrionnsa, 
&cè. 



• Contracted f'or bun-treabkaicke ; a wife left to plough her own land after the 
death of her husband. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



3. PREFIXING OR AFFIXING 
A SEPARATE WORD. 

Cock-sparrow hen-sparrow 



He-goat 

Male-child 

Man-servant 
Milk-man 
Moor-cock 
Pea-cock 

Turkey-cock 



she-goat 

femaie-child 

maid-servant 
milk-woman 
moor-hen 
pea-hen 

turkey-hen 



FOCLACHADH. 



59 



Male. 


Femaìe, 


Firionn. 


Boirionn. 


Jevv 


Jpwpss 


Iudhach 


Tììì n - T n rl n pTi 

LICllI — I LiLiclUil 


Idolater 


idolatress 


Ioladair 


ban-ioladair 


Lad 


lass 


Oganach 


gruagach 


Lion 


lioness 


Leomhan 


leomhan boirionn 


Landgrave 


1 i\ Tl (\ OTfl VI n P 


Ard-mhaor 


Tian.ard-mTianr 

LrCiii-Cll U Ul liUU l 


Margrave* 


margravine 


Criochair 


ban-chriochair 


Mayor 


llicLj \Ji 


Ard-mhaor 


ban*ard-mhaor 


Marquis 


llJCll LUiUXICOC 


Marcus 


ban-mharcus 


Master 


mistress 


Maighstear 


ban-mhaighstear 


Patron 


patroness 


Fear-dion 


bean-dion 


Peer 


peeress 


Morair 


bana-mhorair 


Poet 


poetess 


Bàrd 


bana-bhàrd 


Priest 


TìnPCt*PQC 
LJL lColCcS 


Sagart 


naTi . c.iifrarf 


Prince 


princess 


Prionnsa 


bana-phrionnsa 


Prior 


prioress 


Ard-mhanach 


f ard-bhana- 
\ mhanach 


Prophet 


nrnnnpt'pca 


Faidh 


Tifln-fTiawTh 


Protector 




Dionadair 


ban-dionadair 


Shepherd 


cTiprnTiprrlpcc 


Ciobair 


bana-chiobair 


Seamster 


QPiimcfrocc 
SCcllliSll tJss 


Taillear 


Tìji n -nhnpTiP 

LrClil CiiCliL/iiC 


Songster 


OUIlgOLi coS 


Oranaiche 


Tìfin _ nra n cii pn p 

UClII-L/1 CliiCiil>iIC 


Sorcerer 


sorceress 


Fiosaiche 


ban-fhiosaiche 


Sultan 


sultana 


An Turcach 


a bhan-Turcach 


Testator 


testatrix 


Tiomnadair 


ban-tiomnadair 


Tiger 


tigress 


Tiogair 


tiogair-boirionn 


Traitor 


traitress 


Traoightear 


ban-traoightear 


Viscount 


viscountess 


Biocas, morair ban-bhiocas,&cè. 



• This is a German title of sovereignty, 
keeper; lience criochuir in Gaelic. 



3. ROIMH-ICEADH AGTJS RI- 
ICEADH FOCAIL AIR LETH. ® 

Coileach-geal- cearc-ghealbh- 
bhonn, coil- onn, ceare- 
each-spoiris spoiris 
Boc-goibhre gobhar 

j leanabh-nigh- 
\ inn 
ban-oglach 
ban-àrach 
Coileach-fraoich cearc-fhraoich 
Pèubh-choileach pèubh-chearc 
Coileach-frang- cearc-fhrang- 
ach ach 
and signifies literally amarch or border 



Leanabh-gille 

Oglach 
Arach 



co 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Obs. 1. — In English, tbings 
remarkable for po\ver,greatness, 
or sublimity, are spoken of as 
masculine ; as, 



FOCLACHADH. 



Seall. 1 'Sa Bheurla, tha 

nithe comharraichte, airson 
neirt, morachd, no airde, ainm- 
ichte, mar gu'm bitheadh iad 
firionn ; mar, 
the sun, time, death, sleep, fear, anger, winter, war. 



Obs. 2.— Things beautiful, 
amiable, or prolific, ai e spoken 
of as feminine ; as, 



Seali. 2 Tha nithe maise- 

ach, taitneach, agus siolmhor, 
ainmichte mar gu'm bitheadh 
iad boirionn ; mar, 
the moon, eartli, nature, fortune, knowledge, hope, spring, peace. 

Obs. 3 Creatures whose sex is unknown, or unnecessary to 

be regarded, are generally spoken of as neuter ; thus, " He fired 
at the deer, and wounded it." et If a man shall steal an ox } or 
a sheep, and kill it, or sell it." — Ex. xxii. 1. 



GENDER OF GAELIC NOUNS. 

1. Nouns denoting male 
animals are always mascu- 
line ; as, duine, ectch. 

2. Nouns denoting fe- 
male animals are alwajs 
feminine ; as, bean, bo. 

As there are only two sexes, J 
the male and the female, it 
has been already said that there 
ought to be only two genders. 
This is the case in Gaelic, for 
it personifìes every object, 
whether animate or inanimate ; 
thus, tigh, house, and uìsge, 
water, are masculine ; cas, foot, 
and clach, stone, are feminine. 

In a grammatical sense, the words boirionnach, or bainionnach, 
a female, mart, a cow, capull, a mare, are masculine ; and sgalag, 
a farm-servant, is feminine ;* cailin, a damsel, is sometimes used 
as a mas. noun. 



GLN ATNMEARAN GAELIG. 

1. Tha ainmearan a 
ciallachadh beo-chreutair- 
ean firionn, a ghnà fear- 
anta ; mar, duine, each. 

2. Tha ainmearan a 
ciallachadh beo-chreutair- 
ean boirionn, a ghnà boir- 
eanta ; mar, bean, bo. 

A chionn nach 'eil ann ach a 
mhain dà ghineal, am firionn 
agus am boirionn, bha e iar a 
radh cheana nach bu chòir a 
bhith ann ach a mhain dà ghin. 
Tha 'chuis mar so 'sa Ghaelig, 
oir pearsaichidh i gach cuspair 
co aca tha e beò, no neo-bheò ; 
mar sin th-d,tigh agus uisge, fear- 
anta ; cas agus clach, boireanta. 



* Here nature and grammar are diametrically opposed. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Eides for distinguishing the 
Gender of Gaelic Words 
by their Terminations. 

3. Nouns ending in a 
broad vowel, and nouns, 
wliose final vowel is broad, 
and diminutives in an, are 
generally masculine ; as 



FOCLACHADH. 61 

Rialtan gu comharrachadh 
Gin fhocalan Gaelig a 
reir an deiridhean. 

3. Tha ainmearan a tlia 
dunadh le fuaimraig leath- 
ain, agus ainmearan aig am 
beil am fuaimrag dheirean- 



ceò, mist, cath, a battle 
clagan, a little bell. 

4. Derivatives in ach, 
iche, as, ear, or air, are for 
the most part masculine ; 
as, 

marcach, a rider, sgeulaiche 
tice, sgoilear, a scholar, piobair, a piper 

5. Nouns whose last 
vowel is i, derivatives in 
achd, and diminutives in 
ag, are mostly feminine ; 
as, 



nachleathan us crmeanan 
le an, gu cumanta fearanta; 
mar, 

bròn, sorrow, sùrd, alacrity, 



4. Tha freumhoirean 'an 
ach, iche, as, ear, no air, 
mar a's trice fearanta ; 
mar, 

, a tale-teller, ceartas, jus- 



5. Tha ainmearan aig 
am beil i, 'na fuaimrag 
dheireannach, freumhoire- 
an 'an achd, agus crineanan 
'an ag mar a's trice boire- 
anta ; mar, 

muir, sea, rioghachd, a Jcingdom, sguabag, a little sheaf 



Gender of Gaelic Nouns 
from their signification. 
6. The names of the 
elements, of the seasons of 
the year, days of the week, 
metals, colours, grain, ve- 
getables, liquors, and tim- 
ber, are, for the most part, 
masculine ; as 
teine, fire, earrach, spring 



Gin Ainmearan Gaelig bho 
'm brigh. 

6. Tha ainmean nan 
dùilean, trathan na bliadh- 
na,lathachanna seachduin, 
nam miotailtean, nan dàth- 
an nan gràn, nan lusan, nan 
deòchan, agus nam fiodh, 
mara'stricefearanta; mar, 
di-luain, Monday, iarunn, 



iron, corcur, scarlet, cruineachd, wheat, càl, kail, 
leann, beer, giubhas, fir. 



62 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



7. Tha ainmean ghalar- 
an, dhuchan, agus chorpan 
speurail mar a's trice boir- 
eanta ; mar, 

an Olaind, Holland, a' 



7. Names of diseases, 
countries, and of heavenly 
bodies, &c. are, for the 
most part feminine ; as, 
a* bhuidheach, the 
ghrian, the sun. 

Obs A few nouns are used as masculine by some speakers^ 

and as feminine by others ; as aireamh, leabhar, tim, tobar, 
salm, &;c. 

Cruinne, fasach, talamh, and tonn,* are masc. in the nomina- 
live, but fem. in the genitive, singular ; thus 

Nom. " An cruinne-eè," the globe of the earth. 
" An talamh tioram," the dry land. 
" Fasach falamh/' an empty wilderness. 
" An tonn garbh," the raging billow. 
Gen. " Gu crich na cruinne to the end of the world. 
" Aghaidh na talmhainn," the face of the earth. 
" Fèidh na fasaich," the forest-deer. 
" Cobhar na tuinne," the foam on the shore. 



CASE. 

There are three Cases 
ìn English, the Nominatwe, 
the Possessive, and the 
Objective. 

A noun or pronoun is in 
the nominative case when 
it is the name of the person 
or thing which acts, or is 
spoken of. 

A noun or pronoun is 
in the possessive case when 
it expresses ownership or 
possession ; as, Peter's pen, 
kis gun. 

A noun or pronoun is in 
the objective case when it 
is the name of the person 
or thing which is the ob- 



CAR. 

Tha tri caran 'sa BheurSa, 
an t-Ainmeach, an Ginteach, 
agus an Gusparach. 

Tha ainmear no riochdar 
*anns a char ainmeach 
'nuair is e ainm pearsa, no 
ni a ta spreigeadh, no ain- 
michte. 

Tha ainmear, no riochdar 
'sa char Ghinteach 'nuair 
a tha e nochdadh sèilbh no 
coir ; mar, peann Phead- 
air, d ghunna. 

Tha ainmear no riochdar 
'sa char chusparach 'nuair 
is e ainm a phearsa no 'n 
ni a tha 'na chuspair a 



* The €ender of all Gaelic Nouns denoting inanimate objects is established by 
custosn, and, once fixed, it should certainly remain uuchanged in every case.. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

ject sufFering from an ac- 
tion or movement. 



FOCLACHADH. 63 

no fo 



fulang' fo ghniomh 
ghluasad. 



Thus in the sentenee, " Peter struck Tohn's dog, but he did 
not hurt him." Peter or he, as the agent or doer, is in the no- 
minative case ; John's, as expressing the relation of ownership, 
is in the possessive; and dog or kim, being the name of the ob- 
ject, is in the obj.eetive. 



The Nominative and 
Objective cases of nouns 
are alike. 

The Possessive of a noun 
singular is formed by add- 
ing s with an apostrophe 
before it ('s) to the nomi- 
native; thus, father,father's. 

The Possessive of a noun 
plural ending in s is formed 
by adding an apostrophe (') 
only ; as, father, fathers\ 

An English noun is thus 
declined : — 



Tha caran Ainmeach 
agus Gusparach ainmear- 
an, co-ionann. 

Tha Ginteach ainmeir 
aonar deanta le s 'us ascair 
('s) roimpe a chur ris an 
ainmeach; mar, pen,perìs. 

Tha Ginteach ainmeir 
'san aireimh iomadh a dùn- 
adh le s deanta a-mhain le 
ascair (*) a chur ris an 
aonar ; mar, pen, pens\ 

Tha ainmear Beurla iar 
a thearnadh mar so : — 



Sing. Plur. 

Nom. Girl Girls 

Poss. Girl's Girls' 

Obj. Girl Girls 



Sing. Plur. 
Nom^ Man Men 
Poss. Man's Men's 
Obj. Man Men 



JSing. Plur 
Nom. John* — 
Poss. John's — 
Obj. John — 



* Proper names want the 
plural ; except when they are 
used to describe more than one 
individual of a family or clan ; 
as, the Hoivards, the Stewarts, 
the FraserSf the Macdonalds. 



* Cuirear ainmeafan ceart 
'san aireimh iomadh 'nuair a 
ghnathaichear iad a dh'ainme- 
achadh na's mò na h-aon neach 
a' teaghlach no cinneadh ; mar, 
na Hobhardaich,n2i Stiàardich,f 
na Frdseilich, na Donnullich.f 



t Here the rule " broad to bread" is dbregarded, otherwise we sJiould write^ 
Stiu«rd«ich, Donwllaich.. 



64 



ETYMOLOGY. 



COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 

A Collective Noun is one 
which signifi.es many in the 
singular ; as people, multi- 
crowd. 



FOCLACHADH. 

AINMEARAN LODACH. 

Is e Ainmesbr Lòclach aon 
a ta ciallachadh iomadh 
'san aonar ; mar, sluagh, 
mor&n, lòd. 



CASE IN GAELIC. 

There are four Cases in 
the Gaelic, the Nominative, 
the Genitive, the Dative, 
and the Vocative. 

The Article in Gaelic is 
thus declined, — 

An, 

Sing. Aon. 
Mas. Fear. Fem. Boir. 

Nom. An, am, an, a', the 
Gen. An,a',* na, of the 
Dat. An, a', an, a', to orfor the 

Am and nam are used 
before labials, as, — 



CAR SA GHAELIG. 

Tha ceithir Charan 'sa 
Ghaelig, an t- Ainmeach, an 
Ginteach, an Doirteach, 
agus an Gairmeach. 

Tha 'm Pungar Gaelig 
iar a theàrnadh mar so, — 

the. 

Plur. Iom. 
Mas. & Fem. Fear. § Boir. 

Ain. na, the 
Gin. nan, nam, ofthe 
Doir. na, to the 

Cuirear am agus nam 
roimh lipich, mar, — 



Am bord, the table, nam bord, of the tables. 



FORMATION OF CASES. 

General Rules. 

1. The nominative and 
dative singular of nouns 
masculine are alike. 

2. The genitive and da- 
tive singular of nouns femi- 
nine are alike. 

3. The genitive and vo- 
cative singular of nouns 
masculine are alike. 

4. The nominative and 
vocative singular of nouns 
feminine are alike. 



DEANAMH NO CUMADH CHARAN. 

Rialtan Cumanta. 

1. Tha ainmeach agus 
doirteach aonar ainmearan 
fearanta co-ionan. 

2. Tha ginteach agus 
doirteach aonar ainmearan 
boireanta co-ionann. 

3. Tha ginteach agus 
gairmeach aonar ainmearan 
fearanta co-ionann. 

4. Tha ainmeach agus 
gairmeach aonar ainmear- 
an fearanta co-ionann. 



See elisioa of the Gaelic Article. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Pìural 

5. The nominatiye plu- 
ral is often like the genitive 
singular, or it is formed bv 
adding a, an. or ean, to the 
nominative singular. 

6. Tbe genitive plural is 
either like the noniinative 
singular, or nominative pln- 
ral. 

7. The dative plnral is 
^either like the nominative 
plural, or it ends in ibh or 
aibh. 

8. The vocative plnral 
is often the nominative plu- 
ral aspirated. ending in a 
or an. 



FOCLACHADH. S5 

Iomadh. 

5. Tha 'n t-ainmeach iom- 
adh gu tric mar an ginteach 
aonar, no iar a chumadh le 
a. an, no ean, a chur ris an 
ainmeach aonar. 

6. Tha n ginteach iom- 
I adh an dara cuid ionann ris 

an ainmeach aonar, no ris 
an ammeaeh iomadh. 

7. Tha 'n doirteach iom- 
adh an dara cuid ionann 
ris an ainmeach iomadh, no 
dunadh le ibh no aibh. 

-S. Tha T n gairmeach iom- 
adh gu tric mar an t-ainm- 
each ioma<ih sèidichte agus 
1 a dunadh le a no a n. 

The terminatìon ibh } somethiiig lìke ibus of the Latìn declen- 
sion, is not much used in the spoken Gaelic. 



DECLES'SION. 

There are three Declen- 
sions in Gaelic, the First, 
the Second, andthe Third. 

The Declension of Gaelic 
nouns and adjectives is 
chiefly carried on by aspi- I 
rating an initial consonant, | 
inserting the letter t, or i 
changing a final diphthong j 
in the nominative singular. 

FIEST DECLES-SION. 

Xouns beginning vith a j 
consonant, and their last | 
vowel broad, are of the fìrst 
declension. 



TEASXADH. 

Tha tri Teàrnaidhean 'sa 
Ghaelig. A Chèud, znBara, 
agus an Treas. 

Tha teàrnadh ainmearan 
agus bhuadharan Gaelig 
ach beag. iar a dheanamh 
le sèideadh^ cònnraig thois- 
ich, le cur a stigh na litir i, 
no atharrachadh dà-ghuth 
deireannach anns an ain- 
meach aonar. 

A CHEUD TEASXADH. 

Tha ainmearan a tois- 
eachadh le cònnraig agus 
am fuaimrag dheireannach 
leathan de"n cheud teàm- 
adh. 



66 ETYMOLOGY. 

A noun of the fìrst de- 
clension forms its genitive 
singular by inserting i after 
the last vowel in the nomi- 
native, as 

bàrd, bàird. 

Rule 9. A defìnite noun* 
masculine aspirates the 
genitive and dative singu- 
lar. 

A definite noun femi- 
nine aspirates the nomina- 
tive and dative singular. 

Obs. 1 ,A noun whose ini- 

tìal consonant is not aspirated is 
in its plain form. 

Obs. 2. — A definite noun 
beginning witli d, l, n, r, s, or 
t, aspirates no case. 

« A noun with the article before it is 
definite, aud a noun without the article 
belore it is indefinite. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Ni ainmear de'n cheud 
teàrnadh a ghinteach aonar 
le % a chur an dèigh na 
fuaimraige deireannaiche 
'san ainmeach ; mar, 
dàn, dàm. 

Bialt. 9. Sèididh ainm- 
ear cinnteach fearanta an 
ginteach, agus an doirteach 
aonar. 

Sèididh ainmear cinnt- 
each boireanta an t-ainm- 
each agus an doirteach 
aonar. 

Seatt. ì. Tha ainmear aig 
nach 'eil a chonnrag thoisich, 
sèidichte 'na staid lom. 

Seall. 2. Cha shèid ainmear 
cinnteach a toiseachadh le d } l> 
n, r, s, no t, car air bith. 

• Tha ainmear 'sam pungar roimhe 
cinnteach, agus ainmear gun am pungar 
roimhe neo-chinnteach. 



EXAMPLES. 



SAMPLAIEEAN. 



1. BARD./ear, a poet. 



Neo-chìnnteach, Indefinite. 



Aon. 

Nom. bàrd, 
Gen. bàird, 
Dat. bàrd, * 
Voc. abhàird, 



Sing, 
a poet, 
of a poet. 
to a poet. 
poet. 



Neo-chinnteach, Indefinite. 



Iomadh. 
Nom. bàird,* 
Gen. bhàrd, 
Bat. bàrdaibh, 
Voc. bhàrda, 



Plur. 

poets. 
of poets. 
to poets. 
poets. 



Am Bard, the poet. 



Cinnteach, Definite. 



Aon. 

Ain. am bàrd, 
Gìn. a' bhaird, 
7) air a' } bhard, 
'do'n Jbhard, 



Sing. 
ihe poet. 
of the poet. 
on the poet. 
to the poet. 



Cinnteach, Definite. 
Iom. Plur. 
Ain. na bàird, thepoets. 
Gin. nambard, ofthepoets. 
D> na bardaibh, to the poets. 

A noun definite wauts the vocative. 



* Sometimea bàrdan,and several other nounsof this class,have a twofold plural; 
as, preas,//-. a lush, pl.pris or preasan ; meur, ò. afinger, pl. meòir or meuran, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 67 

After the same manner decline, Air an doigh chèudna teàrn, 

Bàs_, death ; blàr, a plain ; clàr, a stave ; càl, kail ; bodach, a 
rustic ; bonnach, a cake ; coimhearsnach, a neighbour ; cabar, a 
pole ; tuathanach, a farmer. 



2. Brog, boir. a shoe. 
Neo-chinnteach. 
Aon. Iom. 
N. bròg, brògan. 
G. bròige,* bhròg. 
D. bròig, brògaibh. 
V. a bhròg, a bhrògan. 

* Feminine nouns add e to the geni- 
tive aingular, but not to the dative. 



A' Bhrog, the shoe. 

Cinnteach. 
Aon. Iom. 
a' bhròg, na brògan. 
na bròige, nam bròg. 



^'do^'n ^khròig, na brògaibh. 

• Cuiridh ainmearan hoireanta e ris 
a ghinteach aon. Ach ni h-eadh ris an 
doirteach. 



Bànag, a grilse 
camacag, a trip. 



bannag, a new years gift ; cròg, a paw ; 



3. Corran, fr. a hooh. 
Neo-chinnteach. 



N. 
G. 
D. 



Aom. 

corran, 

corrain, 

corran, 



V. achorram, 



Iom. 
corranan. 
chorran-an. 
corranaibh. 
chorrana-an 



Thus decline, 



An Corran, the hook. 

Cinnteach. 
Aom. lom. 
A. an corran, na corranan 
6r. a chorrain, nan corranan 



D. 



aira 
do'n 



chorran 



na corran- 
aibh. 



Mar so teàrn. 



Breacan, a plaid ; caochan, a rivulet ; cluaran, a thistle ; meacan, 
a root. 



4 Cluas, b. an ear. 
Neo-chinnteach. 



Aon. 

N. cluas, 
G. cluaise, 
D. cluais, 
V. a chluas, 



Iom. 
cluasan. 
chluas, or an. 
cluasaibh. 
a chluasan. 



A' Chluas, the ear. 
Cinnteach. 

Aon. lom. 
A. a' chluas, na cluasan. 
G. na cluaise, nan cluas, 



D 



aira 
do'n 



chluais, na cluasaibh. 



Thus decline — cuach, a cup ; gruag, a wig ; cruach, a stack. 



®8 ETYMOLOGY. 

Neo-chinnteach. 
5. Dorus, fr. a door t 



Aon. 

N. dorus, 
G. doruis, 
D. dorus, 
V. dhoruis, 



Iom. 
dorsan,* 
dhorsan, 
dorsaibh, 
dhorsa, 



FOCLACHADH. 

Cinnteacb. 

An Dorus, the door. 
Aon. Iom. 
A. an dorus, na dorsan, 
G. an doruis, nan dorsan, 



Thus decline, 
Doran, an otter ; dubhan, a 
nature ; 

Neo-chinnteach. 
6. Dòrn, fr. a Jist. 
Aon. lom. 
N. dòrn, dùirn, 
G. dùirn, dhorn, 
D. dorn, dornaibh, 
V. dhuirn, dhorna. 



jy an an i ^ or na dorsaibh. 
do n' 

Mar so tèarn, 
hook ; lùrdan, a knave ; nadur, 
ros, seed. 

Cinnteach. 
An Dòrn, the fist. 
Aon. lorn. 
A. an dòrn, na dùirn, 
G. an dùirn, nan dorn, 

^ n }dorn,nadòrnaibh. 
do n j 



D. 



Also, bòrd, a table ; còrd, a cord ; bàlg, a bag ; càlg, awn ; eàrn. 
a heap ; poll, a poot ; toll, a kole ; tonn, a wave ; port, a tune* 

7. Duilleag, b. a leaf. 
Aon. Iom. 
duilleag, 
duilleige, 
duilleig, 
dhuilleag, 

An Duilleag, 
Aon. 
an duilleag, 
na duilleige, 

air anì , .„ . 
do , n }duiUe.g, 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 

Dealg, a skewer ; cealg, deceit ; buidheag, a linnet ; cuileag, a fly 
filleag, a little plaid ; poicean, fr, a squat little fellow. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
V. 



A. 
G. 

D. 



duilleagan. 
dhuilleag. 
dhuilleagaibh. 
dhuilleaga. 

the leaf. 

Iom. 

na duilleagan. 
nan duilleagan. 

na duilleagaibh. 



* Dorsan is here contracted for dorusan, but the other nouns under dorus, hav 
th? piural in full. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 69 

8. Feadan, fr. aflute. 
Aon. Iom. 

N. feadan, feadanan. 

G. feadain, fheadan. 

D. feadan, feadanaibh. 

V. *fheadain, *fheadana. 

Am Feadan, the flute. 

A. am feadam, na feadanan. 

G. an fheadain, nam feadan. 

D. ^ ,^ n | fheadan, na feadanaibh. 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 
Fasan, fashion ; fàng, a sheep-pen ; farmad, envy ; focal, a word ; 
fuaran, a well; fiùran, a branch. 

9. Feannag, b. a crow. 
Aon. lom. 

N. feannag, feannagan. 
G. feannaige, fheannag. 
D. feannaig, feannagaibh. 
V. fheannag, fheannaga. 

An Fheannag, the crow. 
A. an fheannag, na feannagan. 

G. na feannaige, nam feannag. 

D. an fheannaig, na feannagaibh. 
Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 
Fèusag, a beard ; feadag, a plover ; fang, a vulture ; fiarag, 
a fetlock ; fideag, (7) a reed ; fudag, a shoe strop. 

10. Gaisgeach, fr. a hero. 
Aon. lom. 
N. gaisgeach, gaisgich. 
G. gaisgich, ghaisgeach. 
D. gaisgeach, gaisgichibh. 
V. ghaisgich, ghaisgeacha. 

An Gaisgeach. the hero. 
A. an gaisgeach, na gaisgich. 
G. a' ghaisgich, nan gaisgeach, 

D. ^, ir , a \ ghaisgeach, na gaisgichibh. 



For th e aspirated sound of /, see page 2C. 



70 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



11. Gruagach, b. a virgin. 
Aon. Iom. 

N. gruagach, gruagaichean. 

0. gruagaiche, ghruagach. 

B. gruagaich, gruagaichibh or -ichean, 

V. ghruagach, ghruagacha. 

A' Ghruagach, the mrgin. 



na 
air 



ghruagach, na gruagaicnean. 
gruagaiche, nan gruagach or -ean, 

na gruagaichibh. 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 
Closach, carcass ; làrach, a ruin ; buarach, a cow-fetter ; monadh, 
fr. ahill ; dùdach, a bugle ; ceardach, a smithy ; cladach, fr. a shore; 
mullach, fr. summit. 



D ' do'n }g hrua g aicn » 



SPECIAL RULES. 

10. Nouns ending in a, 
o, or u, and in achd, eachd, 
or ochd, have their nomina- 
tive and genitive singular 
alike ; as, 
Nom. Ain. 
La, m.* a day, 
Cnò, f. a nut, 
Cliu, m. fame, 
Ni, m. a thing, 



Gen. Gin. 
la 
cnò 
cliu 
ni 



RIALTAN ARAID. 

10. Tha ainmeach agus 
ginteach ainmearan a dun- 
adh le a, o, no u, agus le 
achd, eachd, no ochd, co- 
ionann ; mar, 

Nom. Ain. Gen. Gin. 

Achd, /. a law, achd 
Feachd, f. an army, feachd 
Nochd, f. nakedness, nochd. 



Note. — Nouns of one syllable ending in a vowel, to prevent a 
hiatus, insert th before an or ean of the plural ; as^ cnò, cno/Aan 7 
ni, niMean. 



ea ìnto ei or %. 
11. Nouns of one sylla- 
ble change ea into ei or i; 

as, 

Ain. Gin. 
Each, m* a horse, eich 
Fearg, f. wrath, feirg 
Fear, m. a man, fir 
Meann, m. a kid, minn 
Ceann, m. a head, cinn 



ea gu ei no i. 
11. Tha ainmearan aoin- 
smid ag atharrachadh ea 
gu ei no i; mar, 
Ain. Gin. 
Beann,/. a hill, beinne 
Learg,/. a rain-goose, leirg 
Cearc,/. a hen, circe 
Ceap, m. a last, cip 
Geadh, m. fyf. a goose, geoidh. 



• AU the Nouns frona Rule IOtb to I6th have their gender marked by the 
Knglish masculine and /eminine. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

ea again into i or ei. 

12. Nouns of two sylla- 
bles, ending in each or ean, 
change each into ich, and 
ean into ein ; as, 

Ain. Gin. 

Cailleach,/. an old | caiuiche 

woman, J 

Cinneach, m. a nation, cinnich 

Ceisdean, m. a sweet- \ . , . 
7 ' > ceisdein 

Aearf, J 

13. Nouns of one sylla- 
ble, ending in dh, gh, th, 
um, n, rr, s, or t, add a for 
the genitive ; as, 

Ain. Gin. 

Fiodh, m. timber, fìodha 

Lagh, m. a ìaw, lagha 

Buth, m. a shop, butha 

Bèum, m. a blow, bèuma 

Gèum, m. a low, gèuma 

ia into ei, and eu into eoi. 

14. Nouns of one sylla- 
ble, sounded by ia or eu, 
or u, change ia into ei, and 
ew into eoi ; as, 

Gtn. 

lasg, m. a fish, èisg 
Fiadh, m. a deer, fèidh 
lall, m. a thong, èill 
Dia, m. God, has Dia & De 
Fèur, m. grass, feoir 
Eug, m. ghost, has èig 
Eun, m. a bird, eoin 

( beidh no 
jbidh 

Noie. — Some Nouns sounded 
by eu, have the nominative and 
genitive alike ; as, 



Biadh, m. food, 



FOCLACHADH. 71 

ea rist gu i no ei. 
12. Tha ainmearan dhà- 
smid a dunadh le each no 
ean, ag atharrachadh each 
gu ich, agus ean gu ein; mar, 

Gm. 

Cuilean, m. a wfo7/> cuilein 
Isean, m. a gosling, isein 
Guirean, m. a pimple, guirein. 



14. Tha ainmearan aoin- 
smid, a dunadh le dh, gh, th, 
um, n, rr, s, no t, ag iceadh 
a, ris a ghinteach ; mar, 
Ain. Gin 
Fion, m. wine, fìona 
Bior, m. a spit, biora 
Barr, m. cro/j, barra 
Fios, m. notice, fiosa 
Gàt, m. a òar o/ £ron, gata. 

ia gu ez, agus ew gu eoi. 

14. Tha ainmearan aon- 

smid, fuaimichte le ia no eu 

no ag atharrachadh ia 

gu ei, agus eu gu eoi ; mar ? 

Ain. Gin. 

• fgrèin no 

Gnan, f. sun, 1 ° . 
' * ( greine 

Sliabh,*m. mountain, slèibh 

Meur, /. a finger 

or toe, 

Sgèul, /. news, sgeòil 

Dèur, m. a tear or ì , . 
\ V de ìr 

arop, J 



j- meòir 



iVbo'. — Tha 'n t-ainmeach 
agus an ginteach aig cuid a dh- 
ainmearan fuaimichte le eu co- 
ionann; mar, 



72- ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Ain. Gin. 
Sèud, m. ajewel, sèud 
Eud, m. zeal, èud 

15. Nouns of one sylla- 
ble, sounded by a, o, or t«, 
often change a, o, or u, into 

; as, 

Ain. Gin. 

Allt, m. a burn, uillt 

Calg, m. awrc, cuilg 

Car, rn. a case or turn, cuir 

16. Some Nouns in io 
drop o in the genitive ; as, 



Ain. Gin, 
Bèuc, 7». a roar, bèue 
Bèud, m. harm, bèud. 

15. Tha ainmearan aoin- 
smid fuaimichte le a, o, na 
u, gu tric ag atharrachadh 
mar, 
Gin. 
builg 
luinge 
uird. 



;u u% 



Ain. 

Cioch,/. apap, 
Lion, m. flax, 
Sion, m. a blast, 



Gin. 
ciche 
lin 
sine 



PLURALS. 

Several Gaelic nouns are 
very irregular in the for- 
mation of their plural. 



a, o, no u, 
Ain. 

Balg, m. a bag, 
Long, /. a ship, 
Ord, m. a hammer, 

16. Tha cuid a dh-ain- 
mearan 'an io a tilgeadh na 
o 'sa ghinteach ; mar, 
Ain. Gin. 
Crioch,/. an end, criche 
Siol, m. seed, sil 

Criosd, m. Christ, has \ £ r ! os * 
\ Cnosda 

IOMADH. 

Tha moran ainmearan 
Gaelig gle neo-rialtach ann 
an deanamh an iomadh. 



Some make their plural by adding ichean or chan ; as, ad, a 
hat, adachan or adan ; bata, a boat, bataichean ; còta, a coat f 
cotaichean ; uisge, water, uisgeachan ; fairge, sea, fairgeachan osr 
fairgeannan ; clobha, a pair ef tongs, clobbachan. 

Some, forming their genitive singular according to Rule 13,. 
make their plural in nnan ; as, àm, time, amannan ; lagh, law^ 
laghannan ; cleòc, a cloak, cleòcannan ; cèum, a degree, cèuman or 
cèumannan ; taom, a torrent, taoman or taomannan la, a datj^ 
has laithean, lathachan. 

Obs. 1. — It is chiefly nouns whose nominative or genitive sln- 
gular ends in a vowel that make their plural in the above order* 

Obs. 2. — Though this order of the plural may appear tedious 
and unpleasant, yet it carries a degree of importanee, serving ta 
prevent ambiguity. For instance, did we write the plural of bata 
in the short way, batan, the word might be taken to signify a 
ìittle boat, and not boats ; therefore, to avoid the doubt, we soften 
and lengthen bata into bataichean in the plural ; and so of othes- 
words. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

The Gaelic, as well as 
other languages, has a num- 
ber of words which differ 
in their inflections from 
the common form, and in 
that case become irregular, 
which means, not according 
to rule. 

The irregular nouns fear 
and bean, are thus de- 
clined : — 



AINMEARAN NEO-RIALTACH. 

Tha àireamh fhocalan 'sa 
Ghaelig cho math ri cainnt- 
ean eile, a tha claonadh 
'nan teàrnaidhean bho 'n 
staid chumanta, agus mar 
sin tha iad neò-rialtach 'se 
sin ri radh, gun bith a rèir 
riailte. 

Tha na h-ainmearan 
neo-rialtach,/ear agus bean^ 
iar an teàrnadh ; mar so, 



12. Fear, mas. a man, or fellow. 
Neo-chinnteach. 
Aon. Iom. 
N. fear, fir, no feara. 

G. fir, fhear, no fheara. 

D. fear, fearaibh. 
V. fhir, fheara. 

Am Fear, the man. 
Cinnteach. 
Aon. Iom. 
N. am fear, na fir. 

G. an f hir, nam fear. 



n air an I 
D - do'n / fhear ' 



na fearaibh. 



13. Bean, fem. a wife, or woman. 

Aon. Iom. 

N. bean, mnathan. 

G. mnà, bhan. 

D. mnaoi, mnathaibh. 

V. a bhean, a mhnathan. 

A' Bhean, the wife. 

N. a' bhean, na mnathan. 

G. na mna, nam ban. 

a ^ r a ' l ujjjjj^Qj / na mnathan. 

' do'n i ' \ na mnathaibh. 



74 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



LlST OF IRREGULAR NOUNS f AIRE AMH DH-AINMEARAN NEO-RIALT- 
OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. ACH DE'N CHEUD TEARNADH. 



Ain. 
Bean, b. a wife 
Brà, b. a quern 
Bò, b. a cow 
Brù, b. a belly 
Caora, b. a sheep 
Cainneal, ) , „ 
CoinnealJ b - aCand7e 
Criadh, cre, b. clay 
Cù, fr. a dog 
Dia, God 
Deòch, b. a drink 
Fear, fr. a man 
Fidhioll, ì . . 7 . 
FiodhulJ b - amo?m 
Gobhar, b. a goat 
Gniomh, fr. a work 
La, fr. a day 
Leaba-dh, b. a bed 
Laidinn, b. Latin 

Linne, b. a pool 

Lion, fr. flax, net 
Luch, b. a mouse 
MSIa, b. an eyebrow 
Mac, fr. a son 
Oidhche, ì , . 
Oiche, J b - m 9 U 
Saighead, b. an arrow 
Sgian, b. a knife 
Sithean, b. venison 



Gin, 

mnà 

brathan-ain 
boin, bò 
bronn-broin 
caorach 

( cainnle 

\ coinnle 

creadha 

coin 

Dè, Dia, Dhè 

dibhe 

fir 

fidhle 

goibhre 

gniomha 

la 

leapa, leapach 
Laidne r.^ 

linne 

lin 

luchain 

malaich, malaidh 
mic 

f oidhche 
( oi'che 
saighde 
sgine r . 
sithinn, sithne 



Sluagh, fr. no. b. people sluaigh 



b. a nail 



Tarrung, 

Tarunn, 

Talamh, fr. the earth 

Uileann, ) , „ 
TTM . >b. an elbow 
Uihonn, J 

Uamh, b. a cave 

Ubhal, fr. an apple 



j tairnge r. 
1 tairne 
talmhuinn 
( uilne 
( uinnle 
uamha 
ubhail r. 



Ain. lom. 
mnathan, mnai 
brathan 
bà 

bronna-an, bronnaich- 
caoraich [ean 

f cainnlean 

\ coinnlean 

coin, cona 
dee, diathan 
deòchan-nan 
fir, feara 

fidhlean, fiodhlan 

gobhair 
gniomharra-n 
lathachan, laithean 
leapannan, leapaichean 



linntich- 
linneachan, 



{linnichean,li 
ean, linni 
linntean 
linn, liontan 
luchan 
malaichean 
mic 

f oidhchean, oidhe- 
( achan, oichean 
saighdean 
sgionan, sgeanan 

sloigh 

tairgnean, tairnean 

talmhuinnean 

f uinlean 

\ uinnlean 
uamhan, uamhannan 
ubhlan. 



The letter r is to show that the noun has also the regular form of the genitive. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Nouns beginning with /, n, 
or r, are declined without any 
initial change. 



FOCLACHADH. 



75 



Teàrnar ainmearan a toise- 
achadh le /, n, no r, gun mhuth 
sam bith air an toiseach. 



Long, b. a ship. 
N. Long, longan 
G. Luinge, 'long 
D. Luing, longaibh 
V. A'long, a'longa 



Neamh, fr. heaven. 
N. Neamh, neamhan 
G. Neimh, 'neamh 
D. Neamh, neamhan 
V. A neimh .a'neamha 



Ròn, fr. a seal. 
N. Ròn, ròin 
Ròin, 'ròn 
Ròn, rònaibh 
A'ròin, a'ròna. 



G. 
D. 
V. 



Obs Though /, n, and r, have never got an aspirated form, 

yet, when placed in cases in which the other consonants are 
aspirated, they become aspirated, accordingly, in their pronuncia- 
tion, and, to distingnish them in their invisible aspirated state, 
Mr Munro recommends the spiritus asperQ of the Greek, which 
is here adopted. 

The plain and aspirated sounds of /, n, r, are distinctly heard 
in pronouncing the following phrases correctly : — 

Tha'n t-eun air à 'nead — air à chòs. 
Tha 'chearc air a nead — air a còs. 
Tha'n cù air à 'lorg — air à cheum. 
Tha e air à lorg — air à ceum. 
Chual' iad à 'ràn — à bhèuc. 
Chual' iad à rdn — à bèuc. 

Leòn e, wound him; doirt e, spill it; naisg e, tiè him; paisg e, 
fold him. 'Leòn mi e, jT wounded him ; dhoirt mi e, / spilt it ; 
'naisg mi e, / tied him ; phaisg mi e, i" folded him. 

Ruisg e, peel it; dùisg e, awaken him ; 'ruisg mi e, Ipeeled it ; 
dhuisg mi e, i" awakened him. 

Now if nead, and the other words in the above examples with 
the mark (') prefixed, be pronounced as they are devoid of it, or 
devoid of it as they are with it, the sense is the same, or entirely 
changed. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 

Nouns whose last vowel 
is i or e are of the second 
declension. 



GENERAL RULES. 

17. Nouns of one syllable 
form their genitive singu- 



AN DARA TEARNADH. 

Tha ainmearan aig am 
beil i no e 'nam fuaimrag 
dheireannach de 'n dàra 
teàrnadh. 

RIALTAN CUMANTA. 

17. Ni ainmearan aoin- 
smid an ginteach araon 



76 ETYMOLOGY. 

lar, masculine and femi- 
nine, by adding e to the 
nominative. 

18. Nouns of more than 
one syllable generally ter- 
minate alike in the singu- 
lar. 



1. 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Voc. 



EXAMPLES. 

Tigh, fr. a house. 



Aon. 
tigh 
tighe 
tigh 
a thigh 



lom. 
tighean 
thighean 
tighibh 



Mìr, 



thighean 
Thus decline : 
a piece; brùid, a 



FOCLACHADH. 

fearanta, agus boireanta le 
e a chur ris an ainmeach. 

18. Tha ainmearan anns 
ambeil na 'smò naaon smid 
a dunadh co-ionann 'san 
aonar. 

SAMPLAIREAN. 

An Tigh, the house. 
Aon. Iom. 
A. an tigh na tighean 
G. an tighe nan tighean 

^ìo^Y^ na tighibh 

Mar so teàrn : 
hrute; pàisd, a child; tim, 



tense or time; maide, a stick; caibdeil, a chapter; leigh, 



G. 
D. 
V. 



2. Poit, 
Aon. 
poit 
poite 
poit 
a phoit 



b. a pot. 
lom. 

poitean 
phoit 

poitibh-ean 
phoitean 
Thus decline . 



A' Phoit, the pot. 
Aon. lom. 
A. a' phoit na poitean 
G. na poite nam poit 
n air a' 
U% do'n/ 
Mar so teàrn 



phoit na poitibh 



Cir, a comb; ceist, a question ; cluain, pasture; bèirm, 
harm or yeast; teist, testimony; graisg, a rabble; geinn, 
awedge; meirg, rust; druid, a starling ; dròcaid, drug- 
get; càisg, the passover, Easter Sunday; sgoil, school. 
3. Morair, fr. a nobleman. Am Morair, the nobleman. 

Aon. Iom. 
A. ammorair, namorairean 
G. a' mhorair, nam morair- 
ean 

n airai mhorair, namorair- 
^•do'n J ibh 
Also, murtair, a murderer; purgadair, purgatory ; 
lanntair, a lantern; tosgair, a herald; fàladair, a scythe. 



K 
G. 
D. 
V. 



Morair, fr. a nobleman. 
Aon. Iom. 
morair morairean 
morair mhorairean 
morair morairibh 
mhorair mhorairean 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



77 



Some polysyllables add e to the genitive. We often hear 
good speakers say, " tigh a' mhoraire." 

Exceptions to Rule 17. 
Ain. Gin. 
DàiL b. delay, has dàlach 
Dail, b. a meadow, " dàlach 
Cuid, b. a /?arf, 
Làir, b. a wmre, 
Sàil, b. a heel, 
Suil, b. an eye, 



Druim, b. a back, 
Feòl, b. flesh, 



" codach 
" larach r. 
" salach 
tf suil no 
sulach 
" droma 
« feoìa 



Obaidhean airRialt 17. 
-4in. Gin. 
Mìl, b. honey, has meala 
Muir, b. sea, " mara 
Toin, b. bottom, " tona 
Sroin, b. a nose, " sroine, no 
srona 

Druid, b. a \ 
starling, j 
Moine, b. peats, 
Fuil, b. 



(( f often 
( druid 



mome 
fala, no 
fola 



SPECIAL RTJLES. 

19. Some nouns of two 
sjllables in ai, drop the let- 
ter i in the genitive ; as, 

Ain. 
Athair 
Mathair 
Brathair 
Piuthair 

20. Feminine nouns of 
two sjllables in air, change 
air into ach or rach ; thus, 

Ain 
Cathair, b. 
Nathair, b. 
Lasair, b. 
Acair, b. 
Luachair, b. 



RIALTAN ARAID. 

19. Tha cuid a dh-ainm- 
earan dhà smid 'an ai, a tilg- 
eadh nalitir i 'sa ghinteach ; 
mar, 

Ain. lom. 
aithrichean* 
mathraichean 
braithrean 
peathraichean doir. 
piuthair 

20. Tha boireantaich 
dhà smid an aira, tionndadh 
air gu ach no rach ; mar, 

Gin. 
cathrach 
nathrach 
lasrach 
acraeh 
luachrach 



Gin. 

father athar 
mcther mathar 
brother brathar 
sister has peathar 



a chair has 

a serpent *' 

aflame " 

an anchor " 
rushes 



* Nouns of two or more syllables are I • Giorraichear gu tric ainmearan da 
often contracted in the plural, by àrop- I no ioma-smid 'san iomadh le tilgeadh 
ping an; thus, | an ; mar so, 

aithriche, braithre, cairde, dorsaire, for aithrichean, braithrean, cairdean 
dorsairean. This fashion does not deserve to be eucouraged. 



78 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Socair, b. 
Aimsir, b. 
Barail, b. 
Faidhir, b. 
Measair, b. 
Iuchair, b. 
Srathair, b. 
Peasair, b. 
Saothair, b. 
Ponair, b. 
Anail, b. 
Paidhii , b. 
Staidhir, b. 
Machair, b. 



opinion 
a fair 
a tub 
a key 
a pack-saddle 
pease 
labour 



breath 
a pair 
stair 
a field 



PLURAL NUMBER. 

21. Nouns forming their 
genitive singularin achhom 
air, form the plural by 
changing ach of the genitive 
into ich, and adding ean ; 
as, 



has socrach, nosocaire 
aimsrach, no aimsire 
baralach 
faidhreach 
measrach 
iuchrach 
srathrach 
peasrach 
saothrach 
ponarach 
analach 
paidhreach 
staidhreach 
macharach, -chrach. 

AN AIREAMH IOMADH. 

21. Ni ainmearan a tha 
deanamh an gintich aonar 
le ach bho air, an aireamh 
iomadh le tionndadh ach a' 
ghintich gu ich agus ag 
iceadh ean ; mar, 



Cathair, a seat ; cathrach, cathraichean, seats. 



22. Nouns in ail, aile, ain, 
e, eil, eile, or ein, add an, 
tean, or tan ; as, 

Ain. 
Baile, /r. a town 
Caile, b. a girl 
Càin, b. a tax 
Aithn, b. a command 
Fèill, b. festival 
Fèile,/r. akilt 

23. Almost all polljsyl- 
labic nouns form the other 
three cases of the plural like 
the nominative. 



22. Tha ainmearan 'an 

ail, aile, ain, e, eil, eile, no 
ein, ag iceadh an, tean, no 
tan ; mar, 

Ain. Iom. 
Bailtean, towns 
Cailean, girls 
Caintean, taxes 
Aithntean, commands 
Fèilltean, festivals 
Fèiltean, kilts. 

23. Tha chuid a's mo 
dh-ainmearan ioma-smid- 
each a deanamh nan tri 
caran èile de 'n iomadh colt- 
ach ris an ainmeach. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE 
SECOND DECLENSION. 



FOCLACHADH. 79 

AINMEARAN NEO-RIALTACH 
DE '$ DARA TEARNADH. 



Ain. Gin. 
Abhainn, b. a river aibhne 
Aghainn, b. a pan aighne 
Banais, b. a wedding bainse 
Brigh, b. substance 
Bruidhinn, b. speech bruidhne 
Càraid, fr. a friend 

Colluinn, b. a body colla, colna r 

Cliamhuinn, fr. a son-in-law cleamhna r 
Cridhe, fr. a heart 
Disinn, b. a die (for gaming)disne 



Duine, fr. a man 
Dinneir, b. a dinner 
Duthaich, b. a country 
Eilid, b. a hind 
Fiacail, b. a tooth 
Gamhuinn, fr. a stirk 
Gualainn, b. the shoulder 
Mil, b. honey 
Madainn, morning 
Namhaid, fr. an enemy 
Ni, fr. a thing 
Oisinn, b. an angle 
Obair, b. work 
Righ, fr. a king 

Samhuinn, b. Hallow-tide 

Sliasaid, b. a thigh 

Suipeir, b. supper 



Air. Iom. 
aibhnichean, aibhnean 
aighnean 
bainsean 
brighean 

càirdean 
coluinnean 

cleimhnean, cleamhnan 
cridheachan 
disnean, disean 
daoine 
dinneirean 



duine 
dinnearaeh 

duthcha,ducha duchan, duchannan 
èilde èildean 
fiacla fiaclan 
gamhna gamhna-nan 
guaille guailnean, guaillean 

meala mealan 
maidne maidnean 
nàmhad naimhdean 
ni nithe, nitheannan 

Oisne r oisnean 
Oibre obraichean, oibrean 

Righe righre, righrean 

samhna samhna 
slèisde, slèisne slèisdean, slèisnean 
suipeire, suipearach suipeirean 

Tì, a person, and tì, b. a design, are indeclinable, also rè, b. 
the moon. 



THTRD DECLENSION. 

Under this declension are 
classed all nouns definite, be- 
ginning with a vowel, or s pure.* 

Nouns of the third declension 
differ only in their initial, or ar- 
ticulated form, from nouns of the 
first and second. 



AN TREAS TEARNADH. 
Fo 'n teàrnadh so cuirear uil' 
ainmear cinnteach a toiseachadh 
le fuaimraig, no le s glan.* 

Tha ainmearan de 'n treas 
teàrnadh a dealachadh a mhàin 
'nan staid thoisich, no phungail 
bho ainmearan de'n cheud agus 
an dara. 



* That is, s followed by a vowel. J * Is e ain s leauta le fuaimraig. 



80 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



GENERAL RULES. 

24. A defmite noun mas- 
culine beginning with a 
vowel, requires t- (hypherì) 
before it in the nominative 
singular, and h, in the no- 
minative and dative plural. 

25. A defìnite noun fe- 
minine, begìnning with a 
voweì, requires h- (hypherì) 
before it in the genitive 
singular, and in the nomi- 
native and dative plural ; 
thus, 



RIALTAN CUMANTA. 

24. Gabhaidh ainmear 
cinnteach fearanta a tois- 
eachadh le fuaimraig t- 
(tdthan) roimhe 'san ainm- 
each aonar, agus h-, anns an 
ainmeach agus 'san doir, 
iomadh. 

25. Gabhaidh ainmear 
cinnteach boireanta a tois- 
eachadh le fuaimraig h- 
(taiharì) roimhe 'sa ghin- 
teach aonar, agus anns an 
ainmeach agus 'san doir, 
iomadh ; mar so, 



EXAMPLES, SAMPLAIREAN. 

Each, fr. a horse. 

Neo-chinnteach. 
Aon. Iom. 

N. each, a horse, eich, horses. 

G. eich, of a horse, each, of horses. 

D, each, to a horse, eachaibh, to horse? 

V. eich, horse, eacha, horses. 

An t-Each, the horse. 

Cinnteack 
Aon. Iom. 

A an t-each, the horse, na h-eich, the horses. 
G. an eich, ofthehorse, naneach, ofthehorses. 

I). j , v each, to the Jwrse, nah- eachaibh, to the horses. 
don J 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 

Isbean, a sausage; àrach, 1 a cow-feeder ; anart,g *Iinen ; oglach,{ 
a servant; im,£ butter -, ord, § a hammer ; òr,j gold ; eun, r. 14, a 
bird; ubh,! 1 ,- an egg; ainm,f a name. 



• The upper figure 1 ret'ers to tbe first declension, and 2 to the second ; th<» 
under number to the example ; thus, anart has its final forms like corran, ex? 
aniple 3rd of the first declension. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 81 

Uinneag, b. a window. 





Aon. 


lom. 


N. 


uinneag, 


uinneagan. 


G. 


uinneige, 


uinneag. 


I). 


uinneig, 


uinne agaibli , -an. 


V. 


uinneag, 


uinneaga. 




An Uinneag, 


iìie window. 




Aon. 


lom. 


A. 


an uinneag, 


na li-uinneagan 


G. 


na h-uinneige, 


nan uinneagan 


D. 


air an) 

do'n } umneI S' 


na h-uinneagaibh 



Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 

Iteag, a feather ; eag, a nick ; oiteag, a breeze; apagg, a little 
npe ; òrdagf , a thumb or toe. 



Iasgair, fr, a fisherman. 
Aon. lom. 
.sgair, iasgairean. 
asgair,* iasgairean. 



asgair, iasgairibh,~an. 
asgair, iasgaire. 

An t-Iasgair, the fisherman. 
Aon. lom. 
A. an t-iasgair, na h-iasgairean. 

G. an iasgair, nan iasgairean. 

D. ^ f^ 1 j. iasgair, na h-iasgairibh. 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 

Eagair, order; eunadair, a game-heeper ; uaireadair, a time-keeiper* 

Oigh, b. a virgin. 
Aon. lom. 
N. òigh, òighean. 
G. oighe, oighean. 
D. oigh, oighibh,-an. 
V. oiorh, oighean. 



' Or, iasgaire. 



82 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

An Oigh, the virgin. 
Aon. Jom. 
A. an oigh, na h-oighean. 

G. na h-oighe, nan oighean. 

D.^ r ^] oigh, na h-oighean. 

Thus decline, Mar so teàrn, 

Iris, a hen-roost ; oinid, a fool', onoir, honour ; urnuigh, prayer, 
uair, an hour. 

26. A definite noun mas- 
culine beginning with s, re- 
quires t- before it in the 
genitive and dative ; and a 
defìnite feminine in the 
nominative and dative 
singular; thus, 



26. Gabhaidh ainmear 
cinnteach fearanta a tois- 
eachadh le s, t- roimhe 'sa 
ghinteach agus 'san doirt- 
each; agus cinnteach boir- 
eanta anns an ainmeach, 
agus 'san doìrteach aonar ; 
mar so, 
Solus, fr. a light. 





Aon. 


lom. 


N. 


solus, 


soluis. 


G. 


soliiis, 


sholus. 


D. 


solus, 


solusaibh. 


V. 


sholuis, 


sholusa. 




An Solus, the light. 


A. 


an solus, 


na soluis. 


G. 


an *t-soluis, 


nan solus. 


D. 


air an ) , 
do'n ]^ 0laS ' 


na solusaibh. 



Thus decline, — Saoghal, world; saor, a carpenter; sealgair, 
mter; sonn|, a stout man; sop|, a wisp; siùcar, sugar. 

Suist, b. a fiail. 
Aon. lom. 
N. suist, suistean. 
G. suiste, shuist. 
D. suist, suistibh. 
V. shuiste, shuistean. 



• The s after t- here is always silent, and the t is sounded iustead of it. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 83 



An t-Suist, the flail. 
A. an t-suist, na suistean. 

G. na suiste, nan suist, or -ean. 

D. ^ 11 , an \ t-suist, na suistibh. 

do n I 

Thus decline, — salm, a psalm ; sèid, a puff ; seilcheagy, a 
snail; sinteag,}, a skip : sith, peace ; suil ( l4 ), an eye ; subhailc, 
virtue. 

The various initial forms assumed by a noun definite beginning 
with a vowel or s pure, and the convenience and facility afforded 
to the learner in declining sucb nouns according to the foregoing 
scheme, will at once manifest the necessity and propriety of intro- 
ducing this declension, called the Third, not given under the 
name of a separate declension in any Gaelic Grammar knovvn to 
the author of this one. 

A proper name is thus Teàrnar ainm ceart mar 
declined in Gaelic : — so 'sa Ghaelig : — 

Peadar, fr. Peter; Ceit, b. Catharine; An Fhraing, b. France. 
Nom. Peadar Ain. Ceit Nom. An Fhraing* 

Gen. Pheadair Gin. Ceite Gen. Na Frainge 

r , f air Peadar ^ . f air Ceit ^ air anì 
^•{do Pheadar Dmr -\ do Cheit D ' do'n j Fhraln S 
Voc. A Pheadair Voc. A Cheit Voc. A Fhraing. 



INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES. 

An Adjective is a word 
which qualifies a noun, as, 
good, tall, sweet. 

Adjectives denoting qua- 
lities that can be increased, 
admit of inflection to ex- 
press comparison. 

There are three degrees 
of comparison, the Positive, 
the Comparative, and the 
Superlative. 



TEARNADH BHUADHARAN. 

Is e buadhar focal a tha 
'g innseadh buaidh no nad- 
uir ainmeir ; mar, math, 
ard, milis. 

Gabhaidh buadharan a" 
ta nochdadh bhuadhan, no 
f heartan a 's urrainnear a 
mheudachadh teàrnadh gu 
coimeasachadh a chur an 
cèiU. 

Tha tri cèuman coimeas- 
achaidhann, an Seasmhach, 
an Coimeasach, agus an t- 
Anardach. 



* Frangach, a Frenchman, and all other gentiles aud putronymics, are declined 
like Ex. 1 or 10 ot' the First Declension. 



84 



ETYMOLOGY. 



The Positive is expressed 
by the adjective in its sim- 
ple form ; as, hard, soft. 

The Comparative expres- 
ses a greater degree of the 
quality expressed by the 
Positive ; as, harder, softer. 

The Superlative expres- 
ses the greatest degree of 
the quality expressed by 
the Positive ; as, hardest, 
softest. 

1. The Comparative is 
generally formed by adding 
r or er to the Positive ; as, 
fine, fìner ; soft, softer. 

2. The Superlative is 
generally formed by adding 
st or est to the Positive ; as, 
fine, fmQst ; soft, sòftest. 

3. Adjectives of more 
than one syllable are com- 
monly compared by pre- 
fìxing the adverbs more and 
most to the Positive ; as, 
dutiful, more dutiful, most 
dutiful. 

4. Adjectives of two syl- 
lables ending in y, when 
compared like monosylla- 
bles, change y into i before 
er and est ; as, 



Pos. 

Happy, 
Lofty, 



Com. 

happier 
loftier. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Tha 'n Seasmhach foills- 
ichte leis a bhuadhar 'na 
staid loim ; mar, teann, 
hog. 

Tha 'n Coimeasacli a 
nochdadh cèum na's mò 
de 'n bhuaidh a ta iar a 
h-airis leis an t-Seasmhach; 
mar, teinne, buige. 

Tha 'n t-Anardach a 
nochdadh a chèum a's ro- 
mhò de 'n blmaidh a ta iar 
a h-airis leis an t-Seas- 
mhach. 

1. Tha an Coimeasach 
iar adheanamh gu cumanta 
le cur r no er ris ant-Seas- 
mhach. 

2. Tha 'n t-Anardach iar 
dheanamh gu cumanta le 
cur st no est, ris an t-Seas- 
mhach. 

3. Tha buadharan anns 
am beil na's mò na aonsmid 
iar an coimeasachadh gu 
cumanta le cur nan co- 
ghniomharan more agus 
most roimh an t-Seasmli- 
ach. 

4. Tha buadharan dha- 
smid a dunadh le y, 'nuair 
a choimeasar iad mar aon- 
smidean, a tionndadh na y 
gu i roimh er 'us est ; mar, 

Super. 
happiest. 
loftiest. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 85 



5. A diminutiye Adjectiye is fornied by adding the 
affix isli, which expresses a shade of comparison, and 
lessens the signification of the Positiye ; as, black, 
bìackish ; white, whitish. 

Obs. 1 The degrees of diminution are also expressed by pre- 

fìxing the adverbs less and least ; as, hot, less hot, least hot ; 
beautiful, less beautiful, least beautiful. 

Obs. 2. — An Adjective is regularly compared when the Com- 
parative is formed by adding r or er, and tha Superlative by 
adding st or est. 

Adjectives of one syllable, or Dissylables ending in y or e pure, 
are chiefly compared in this way; as> coy, coyer, coyest ; ample, 
ampler, amplest. 

Obs. 3. — Compound Adjectives are formed at pieasure by join- 
ing different words together with a hyphen (-) ; thus, come-at-able, 
would-be-bigh, two-footed. 



GAELIC ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectiyes in Gaelic are 
of the first or second de- 
clension, or of the third 
only. ^ 

Adjectiyes are declined 
by number, gender, case, 
and form, and their oblique 
cases are formed from the 
nominatiye, according to 
the rules already given for 
the formation of the cases 
of nouns. 

27. The nominative sin- 
gular, masculine, and femi- 
nine end alike, but the femi- 
nine is aspirated. 

28. The genitive singular 
feminine is formed from 
the genitive singular mas- 
culine, by droppmg the as- 
pirated form ; and, if a 
monosyllable, it generally 
ends in e,and sometimes in a. 



BUADIIARAN OAELIO. 

Tha Buadharan 'sa 
Ghaelig de 'n chèud no'n 
dara teàrnadh,no de'n treas 
a mhain. 

Tha Buadharan iar an 
teàrnadh le aireimh, gin, 
car, agus staid, agus an 
caran claon iar an cumadh 
o'n ainmeach a rèir nan 
rialtan a thùgadh cheana 
'dheanamh charan nau 
ainmearan. 

27. Tha 'n t-ain. aonar 
fear. agus" boir. a dunadli 
co-ionann, ach tha am boir- 
eanta sèidichte. 

28. Tha 'n ginteaoh 
aonar boir. iar a chumadli 
o'n ghinteach aonar fhear. 
le tilgeadh na staide seid- 
ichte ; agus ma's aonsmid 
e, tha e dunadh gu cumanta 
le e 'us air uairibh le a. 



86 ETYMOLOGY. 

29. The plural of all 
adjectives of one syllable 
ends in a, and of those of 
more than one, like the no- 
minative singular. 

EXAMPLES. 

Bàn, bhàn, fair, white. 
Aon. Iom. 
Fear. Boir. Fear.'us boir. 
N. ban, bhan, bana 
6r. bhain, baine, bana 
D. ban, bhain, bana 
V. bhain, bhan, bana. 



FOCLACHADH. 

29. Tha iomadh gach 
uile bhuadhar aoinsmid a 
dunadh le a, agus tha iadsan 
anns am beil na's mò na 
aonsmid, a dunadh mar an 
t-ainmeach aonar. 

SAMPLAIREAN. 

Dubh, dhubh, blacìc. 
Aon. lom. 
Fear. Boir. Fear.'us boir. 
A. dubh, dhubh, ^ 
6r. dhuibh, duibhe, 
D. dubh, dhuibh, 
G. dhuibh, dhubh, 



•dubha 



After the same manner decline : Air an dòigh cheudna teàrn : 

Cas, steep; caol, small; caoin, kind; garg, wild; garbh, rough; 
grad, quick ; fad, long ; glan, clean ; rnaol, blunt ; mìn, soft; 
còir, honest ; saor, j'ree ; mòr, great ; marbh, dead. 



GENERAL RULES. 

30. The nom. dat. and 
voc. feminine, and the gen. 
and voc. masculine of ad- 
jectives are aspirated in 
the singular, either with or 
without the article. 

31. The dat. of an ad- 
jective combined with a 
noun dennite is aspirated 
in both genders ; as, 



doir. agus 



RIALTAN CUMANTA. 

30. Tha ain. 
gair. boireanta, agus gin. 
'us gair. fear. bhuadharan, 
Eèidichte 'san aonar co 
dhuibh tha 'm pungar leò, 
no nach 'eil. 

31. feeidichear doir. 
buadhair naisgte ri ainmear 
cinnteach 'san dà ghin ; 
mar, 



Air a' bhord mhor, on the big table, ach air bord mor. 
Anns a' chiste bhain, in tlie white chest. 



32. Adjectives of one 
syllable in ea, eu, or ia, and 
those of more than one in 
ea, make the genitive in ei 
or i ; thus, 



32. Ni buadharan aon- 
smid 'an ea, eu, no ia, agus 
iadsan aig am beil ni's mo 
na aonsmid 'an ea, an gint- 
each le ei no i ; mar so, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



dearga 



Dearg, red. 
N. dearg, dhearg, 
G. dheirg, deii 
D. dearg, dheii 
V. dheirg, dheai 

Thus decline : 
Deas, ready ; searbh, bitter ; 
teann, tight; ceart, right; tearc, 



, rea. 
arg, \ 
irge, f 

iarg, ) 



33. Adjectives endingin 
all, om, orb, orm, ancl onn, 
change a into oi, and o into 
ui in the genitive ; thus, 



borba 



Borb, wild. 
N. borb, bhorb, ì 
G. bhuirb, buirbe, ^ 
D. borb, bhuirb, j 
V. bhuirb, bhorb, J 
Thus decline : — Crom, crooked; 
foog, soft ; donn, brown ; gorm, 
blue; lom, bare; pronn, pound- 
ed; trom, heavy; olc, bad. 

Adjectives of two or more 
syllables, seldom add e to 
the genitive singular ; as, 



! FOCLACHADH. 

Beag, little. 
A. 'beag, bheag, 
G. bhig, 



87 



D. beag, 
G. bhis:, 



bige, 
bhig, 
bheag, _ 
Mar so teàrn : 
Geal, white ; breac, speckled ; 
crion, small, has crin. 

33. Tha buadharan a 
dunadh le all, om, orb, orm, 
agus onn, ag atharrachadh 
na h-a gu oi, agus o gu uì 
'sa ghinteach ; mar, 
Dall, blind. 
N. dall, dhall, 
G. dhoill, d^ille, 
D. daU, dhoill, > daUa 
V. dhoill dhall, 

Mar su teàrn : — Mall, slow. 



Is ainmig a chuireas 
buadharan aoin, no iomadh 
smid e ris a' ghinteach 
aonar; mar, 



Cinnteach, 
Aon. 

Fear. Boir. 
N. cinnteach, chinnteach, * 
G. chinntich, cinntich, 
D. cinnteach, chinntich 
V. chinntich, chmnteach, ^ 
34. An adjective begin- 
ning with a vowel, admits 
of no initial change, and an 



lom. 
Fear. 'us Eoir. 



cinnteach. 



34. Cha ghabh buadhar 
a toiseachaah le fuaimraig 
muth-toisich, agus cha 
adjective ending with a ghabh buadhar a dunadh 



È8 ETYMOLOGY. 

vowel, admits of 110 final 
change ; as, òg, beà. V 

35. When an adjective 
beginning with a vowel is 
prefixed to a noun definite, 
it is of the third declension ; 



FOCLACHADH. 

le fuaimraigmuth deireann- 
ach ; mar, àg, beò. 

35. 'JSTuair a chuirear 
buadhar a toiseachadh le 
fuaimraig roimh ainmear 
cinnteach, tha e de 'n treas 
teàrnadh ; mar, 
An t-ard bhuachaill. An og bhean. 

EXAMPLE OF A NOUN AND AN AD- I SAMPLAIR DE DH-AINMEAR AGUS DE 
JECTIVE DECLINED TOGETHER. | BHUADHAR TEARNTE LE CHEILEL. 

1. Cluas Mhor, b. a lctrge ear. 
Aan. lom. 
N. cluas mhor, cluasan mora. 

G. cluaise moire, chluasan mora. 

D. cluais mhoir, cluasaibh mora* 

V. a cluas mhor, a chluasa mora. 

A' Chluas Mhoe, the large ear. 

Aon. lom. 
A. a' chluas mhor, na cluasan mora, 
Cr. na cluaise moire, nan cluasan mora. 

D. ^Q^j" chluais mhoir, na cluasaibh mora. 

2. Uan Beag, fr. a little lamb. 
N. uan beag, uain bheaga. 

6r. uain bhig, uan bheaga. 

D. uan beag, uanaibh beaga. 

V. uain bhig, uana beaga. 

An t-Uan Beag, the little lamb. 
A. ant-uanbeag, na h-uain bheaga. 

G. an uain bhig, nan uan bheaga. 

D. ^?^} uan bheag, na h-uanaibh beaga. 

1. After the same manner decline_, làr ghlas, a grey mare; clais 
chaol, a narrow furrow ; bò bhan, a white cow ; bean bhorb, a 
furious wife. 

2. Each dubh, a black horse ; cat ruadh, a red cat ; cù marbh, 
a dead dog ; la bog, a soft day ; gille còir, afine lad, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 89 



COMPARISON. 

Tliere are only two de- 
grees of comparison in 
Gaelic, the Positive ancl 
the Comparative, and a 
Superlativè, of extent. 

Tlie Comparative lias 
three forms expressive of 
comparison, tlie first, the 
second, and the thircl. 

The first form is like the 
genitive singular feminine ; 
the second is formed from 
the fìrst by changing e into 
id, and the third from the 
second, by changing iJinto 
ad ; as, 



COIMEASACHADII. 

Tha 'mhain da chèum 
coimeasachaidh 'sa Ghae- 
lig, an Seasmhach agus an 
Coimeasach, agus A nardac h, 
meudachaidh. 

Tha tri staiclean aig a 
choimeasach a nochdadh 
coimeasachaidh, a cheud, an 
dara, agus an treas. 

Tha cheud staid ionann 
ris a' ghinteach aon. bhoir- 
eanta ; tha 'n dara iar a 
cumadh bho 'n cheud le 
tionndaclh e gu id, agus an 
treas o 'n dara le tionndaclh 
id gu ad ; mar, 



Pos. lst, Comparative, 2nd, Comp. 3rd, Comp. or Abs. Noun.* 
Seas. lud, Choimeasach, 2ra, Coim, 3as, Coim. vo Ainr. Sgairte.® 

Ban_, fair, 
Crion, little, 
Cruinn. round, 
Daor, dear, 
Dearg, red, 
Deas, ready, 
Geal, white, 
Lag, voeak, 
Trom, heavy, 



baine, 


bainid, 


bainead, whiteness. 


crine, 


crinid, 


crinead^ littleness. 


cruinne, 


cruinnid, 


cruinnead. 


daoire, 
deirge, 


daoirid, 


daoiread. 


deirgid, 


deirgead. 


deise^ 


deisid, 


deisead. 


gile, 


gilid, 


gilead. 


laige, 


laigid, 


laigead. 


truime, 


truimid, 


truimead. 



Obs. 1 . The first form is most 
commonly used. Many adjec- 
tives, chiefly those of more than 
one syllable, do not admit of the 
second comparison; adjectives 



Faic. 1. Is i chèud staid a 's 
tric' a ghnathaichear. Tha moran 
bhuadharan gu h-araidh iadsan 
anns am beil ni 'smò na h-aon- 
smid, nacli gabh an dara coim- 



* The third form is an abstract noun * Tha 'n treas staid 'na ainmear 
fem. wanting the plural. | sguirle boìr. dh' easbhu.dh ua h-iomadh. 



90 



ETYMOLOGY. 



which want the second compari- 
son, want the third also. 

Obs. 2. The three forms of 
comparison, take the aspiiated 
form,, but no final change what- 
ever. 

Both the comparative and 
superlative in English are 
expressed in Gaelic by the 
first comparative, preceded 
by the relative a and the 
verb is ; thus : — 

James is tallerth&ii John. 

Gold is the most precious 
of all the metals. 

" He began at the eldest 
(son,) and left at the young- 
est."* 

36. When the positive 
ends in ach or each, the com- 
parative is formed by add- 
ing e to the genitive ; as, 
Seas. 
Sunntach, cheerful 
Cinnteach, sure, 



FOCLACHADH. 

easachadh, tha buadharan aig 
nach 'eil an dara coimeasachadh, 
gun an ti eas mar an ceudna. 

Faic. 2. Gabhaidh na tri staid- 
ean coimeasachaidh an staid 
shèideach, ach cha ghabh iad 
mùth deireannach air bith. 

Cuirear araon an coim- 
easach agus an t-anardach 
'sa Bheurla ann a Gaelig 
leis a chèud choimeasach 
agus an daimheach a, 'san 
gniomhar is, a seasamh 
roimhe ; mar so : — 



Is e Sèumas 



airde 



'na lan. 

Is e 'n t-òr a 's priseile 
de na miotailtibh uile. 

"Thoisich e aig anfhear 
bu shine, agus sguir e aig 
an fhear a ò'oio/e."* 

36. 'Nuair a dhunas an 
seasmhach le ach no each, 
cumar an coimeasach le e 
'churris a'ghinteach; mar, 
Gin. Coim. 
sunnraich, sunntaiche. 
cinnrich, cinntiche. 



37. When i is the last 
vowel in the positive, the 
comparative is formed by 
adding e ; as, 

Seas. 
Banail, modest, 
Gramail. strong. 



37. 'Nuair tha i 'nafuaim- 
rag dheireannach 'san t- 
seasmhach cumar an coim- 
easach le e 'chur ris, 

Coim. 
banaile, more modest. 
gramaile, stronger. 



Some adjectives of one syll ible ending in two or more 
consonants, and a few in a vowel, add a or e for the com- 



parative ; as, 

Beurr, keen. beurra ; cearr, awhward, cearra 



leamh, impudent, 



* Vide Gaelic Con. Kule 24 and k5- 



ETYMOLOGY FOCLACHADH. 91 

leamba; boclid, poor, bochda ; mear, merry, meara ; seamh, mild, 
seamha. 

Clith, wrong, makes clithe ; rèith or rèidh, pìain, rèithe no 
rèidhe; luatb, swift, luaithe; (arni, faint, fainne; fiar, crooked, fiaire; 
teann, tight, tinne. 

Beò, lively, makes bectha : fada, long, faide; tana, thin, taine. 



The following are con- 
tracted in the comparative. 

Seas. 1. Coitn. 

Bodhar, deaf, buidbre. 

Domhain, deep, doimhne. 

Leathann, broad, lèithne. 

Milis, sweet, mÌUe. 



Tha iadsan a leanas 
giorraichte 'sa choimeasach. 

Seas. I. Coim. 

Bcidheacb, pretty, boidhche. 
Odhar, sallow, uidhre, idhre. 
Reamhar,/o£, reamhra. 
Salach, foul, sailche. 



SUPERLATrVE OE EXTENT.* | 

Thissuperlativeisformed i 
bv prefixing ro, gle, or fior, 
&c, to the positr- fcftus, 



ANABXfAJGEL MEUDACHALDH. 

Tha 'n t-anardach so iar 
a chumadh le cur ro, gle, no 
fior, &ce., roimh an t^seas- 
mhach : mar so, 



Seas. Pos. 
Ban, white 
Bog, soft 



Coim. 
baine, 
buijre. 



IRREGFLAR COMPARISOX. 

The following adjectives 
are compared irregularlv. 



Comp' An. Meud. Sup- of Ex. 
whiter ro bhan,* very ichite. 
softer gle bhog, very soft. 

COniEASACHABH XEO-RIALTACH. 

Tha na buadharan a 
leanas iar an coinieasach- 
adh °;u neo-riaìtach. 



Exglish. 





Pos. 


Com. 


1 


Good 


better 




Bad ) 




2 


Evil > 


■\vorse 




111 ) 




3 


Little 


less 




Manv \ 




4 


Much j 


more 



Sup. 
best 

worst 

least 
most 



• This form of the adjective does not express the least shadow of comparison, 
but simply ex;ends t^e quality uenoted by the positive. 



92 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Pos. 


Com. 


Sup. 


5 Far 


farther 


farthest 


6 Fore 


former 


foremost or first 


7 In 


inner 


inmost or innermost 


8 Late 


later 


latest or last 


9 Near 


nearer 


nearest or next 


10 Old 


older or elder 


oldest or eldest 


11 Out 


J outer 


outmost or outermost 


\ utter 


utmost or uttermost 


12 Up 


upper 


upmost or uppermost 



Each of the foregoing adjectives are in Gaelic belovv. 



Id 



Seas. 
, Math 
Maith 
„ Olc 
^ Dona 

3 Beag 

4 Mòr 



5 Fad, R. 
C) Tusail, R. 

7 A stigh 

8 Anmocb, R. 

9 Fais S t 
Fagus ) 

JO Sean, R. 

1 1 Iomallach,fi2. 

12 



Choim. 

fearr 

feotha 

miosa 

dona 

bigg 

lugha 

mò, mù 

motha, mutha 

faide 

tusaile 

-x 

anmoiche 



sine 

-aiche 

uachdarach 



2ra Coim. 
feairrd 
feothaid 
misd 
donaid 
bigid 
lughaid 

mòid 

faidid 



anmoichid 

faisgid 

sinid 
-aichid 



Sas Coim. 
fearras 
feothas 
olcas, miosad 
donad 
bigead 
lughad 

meud 

faidead 



anmoichead 

faisgead 

sinead 



-aichead 



Adjectives that are compared I 
regularly in the foregoing list, | 
and those compared regularly I 
as well as irregularly in tbe fol- | 
lowing list, are marked with the | 
letter R. 



Tha buadbaran a ta iar an 
coimeasachadh gu rialtach 'sa 
chlàr roimh so ; agusiadsan a ta 
iar an coimeasacbadh gu rialtach 
co maith as gu neo-rialtacb 'sa 
cblàr a leanas, comharraicbte 
leis an litir R. 



• Comf . a 's i'haide 'stigh. 



(- A mach, comp. a '3 fhaide 'math. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



93 



IRREGULAR GAELIO ADJEC- 
TIVES. 

Seas. ìd Choirn. 

Càr, akin, cara 

Còir, proper, cora 

Cumhang, narrow, cuinge, R. 
Dogh, likebj, probable, docha 

Dorch, dark, 
Duilich 



BUADHARAN NEO-RIALTACH 
GAELIG. 



2ra Coim. 



2as Coim. 



cuingid cuingead 



Doilich,}^ CMft ' 
Dugh, natural, 
Furasda, \ 
Farasda, j 

^ e ? r . r j !" sìwrt, 
Goirid, j 9 

Gèur, sharp, 

lonmhuin, desirable, 

Ion, proper, fit, 
Laidir, strong, 

Mor, great, 

Teth, hot, 

Toigh, j dear, 

Toigheach, [ beloved, 



(duirche 
duilghe 
dorra 
ducha 
( fusa 
( fusa, R. 

giorra 



j gèire 
| geòire 
j annsa, R. 
\ ionnsa 
iona 

treasa, R. 
(mo, mu 
tmotha, mutha 

teotha 

tocha 

docha 



dorchaid 
duirchid 
duiìghid 
dorraid 

fusaid 
fasaid 

giorrid 

g uraid 
geòirid 



treasaid 

mora 

teothaid 



dorchad 
duirchead 
duilghead 
dorrad 

fusad 
fusad 

giorrad 

gèurad 
geòiread 



treasad 
moid 
meud 
teothad 



To these may be added, moran, many, and tuille or tuilleadh, 
more. 



SECOND FORM OF COMPARI- 
SON. 

An adjective is used in 
the second form of com- 
parison after the verb Is ; 
as, 

Is truimid e sud, 
Isfheairrd mi mo theagasg, 

Bu mhisd a chraohh a rusgadh, 



AN DARA STAID COIMEASACH- 
AIDH. 

Cuirear buadhar 'san dara 
staid clioimeasacliaidh an 
dèigh a' ghniomhair Is ; 
mar, 

It is the heavier for yon. 

I am the better of (my teaching) 

being taught. 
The tree was the worse of (its 

peeling) being peeled. 



94 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



THIRD FORM OF COMPARI- 
SON. 

An adjective is used in 
the third form of compari- 
son after the verbs Èach 
and Cuir ; as, 
Rach amfeòthas, 
Tha 'n la 'dol an giorrad, 
Chairìh a' mhin an daoiread, 
Na cuir a lugìiad a chliu, 

Chuir iad pris an tì am maid, 
NUMERALS, OR NUMBERS. 

A Numeral is an adjec- 
tivewhich signhies number; 
of which there are two 
kinds, viz. Cardinal and 
Ordinal* 

Cardinal Numbers. 
Aon, a h-aon one 1 
Dha, a dha two 2 

Tri, a tri ihree 3 

Ceithir four 4 

Cuig, coig five 5 

Se, sea, sia six 6 

Seachd seven 7 

Ochd eùjht 8 

Naoi, naoith nine 9 
Deich ten 10 

Aon-dèug eleven 11 

Dha-dhèug twelve 12 

Tri-dèug thirteen 13 

Ceithir-dèug fourteen 14 
Coig-dèug fifteen 15 

Se-dèug sixteen 16 

Seachd-dèug seventeen 17 
Ochd-dèug eighteen 18 

Naoi-dèug nineteen 19 

Fichead twenty 20 

Aon thar fhichead twenty-one2i 



AN TREAS STAID COIMEAS- 
ACHAIDH. 

Cuirear buadhar 'san treas 
staid coimeasachaidh an 
dèigh nan gniomharan, 
Racli 'us Cuir ; mar, 
Amend, get hetter. 
The day is getting shurter. 
Meal has got dearer. 
Diminish not his praise. 
They (merchants) have raised 
the price of tea. 

CUNNTAICH, NO AIREAMHAN. 

Is e Cunntach buadhar a 
tha ag airis aireimh, dheth 
am bheil ann da sheòrsa 
eadhon Ardail agus Ordail.* 

Cunntaich Ardaìl. 
Dha thar fhichead twenty-two 22 

&ce. SjC. 
Deich thar fhichead thirty 30 
Aon-deug thar 

fhicbead thirty-one 31 

&ce. d)C 
Da fhichead forty 40 
Da fhichead 'sa 

h-aon forty-one 41 

&ce. $$c. 
Da fhichead 's a 

deich fifty 50 

Da fhichead 's a 

h-aon-dèug fifty-one 51 
&ce. Sfc. 
Tri fìcbead sixty 60 

Tri ficbead 's a 

h-aon sixty-one 61 

&ce. §c. 
Tri fichead 's a 

deich seventy 70 



See Gaelic Con. Rule 7 and 8. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 95 



Tri fichead 's a 
h-aon dèug, 
&ce. 
Ceithir fichead 
Ceithir fichead 
's a h-aon 
&ce. 



seventy-one 

fre, 
eighty 



71 

80 

eighty-one 8 i 



Cèud 'sa h-aon 


a hundred § one 


Cèud 'sa deich 


a hundred &; ten 


Cèud 'sa fichead 


a hundred S$ twenty 


&ce. 




Da cheud 


two hundred 


Tri cheud 


three hundred 


&ce. 


<*fl. 


Mìle 


one thousand 


Da mhìle 


two thousand 


Cuig mìle 


five thousand 


Deich mìle 


ten thousand 


Ceud mìle 


a hundred thousand 


Muìlean 


a mìllion 


Cuig muìlean 


five milìions 


&ce. 


Sce. 



Ceithir fichead 

's a deach ninety 90 
Ceithir fichead 's 

a h-aon-dèug ninety-one 91 
&ce. S$c. 
Cèud, ciod a hundred 100 



101 
110 
120 
&c. 

200 
300 
&c. 
1000 
2000 
5000 
10,000 
100,000 
1,000,000 
5,000,000 
&c. 



EXAMPLES OF NUMERALS COM- 
BINED WITH A NOUN. 

The noun always follows 
its numeral, but is placed 
before dèug (ten) in com- 
pound numbers. 
Aon cheann 
Da cheann 
Tri cinn 

&ce. 
Fichead ceann 
Ceud bo 
Mìle cat 



one head 
two heads 
three heads 

&c. 
20 heads 
100 cows 
1000 cats 
Deich mìle troidh 10000 feet 



Ordinal Numhers, 

An cèud, a cheud fhear, 
An dara, darna fear, 
An treas fear, 



SAMPLAIREAN CHUNNTACH 
NAISGTE RI AINMEAR. 

Leanaidh an t-ainmear 
a chunntach fèin a ghnà 
'ach cuirear e roimh dèug 
an àireamhan measgta. 
Aon fhear 



Da fhear 
Tri fir 

&ce. 
Fichead fear 
Cèud cù 
Mìle cnò 



one rnan 
two men 
three men 

&c. 
20 rnen 
100 dogs 
1000 ìiuts 



Cuig mile bliadhna 5000 years. 

Cunntaich Ordail. 



thefirst man, 
the second man, 
the third man, 



lst 
2nd 
3rd 



96 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



An ceathramh fear, 
An coigeamh, 
An seathamh, 
An seachdamh, 
An t-ochdamh, 
An naoidheamh, 
An deicheamh la, 
An t-aon la deug, 
An dara la deug, 
An t-ochdamh la deug, 
An naoidheamh la deug, 
An ficheadamh la, 
An t-aon la thar fhichead, 
An deicheamh figh thar, &ce. 
An t-aon tigh deugthar fhichead 
An da fhicheadfnnh tigh, 
An ceudamh bò^ 
An da cbeudamh bò, 
An tri cheudamh bò, 
An cèithir cheudamh bò, 
An cuig ceudamh fear, 
An sea ceudamh fear, 
An seachd ceudamh fear, 
An mileamh fear, 
&c. 



the fourih man, 


4th 


thefifth, 


5th 


the sixth, 


6th 


the seventh, 


7th 


the eigìith, 


8th 


the ninth, 


9th 


the tenth day, 


10th 


the elevenih day, 


llth 


the twelfth day, 


12th 


ihe eighteenth day, 


]8th 


the nineteenth day, 


] 9th 


the twentieth day, 


20th 


the, &c. 


21st 


the, 


30th 


,the, &c. 


31 st 


ihe, &c. 


40th 


the hundredth cow, 


lOOth 


the two hundredth cow 200th 


the three, &c. 


SOOth 


the four, &c. 


400tli 


thefive, 


500th 


the six, &c. 


600th 


the seven, &c. 


700th 


ihe thousandth, &c. 


lOOOth 


&c. 





Colleciivc Nurncrals, 



Cunntaich Lòdach. 



JDithis, triuir, ceathrar, cuignear, seathnar, ochdnar, naoinear, 
deichnear. 

These are applied to person only ; as, dithis, two persons ; 
triùir, three pertons. They require the genitive plural indefinite 
of the noun following them ; thus, ceathrar mhac, four sons ; 
cuignear dhaoine, five men, &c. 

Dithis is often used for dà, or dhù, in its absolute sense ; as, 
Am buail mi ach aon sguab ? Buailidh tu dithis. 



UCFLECTIOìn OF PRO*!t)Ul\ T S. 

A Pronoun is a word used 
instead of a noun ; as, 
Jarnes is here, he came an 
hour a#o. 



TEARNADH RIOCHDARAN. 

Is e Rioclidar focal a 
glmathaicbear an ait ainm- , 
eir ; mar, tha Seumas an 
so, thainig e bho chionn 
uair. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 9j 



There are nine sorts of 
pronouns in both Gaelic and 
English, yiz. Personal, Re- 
lative, Interrogative, Pos- 
sessive, Distributive, De- 
monstrative, Indefìnite, Re- 
ciprocal, and Compound. 

1 . The Personal pronouns 
are thus declined ; as 



Tha naoi seòrsa riochd- 
aran araon 'sa Ghaelig agus 
anns a Bheuiia, eadh. Pears- 
antail, Dàimheach, Ceist- 
each, Seilbheach, Roinn- 
each, Dearbhach, Neò- 
chinnteach, Ionannach, 
agus Measgta. 

1. Tha na riochdaran 
Pearsantail iar an teàrn- 
adh : mar so, 



Person. 
lst, m. or/. 
2nd, m. or/. 
3rd, mas. 
3rd, fem. 
3rd, neut. 

Person. 
lst, m. or/. 
2nd, m. or /. 
3rd, m. f. & n. 



SlXGULAPi. 
Nom. 
I, 

Thou, 
He, 
She, 
It, 
Plural. 



Pearsa. 
lud, Mi, 
2ra, Tu, 

3as, E, Se, ìie, him, 

3as, I, Si, slie, her, 

3as, E, nol, it, it, 

IOMADH. 

Pear. Ainmeach. 

lud, Sinn, we, us, 

2ra, Sibh, ye, you, 

3as, Iad, they, them, 



Pos. Obj. 

mine, me. 

thine, thee. 

his, him. 

hers, her. 

its, it. 

\ T om. Pos. Obj\ 

We, ours, us. 

Ye or you, jours, you. 

They, theirs, them. 

AOJfAR. 
Ainmeach,* 
I, me, mhi 
thou, thee,t\m, 



Staid Neariail. 
mise, mhise. 
tusa, thusa. 
esan. 
ise. 

esa no ise. 

Staid Neart. 
sinne. 
sibhse. 
iadsan. 



* The Gaelic pronouns have no other I * Cha n-'eil caran eile eucoltach 
casea differing in forin from -the nomi- anstaid ria au ainmeach, aignariocbd- 
Bative. 1 aran Gaelig. 

G 



08 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Obs. — The Gaelic pronouns are put into the emphatic form, by 
annexing the affìxes se, sa, san, ne to them, in order to express 
the suhject or object of a sentence with greater force. 

And, to make the sense still more pointed, the termfHn (the 
same as self plural selves, in English, met in Latin, and meme, in 
French, is often used in both numbers ; thus, 

Mi-fèin no mi-fhèin, myself. 

Thu-fèin no thu-fhèin, thyself. 

E-fèin no I-fèin, himself herself. 

Mise mi-fèin, mise fèìn, my oivn self &c. 

Sinn-fèin no sinn-fhèin, ourselves. 

Sibh-fèin* no sibh-f hèin, yoursehes. 

Iad-fèin, iadsan-fèin, themselves. 

Sinne-fèin, our own selves, &c. 

Obs. ì . The English pronoun tkou is very seldom applied either 
in writing or familiar conversation, eyen in addressing a single in- 
dividual, except by the Quakers or Friends. Its plural ye or you 
is ahvays used in addressing one individual of any rank or age. 
This practice, which confounds one of the most important distinc- 
tions of the language, affords a striking instance of the power of 
fashion, here springing from courtesy and complimental speech. 
In Gaelic this personal compliment is more limited, for the second 
person singular, thu or thusa, is commonly used in addiessing an 
inferior or an equal; and sibh or sibhse in addressing a parent, an 
aged person, or a superior. The pronoun of the second person 
singular, in both languages, is universally employed in addressing 
the Supreme Being. 

Obs. 2. E, i, and iad, are often written and spoken se, si, siad, 
and, in that state, used only in the nominative ; as, bhuail se e, 
he struck him. 

Esan and iadsan are sometimes contracted esa, iadsa, and these, 
again, generally become es' or eis\ iads', before a vowel ; thus re- 
taining only the letter s of the emphatic syllable san. 



2. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

A Relative Pronoun is 
a word which relates to a 
noun or pronoun going be- 
fore it in a sentence ; as, 
" The master ivho taught 
us." 



2. RIOCHDARAN DAIMHEACH. 

Is e Riochdar Dàimh- 
each focal a bhuineas do 
dh-ainmear,no doriochdar 
a dol roimhe ann an ciall- 
airt ; mar, " Am maighst- 
ear a theagaisg sinn." 



• Fein. is pronounced fè, hè, hèin, in rerchshire, &c, and hm, hèin, in the 
Nortli Higblaada. Sorae say sib pèin. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 99 



The word or subject to 
which the relative refers, 
is called its Antecedent or 
Correlative. 

The simple relatives in 
English are, who, which, 
that, and as ; who and which 
are thus declined; thej are 
alike in both numbers : 

Sing. Plur. 
Nom. Who, who. 
Pos. Whose, whose. 
Obj. Whom, whom. 

Who is applied onlj to 
persons ; as, the boj who 
reads. 

Which is applied to the 
lower animals and inani- 
mate objects ; as, the dog 
which barks ; the knife 
which cuts. 

That is often used in- 
stead of icho or which ; as, 
the boj that reads ; the 
book that was lost. 

The Oaelic Relatwes are, 



Theirear an roimhean 
no co-dhàimhear ris an 
f hocal, no 'n cùisear d' am 
buin an Dàimheach. 

Is iad toho, ivhich, that 
agus as ; na Dàimhich 
shingilt 'sa Bheurla, tha 
who 'us which iar an teàrn- 
adh ; mar so ; is co-ionann 
'san dà aireimh : 

Sing. Plur. 
Nom. Which, which. 
Pos. Whose, whose. 
Obj. Which which. 

Gabhar who (a) do 
phearsaibh a-mhàin ; mar, 
am balachan a lèughas. 

Gabhar ivhich (a) do na 
creutairibh a's ilse agus do 
chuspairibh neo-bheò ; an 
cù a ni tathunn ; an sgian 
a ghearras. 

Gnàthaichear that (a) 
gu tric an aite who 'us 
which ; mar, am balachan 
a lèughas ; an leabhar 
a chailleadh. 

Is iad na Daimhich 



Obs. 1. Which was formerly applied to persons, and is so still 
in the Scriptures ; as, " Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of 
all men." 

Obs. 2, As is classed with the relative pronouns, it being obvious 
that it is, in some instances, used as a relative, and applied to per- 
sons and things in both numbers; as, " The Lord added to the 
church daiìy such (persons) as should be saved." il His words 
were as follow ;" that is, His words were these which follovv ; or, 
IIis words were the words which follow. 



00 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Ghaelig a, nach, na, tha iad 
co-ionann 'san dà aireimh, 



a, nach, na, they are alike 
in both nnmbers, 

A, who, whom, that; as, 

Nach, who not, whom not, which not, that not, as not. 

Obs — A is written am and an after a preposition, for the sake 
of euphony ; as, an la air am bi thu ait, the day on which thou 
wilt be glad ; am fear air an tilg mi so, the man at whom I will 
throw this. 



Na is a compound Rela- 
tive, used without an ante- 
cedent ; it is equal to, those 
who, the thing or things 
which, or, all that ; as, 

Those that (or the num- 
ber which) were in the 
battle were slain. 

I have not what or the 
thing which will pay you. 

3. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Who, which, and what, 
when used to ask a ques- 
tion, are called Interroga- 
tive Pronouns ; as, 



Is Daimheach measgta 
Na gnàthaiche gun roimhe- 
an; tha e ionann ri iadsana, 
no ni, no nithe Sb, no iad uile; 
mar, 

Mharbhadh na bha 'sa 
bhlàr. 

Cha n-'eil agam na 
phaigheas tu. 

3. RIOCHARAN CeISTEACH. 

'Nuair a ghnàthaichear 
who, which, 'us what, a dh- 
fhaighnachd, ceistetheirear 
riochdaran Ceisteach riù ; 
mar, 



Who ? co? as, Who is he ? coe? Wbo are they ? co iad 



Which ? 



co 



? as, Which of them ? co dhiubh ? 



What ? ciod ? creud ? as, What is this ? ciod e so ?.* 



3. COMPOUND RELATIVES. 



Whoso, 

Whosoever, 

Whoever, 

Whatever, 

Whatsoever, 

Whichever, 

Whichsoever. 

Whether, 

What, 



he who, 



3. DAIMHICH MHEASGTA. 

fCo air bith? 
j Co sam bith ? 



thing which, 

— one of the two, 
= thing ivJiicJi, 



Ciod air bith ? 
Ciod sam bith. 
Ge be air bith. 



Co aca ? 
Na, ni a. 



Co dhiubh ? 



• In conversation, ciod e is olten corrupted into gu dè and De ; as,gu dè do 
bharail ? De' tha sibh e deanamh .? 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



101 

What 



Obs — What is sometimes used as an adjective; as, 
money vve had vvas taken avvay." It is also taken sometimes in 
the sense of an interjection ; as, " What! am I a dog?" 



4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Sing. 

1 2-333 

My, thj, his, hers, its, 
Mo,* do, a, a, a, 

* These are rendered empha- 
ì\c, like the personal pronouns, 
by the affixes se, sa, san, ne, 
placed after the nouns with 
which they are combined, but 
se of the first person is changed 
into sa ; thus, 

My fìst, mo dhòrn-sa 

Thy fist, do dhòrn-sa 

His fist, a dhòrn-sa/i 

Her fist, a dòrn-sa 

Her comb, a cìr-se 

When the noun is quali- 
fìed by one or more adjec- 
tives, the emphatic term 
follows the adjective ; thus, 

My fair head, Mo 
Our fair laead, Ar 
My pretty fair head, Mo 

Fèln is also used in both 
wajs ; as, 

My own purse, 

My own black purse, 

5. DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 

Each, every, 
Gach, aon, a h-uile, 



4. RIOCHDARAN SEILBHEACH. 
Plur. 

1 2 3 3 

our, your, their, own. 
ar,f bhur 'ur, an am, fèin. 

45 Nithear iad sin neartail mar 
na riochdaran pearsantail le na 
h-icean se, sa, san, ne, a chur 
an dèigh an ainmeir ris am beil 
iad co-naisgte, ach atharraichear 
se a' cheud phearsa gu sa ; mar 
so, 

Our fìst, ar\ dòrn-ne 
Your rìst, bhur, no 'ur dòrn-se 
an dòrn-sa» 



Their fìst 



Their pipe, am 



dòrn-san 
pìob-saa 



'Nuair a tha aon no 
da bhuadhar a nochdadh 
buaidh an ainmeir, lean- 
aidh an smid neartail am 
buadhar ; mar so, 

cheam ban-sa, &c. 
ceann, ban-ne, &c. 
chean boidheach ban-sa, &ce. 

Gnàthaichear fèin mar 
an cèudna san dà dhoigh ; 
mar, 

Mo sporan fein. 

Mo sporan dubh-sa fein. 

5. RIOCHDARAN ROINNEACH. 

either, neither. 
an dara h-aon, ni h-aon. 



t | Ar and bhur are often pronouneed nar and nur. 



102 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



6. RIOCHDARAN DEARBHACH, 

Gnàthaichte gu cuspair 
a chomharrachadh a mach. 



i so, this one ; iad so, 



that one ; 



Yonder, " 
Former, a cheud 



6. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, 

Used to point out an ob- 
ject. 

'Sing. Plur. 

This, these, so ; as, e so, this one 

those ones. 
That, those, sin ; as, e sin, that one 

iad sin, these ones. 
Yon, sud, ud ; as, e sud, yon one ; an tè ud, yon 
woman ; na fir ud, yon fellows. 
as, sud e, yonder he is ; sud i, yonder 
she is ; sud iad, yonder they are. 
as, a cheud fhear, the former one ; a 
cheud fheadhain, the former ones. 
Latter, mu dìieireadìi ; as, an aon mu dJieireadJi, the lat- 
ter one ; an fheadJiain mu dJieireadh, 
the latter ones. 

7. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 7. RIOCHDARAN NEO-CHINNTEACH. 

Any, all, both, none, one, other, some, such, whole. 
— uile, araon, — aon, èile, cuid, — — 

The English words with the dash under them, have no single 
Gaelic terms to express their meaning. 

Indefinite Pronouns in Gaelic are generally short phrases made 
up of Nouns and Adjectives ; thus, 

Fear eile, anotlier man. Cuid-eigin, some one. 

Te' iile, tèile, anotìier woman. Rud-eigin, something. 
Sometimes a Noun only ; as, 

Dad, any thing ; dad air bith, any thing wJiatever. 

Feadhain, some ; fear, m. one ; tè,f. one. 

Obs. — Fear, one, is applied to all nouns mas. whether persons 
or things ; and also tè, one, to all nouns fem. 

Obs. — None (not one) is used in both numbers ; as, " A r one 
visits him ;" " JSone of their productions are extant." One has 
a possessive case, and a plural; as, One's duty ; u The great 
unes of the world." OtJier and another, are declined as a noun. 



8. RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. 

The word self, plural 
sehes, is added to the per- 
sonal pronouns in English, 
to show that the agent and 
object of the action are the 



8. RIOCHDAR IONANNACH. 

Tha 'm focal self (fein), 
iom. sehes, iar a chur ris 
na riochdaran pearsantail 
'sa Bheurla a dh-fhoill- 
seachadh gum beil ughdair 



. ETYMOLOGY. 

same ; as, Peter hurt him- 
self. 



Myself, 
Mi-ièin, 



Singuìar. 
2 3 

thyself, himself, 
thu-lèin, e-ièin, 
Plural. 



FOCLACHADH. 103 

agus cuspair a' ghniomha 
ionann ; mar, Chiùr Pead- 
air e fein. 



Ourselves, 



yourselves, 



3 

herself. 
i-fèin. 



themselves. 



9. The Personal Pronouns 
in Gaelic are elegantly 
united with a number of 
Gaelic Prepositions, in 
which connexion both are 
thrown into one word, ex- 
pressive of the meaning of 
the two ; and hence called 
Compound, or Prepositional 
Pronouns. 



9. Tha na riochdaran 
Pearsantail 'sa Ghaelig iar 
an aonadh gu snasmhor ri 
aireimh 'roimhearan Gaelig 
agus anns an aonadh so tha 
iad le chèile iar andeanamh 
'nan aon f hocal a nochdadh 
brigh an dà fhocail, agus 
o sin theirear Riochdaran 
Meassrta no Roimhearail 



The Compound, or Pre- 
positional Pronouns, are 
formed and declined in the 
following order. ' 
Singular. Aonar, 
1 Per. 2. 3. 3. 

Mi, me. tu, thee. E, him. I, her. 

Ag, aig, at. 
Boir. 



nu. 

Tha na 
Measgta no 
deante 'us 
òrdugh a leanas. 

Plural. lomadh. 
1 Per. 2. 3. 

Sinn, us. sibh, you. iad, them. 



Riochdaran 
Roimhearail 
teàrnte, 'san 



Agara- J 
sa, 

at me. 

Orm, 
on me. 



agad- 
sa, 
at thee. 

ort, 
on thee. 



Fear. 

aige- 
san, 
at him. 

air, 
on him. 



Annam, annad, 
in me, S$c. 



aice- Againn- 
se, ne, 
at her. at us. 

Air, ar, on. 
oirre, Oirnn, 
on her. on us. 
Ann, inn, in. 
innte, Annainn, 



agaibh- 
se, 
at you. 

oirbh, 
on you. 



Fear 'us Boir. 

aca- 



san, 
at them. 



orra, 
on them. 



annaibh, annta, 



• These are rendered emphatic, like 
the possessive pronouns, by annexing 
tlie affixes, -sa, -se, -ne, -san, to them ; 
a3,ji(jafn-sa, &c. 



* Nithear iad sin neartach mar na 
riochdaran seilbheach le cur nan icean 
-sa, -se, ~ne, -san, riu ; mar, ugam-sa, 
&ce. 



104 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

As, a, out of. 
Sìngular. Plaral. 
12 3 3 1 2 

Asam, asad, as, aiste, Asainn, asaibh, 
out of me, S$c. 

De, of or off. 
Dhiom, dhiot, dheth, dhi, d'i, Dhinn, dhibh, 
Diom, diot, de, di, Dinn^ dibh, 
of me, Qc. 

Do, to. 

Dhomh, dhut, dba, dbi, Dhuinn, dhuibh, 
Domh, duit, da, d'i Duinn, 



3 

asda, 



dhiubb, 
diù, 



to me, $c. 



duibh, 



dhoibh, 
doibk 



Eadar, between. 

___ — — Eadarainn, eadaraibh, eatorra. 

between us, &c. 
Fo, fuidh or fodha, vnder. 
Fodham, fodhad, fodha, fòipe. Fodhainn, fodhaibb, fòpa. 
under me, &c. 

Gu ug, to. 

H-ugam, h-ugad, h-uige, h-uice. H-ugainn, h-ugaibb, h-uca. 
io me, Slc. 

Le w ith. 

Leam, leat, leis, leatha. f Leinn, 
with me, &c. (linn, 
Mu, um, about. 
Umam, umad, uime, uimpe. Umainn, umaibh, 
about me, &c. 

O, bho, ua, from. 
Uam, -j uaithe, uaipe. Uainn, 

from me, &c. 

Ri, to. 

Rium, riut, rut, ris, rithe. ( Ruinn, 
to me, &c. (Rinn, 
Roimh, romh, before. 
Romham. romhad, roimhe, roimpe. Romhainn, romhaibh, rompa. 
before me, &c 

Thar, over, across. 

Tharam,tharad,thairis air \ A , . . . Tharainn,tharaibh, tharta. 
' 3 (^thairisoirre, 3 

over me, &c. 

Troimh, through. 
Tromham, tromad,troimhe,troimpe. Tromhainn,tromhaibh,trompa. 
through me, &a 



leibh, 
libh, 



uaibh, 



ruibh, 
rinn, 



leò, 
leotha. 

umpa. 



uapa, 
uatha. 



nu, 
riutha. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 105 



ELISION AND CONTRACTION. 



Elìsion is leaving out a 
letter of a word ; as, a or 
'w for an. 

Contraction is shorten- 
ing a word, or running two 
words or syllables into one; 
as, 

M' ad, for mo ad, my 
in his mouth 

ELISION OF THE GAELIC ARTICLE. 

An elides the a after preposi- 
tions ending in a vowel ; as, 



GEARRADH AGUS GIORRACH- 
ADH. 

Is e Gearradh tilgeadh 
a mach litir à focal ; mar, 
a' no 'n an ait an. 

Is e Giorrachadh crup- 
adh focail, no ruith dà 
fhocail, no dà smid gu 
aon; mar, 
hat ; 'na bhèul, for ann a bhèul, 
'nar tir, for ann ar tir. 

GEARRADH a' PHUNGAIR GHAELIG. 

Tilgidh an an a an dèigh 
roimhearan a dùnadh le fuaim- 
raig ; mar, 

Fo'n talamh, under tke ground ; de 'n t-siùcar, of the sugar ; 
o'n am sin, from thal time ; mu'n ghrèin, about the sun. 



An elides the n after prepo- 
sìtions ending in a consonant, 
before words heginning with b, 
c, g,m,p; as, 

Aig a' bhaile, at the town; 



Tilgidh an an n an deigh 
roimhearan a dunadh le cònn- 
raig, roimh fhocail a toiseachadh 
le b, c, g, m, p ; mar, 
anns a' ghealaich in the moon ; 



air a' charn, on the cart ; ris a' mhin, at the meal. 



ELISION OF PRONOUNS. 

The possessives mo, do, elide 
the o before a vowel or / aspir- 
ated, and a, his or its, is cut 
out entirely before a vowel; as, 



GEARRADH RIOCHDARAN. 

Tilgidh na seilbhich mo, do, 
an o roimh fhuaimraig no f 
sèidichte, agus gearrar as a, his 
no its, gu lèir roimh fhuaimraig; 
mar, 

M'obair, for mo obair, my work ; d'ad'"', for do ad, your kat ; 
m' fhocal, for mo fhocal, my word ; 'ord, for a ord, kis hammer. 



This elision may be conve- 
niently avoided by varying the 
construction thus : — 



Faodar an gearradh so a 
sheachnadh gu goireasach le 
muth a cho-rianachaidh ; mar 
so : — 

An obair agam, an ad, agad; an t-òrd aige, na h-uird aige no à 
chuid ord. An t-uan aice_, her lamb ; na h-uain aice, no à cuid 
uain, her lambs. 

• We find this d' often changed into V ; a 
this change is certainly very improper : may 
"fanail?" 



ì, t'anail for d'anail, thy breath; but 
we not write " to blieiil,'" as well aa 



106 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



INFLECTION OF VERBS. 

A Verb is a word which 
signifies to be, to do, or to 
suffer ; as, I am, he strikes, 
he is struck. 

A Verb is declined by 
Voices, Moocls, Tenses or 
Times, Numbers, Persons, 
and Simple, Compound, 
and Emphatic Forms. 

Verbs are divided into 
five classes, viz. Regular, 
Irregular, Auxiliary or 
Helping, Defective, and 
Impersonal. 

Verbs are of two kinds, 
Transitive and Intransi- 
tive. 

A Transitive Verb ex- 
presses action, passing from 
the agent* or doer to some 
object; as, / strike the 
table ; Wellington con- 
quered Bonaparte. 

An Intransitive Verb 
expresses being or action, 
which has no person or 
thing for its object ; as, I 
am ; the tree stands ; he 
slept. 

Transitive Verbs have 



' • Whea a noun does anything it is 
called the agent ; and when something 
is done to it, it is called the object.J 



TEARNADH NO SGEADACHADH 
GHNIOMHARAN. 

Is e Gniomhar focal a 
ta ciallachadh a bhi ann, a 
bhi deanamh, i\o'h\\\fulang ; 
mar, Ta mi ; tha e bual- 
adh ; tha e buailte. 

Teàrnar Gniomhar le 
Guthan, Modhan, Timean, 
Aireamhan, Pearsan, agus 
Staidean, Singilt, Measgta, 
agus Neartail. 

ThaGniomharan roinnte 
gu cuig roinnean, eadh. 
Rialtach, Neo-rialtach, 
Taiceil, Gaoideach, agus 
Neo-phearsantail. 

Tha Gniomharan de dha 
sheòrsa, Asdolach agus An- 
asdolach. 

Tha Gniomhar Asdolach 
a nochdadh gniomh , a dol 
as a' chuisear no'n deanad- 
air gu cuspair eigin ; mar, 
Tha mi bualadh a bhuird; 
Cheannsaich Wellington 
Bonaparte. 

Tha Gniomhar Anasd- 
olach, a nochdadh bith no 
gniomlb aig nach 'eil neach 
no ni mar a chuspair ; mar, 
Tha mi ; tha 'chraobh a 
seasamh ; chodail e. 

Tha dà Ghuth aig 

* 'Nuair a ni ainmear rud sam bith 
thearair an deanadair ris; agus an uair 
a nithear rud eigin air, theirear an 
cuspair ris. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

two Voices, the Active and 
the Passive. 

The Active Voice is the 
form which the Verb takes 
when its subject or nomi- 
native is the agent or doer; 
as, / struck the horse ; the 
sportsman shot a deer. 

The Passive Voice is the 
form which the Verb takes 
when its subject or nomi- 
native is the object of the 
verbal action ; as, the table 
was struck ; Bonaparte was 
conquered bj Wellington. 

MooBs.-Moodsor Modes 
are forms showing the man- 
ner in which the verbal ac- 
tion is represented. 

There are eight Moods ; 
the Imperative, the Indica- 
tive, the Potential, the In- 
finitive, the Conditional, in 
English ; and, with these, 
the Interrogative,the Nega- 
tive, and the Subjunctive, 
used in Gaelic. 

1. The Imperative ex- 
presses a command or re- 
quest in the second person, 
and a wish or desire in the 
first, and permission in the 
third of both numbers ; as, 
let me go ; let us sing; 



FOCLACHADH. 107 

Gnioniharan Asdolach, an 
Spreigeach, agus am Ful- 
angach. 

Is e an Guth Spreigeach 
an staid a ghabhas an 
gniomhar 'nuair is e 'chuis- 
ear no 'ainmeach dean- 
adair a gniomha ; mar, 
bhuail mi an t-each ; thilg 
an sealgair fiadh. 

Is e an Guth Fulangach 
an staid a ghabhas an 
gniomhar 'nuair is e 'chuis- 
ear no 'ainmeach cuspair 
no fulangair a ghniomha 
ghniomharail; mar, Ihuail- 
eadh am bord ; cheannsaich- 
eadh Bonaparte le Wel- 
lington. 

Modhan.-Is iad Modhan, 
staidean a ta feuchainn na 
doigh anns am beil an 
gniomh gniomharail iar 
fhoillseachadh. 

Tha ochd modhan ann, 
an t-Aineach, an Taisb- 
eanach, an Comasach, am 
Feartach, an Teagmhach, 
'sa Bheurla ; agus maille 
riù sin, an Ceisteach, an 
Diùltach agus an Leantach 
gnàthaichte 'sa Ghaelig. 

1. Tha 'n t-Aineach a 
toirt orduigh no iarrtais 'san 
dara pearsa, agus miann no 
toil 'sa cheud agus cead 
'san treas pearsa anns an 
da aireimh ; mar, racham 
seinneamaid ; labhair thusa; 



108 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



speaJc thou ; hear ye ; let 
her cut the cheese ; let them 
drink milk. 

The second person singu- 
lar of this mood is the root 
or theme of the Verb. 

2. The Indicative Mood 
simply asserts or declares 
a thing ; as, I write ; he 
reads ; the sun rose. 

3. The Potential Mood 
implies liberty, ability, or 
necessity ; as, / may fold ; 
/ can read ; we must die. 

4. The Infinitive Mood 
shows the verb in its sim- 
ple form, without number 
or person ; as, fold ; to 
fold. 

The preposition " to" (a or 
gu, &c. in Gaelic) is usually 
prefìxed tothe verb in thisform, 
and in that position it is called 
the Sign of the Infinitive. 

5. The Gonditional is 
used to express conditional, 
or contingent existence ; 
as, 

<<r If the whole body were an 
eye, where were the hearing?" 

6. The Interrogative 
simply asks a question ; as, 
Are you there ? Did you 
see the Jcing ? 



eisdibJi-se ; gearradh i a 1 
mhulachag ; oladh iad 
hainne. 

'Se dara pearsa aonar 
a' mhodh so frèumh no 
stèidh a' gniomhair. 

2. Tha 'n Taisbeanach 
a dearbhadh no foillseach- 
adh ni; mar,iAa mi sgriobJi- 
adh ; tha e leugJiadh ; dhr 
eirich a ghrian. 

3. Tha 'n Gomasach a, 
nochdadh, saorsa, comais 
no èigin ; mar, faodaidh 
mi pasgadh ; is urrainn 
mi leughadh ; feumaidh 
sinn bàsacJiadh. 

4. Tha 'm modh Feart- 
ach a nochdadh gniomhair 
'na staid shingilt, gun air- 
eimh no pearsa; mar, 
paisg ; a phasgadh. 

Tha'n roimhear e: to" (a no 
gu, &ce. 'sa Ghaelig) iar a chur 
gu cumanta roimh 'n gniomhar 
'san staid so, agus theirear 
Comkar an Fheartaich ris 'san 
t-seasamh sin.* 

5. Gnàthaichear an Teag- 
mJiach gu bith teagmhach, 
no tuiteamach a nochdadh ; 
mar, 

" Na'm bitheadh an corp uile 
'na shuil, c'ait am bitheadh a' 
clilàisteachd ? 

6. Tha'n Cèisteach a- 
mhain a faighnachd cèiste ; 
mar, Am beil thu an sin ? 
Am fac thu an righ ? 



* See Gaelic Con. Rule 31. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 109 



7. The Negative is used 
to deny a thing ; as, / am 
not lazy ; I did not see tlie 
king. 

8. The Suhjunctive* is 
used to represent an action 
as conditional, doubtful, or 
contingent. It is usually 
joined to another verb, 
either going before or com- 
ing after it in the same sen- 
tence ; as, 

" If ye walk in my statutes, 
and (if ye) keep my command- 
ments, and (if ye) do thenr, 
then I will give you rain in due 
season." 

TENSES OR TIMES. 

Verbs have three simple 
tenses, the Present, the 
Past, and the Future; and 
two compound tenses, the 
Perfect, and Pluperfect. 

The future in English is al- 
ways a compound, but often 
elliptical. 

There are only two verbs in 
Gaelic, viz. bi, to be, and is, 
that have a present tense ; but 
this seemirig defect is nicely 
supplied by the future, or the 
present tense of the verb bi 
combined with an imperfect or 



7. Gnàthaichear an Bi- 
ùltach a dh-obadh ni ; mar, 
Gha n-'eil mi lèisg. Gha 
n-fhaca mi 'n righ. 

8. Gnàthaichear an Le- 
antach a nochdadh gu 'm 
beil an gniomh ann an 
staid theagmhaich, àgail, 
no thuiteamaich. Tha e 
gu tric fuaighte ri gniomhar 
èile, a dol roimhe, no 'teachd 
na dhèigh 'san aon chiall- 
airt ; mar, 

te Ma ghluaiseas sibh a' m' 
reachdaibh, agus ma ghleidheas 
sibh m' aitheantan, agus ma ni 
sibh iad ; an sin bheir mise 
dhùibh uisge 'na àm fèin." 

TIMEAN NO TRATIIAN. 

Tha tri timean singilt 
aig gniomharan, an Làth- 
aireil, an Seachadail, agus 
an Teacail. Agus dà thim 
mheasgta, an Làn agus 
an Roilàn. 

Tha'n teacail 'sa Bheurla 
'ghnà measgta, ach gu tric 
beàrnach. 

Chan-'eil ach a mhain dà 
ghniomhar, eadh. bi agus is, anns 
a Ghaelig, aig am beil tim lath- 
aireil, ach tha 'ghaoid bheag so, 
iar a deanamh suas gu grinn leis 
an teacail, no le tim lathaireil 
a' gniomhair bi, naisgte ri pàirt- 



* The Subjunctive in English is now almost universally rejected, it being evi- 
dent that the form of the verb so called does not arise from the fact of its being 
subjoined to the conjunctions if, though, lest, &e. but fiom the nature of the idea 
intended to be expressed. What is called the present of the Subjunctive in some 
English Grammars, is obviously au elliptical form of the Fut. of the lndicativti.—> 
For a more conclusive illustration, vide Eng. Con. R. 21, Note. 



110 ETYMOLOGY. 

perfect participle. This want 
of a present tense is not peculiar 
to the Gaelic language only; 
the Hebrew and other Oriental 
languages want it also. 

The Present Tense sig- 
xrifìes that the verbal action 
or state is going on just 
now, or in present time ; 
as, / write ; jyou speak ; 
they stand. 

The Past Tense signifies 
that the verbal action or 
state is past and gone, or in 
past time ; as, / wrote ; 
they stood. 

The Future Tense inti- 
mates that the verbal action 
or state is to take place, or 
was* to take place in time 
to come ; as, 

I sTiall see you to-morrow. 
I would see you yesterday 
(if you were at home.) 



FOCLACHADH. 

ear neo-cholionta no colionta. 
Cha n-i Ghaelig 'na h«apnar a 
ta gun an tim làtbaireiFso ; tha 
an Eabhra, agus cànainean èile 
a bhuineas do 'n àirde an ear 
as easbhuidh mar an cèudna. 

Tha 'n tim Lathaireil 
a nochdadh gu'm beil an 
gniomh, no staid gniomhar- 
ail dol air aghaidh aig an 
àm so, no anns an tim a ta 
làthair ; mar, tha mi 'sgri- 
obhadh ; tha sibh a labhairt; 
tha iad a seasamh. 

Tha 'n tim Seachadail 
a nochdadh gu 'm beil an 
gniomh, no'n staid gniomh- 
arail iar dol seachad, no ann 
an tim a dh-fhalbh ; mar, 
sgriobh mi ; sheas iad. 

Tha 'n tim Teacail a 
foillseachadh gu 'm beil, 
no gun robh an gniomh, no'n 
staid ghniomharail gu tach- 
airt ann an tim ri teachd ; 
mar, 

Chi mi thu am mìireach. 
Chithinn thu an dè (na'n 
robh thu aig an tigh.) 



• The above definitiou of the future, may not, at first sight, coincide with every 
opinion, but upon due consìderation, it will be found to be correct ; close atten'- 
tion to the uses of the auxiliary verbs, Shall and WiU, and their past Should and 
Would, as explained in the text,will illustrate the point. 

Shall expresses present duty ; but as all duties though present in point of ob- 
ligation, must be future in their performance, the verb shall has come to be used 
as a sign oi'future time. 

fVill, in like manner, expresses present intention, but as &\\present intentions 
must also be future in their performance, the word has come to signify future 
time. But when a duty, or intention, or future action, is spoken of as referring 
to past time, or to some circumstance or event, connected with past time,'we find 
shall'xaà will assuming their past forms or tenses accordingly ; and though the 
idea expressed by them in this subtle form be of a conditional or contingent 
nature, yet they even, in expressing such an idea, still retain, in'most cases, an 
expression of futurity ; and hence arises the definition in question, or the Past 
Future. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Jle will write to-morrow. 

Verbs, like nouns, have two 
numbers, the Singular and 
Plural, and three Persons ; the 
lst, 2nd, and 3rd. 

The first person speaks, the 
second is spoken to, and the 
tkird is spoken of. 

AUXILIARY OR HELPIXG VERBS. 

The Auxiliary verbs are those 
by the help of which Specific 
verbs are conjugated in their 
compound tenses. 

There are nine auxiliaries, viz 



FOCLACHADH. 



Sgriobhaidh e am màir- 
each. 

Tha dà àireamh aig gniomh- 
aran, mar tha aig ainmearan; an 
Aonar, agus an lornadh; agus tri 
Pearsan, a' lud; 2ra, agus 3as. 

Tha cheud phearsa labhairt, 
labhrar ris an dara, agus labhrar 
mu 'n treas. 

GXIOMHARAN TAICEIL NO COBH- 
AIREIL. 
Is iad na gniomharan Taiceil, 
iad sin leis am beil gniomharan 
Araid iar an Sgèadachadh 'nan 
timean Measgta. 

Tha naoi Taicearan ann, eadh. 



be, do, have, let, may, can, must, shall, will. 



The first four are also used as 
specific verbs ; and the other five 
want the perfect participle. 



Gnàthaichear a cheud cheithir; 
mar, ghniomharan araid ; agus 
tha na cuig èile dh-easbhuidh 
a' phairteir cholionta. 

Obs May conveys the idea of liberty or permission, and, by 

inference, conttnyency ; as, he may go if he will ; he may have 
written, or not. 

Can has the sense of is able, and denotes power or abilify in 
general ; as, I can write, though you cannot. 

Shall denotes duty or obligation in general, and, by inference, 
futurity ; as, he shall obey me. I shall write to-morrcw. 

Will denotes volition or intention, and, by inference, futurity ; 
as, / will, be thou whole. He will write to-morrow. 

Tha timean làthaireil affus 



The present and past tenses of 
the auxiliary verbs are thus ex- 
pressed, 



seachadaiì nan taicearan, iar an 
nochdadh : mar so, 



Pres. am, do, have, let, may, can, must, shaìl, will. 
Past. was, did, had, let, might, could, (no past) should, would. 



The idea expressed by a com- 
pound tense is in present time, 
when its auxiliary or help is pre- 
sent; and in past time, when its 
auxiliary or help is past ; thus, 



Tha 'n smuain, no 'n rùn a ta 
tim measgta ag cur an cèil anns 
an tim làthaireil, 'nuair tha 
'thaicear làthaireil, agus 'san tim 
seachadail, 'nuair tha 'thaicear 
seachadail ; mar so, 



12 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



I have folded, I shall fold, I may have folded, express present 
time, because have, shall, and may, are ìn the present tense. I had 
folded, I should fold, I miyht have folded, express past time, be- 
cause had, should, and might, are in the past tense. 

CONJTJGATION OF VERBS.* 



There are two Conjuga- 
tions in Gaelic, the First 
and the Second. 

Verbs beginning with a 
consonant, except / pure, 
are of the first conjugation; 
and verbs beginning with a 
vowel, or with / pure, are 
of the second. 

The verb, to be, (bi) bj 
whose help other verbs are 
inflected, is conjugated in 
both English and Gaelic in 



the following order : — 



SGEADACHADH GHNIOMHARAN. 

Tha dà Sgèadachadh 'sa 
Ghaelig, a Chèud agus an 
Dara. 

Tha gniomharan a toise- 
achadh le connraig, ach / 
glan, de 'n chèud sgèadach- 
adh ; agus gniomharan a 
toiseachadh le fuaimraig> 
no le/glan, de'n dara. 

Tha 'n gniomhar bi, trid 
am beil gniomharan èile 
iar anteàrnadh, sgèadaichte 
araon 'am Beurla 'san 
Gaelig, anns an òrdugh a 
leanas : — 



TO BE.f Bi. 



Pres. 
Am, 

Ta. no tha, 



Past. 
was, 
bha, 



Imp. Part. 
being, 
bith, 



Perf. Part. 
been. 
iar bhith. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Simple Tenses. 

Present Tense. 

Pers. 
Sing. 1 . I am 

2. Thou art 

3. He is, a boy is 
Plur. 1 . We are 

2. Ye or you are 

3. They are, boys are 



MODH TAISBEANACH. 
Timean Singilt. 

Tim Lathaireil. 

Pear. 

Aon. 1 . Ta, no tha mi 

2. Thathu 

3. Tha e, tha giullan 
lom. 1. Tha sinn 

2. Tha sibh 

3. Tha iad, tha giullanan 



* The conjugation of a verb is a pro- j « Is e sgeaclachadh gniomhair òrdugh 
per arrangement of its moods, tenses, I ceart a mhodhan, a thimean, 'àireamh- 
numbers, persons, and participles. | an, a phearsan, agus a phàirtearau. 

^ Since the verb " to be" entersso largely into the Compound Tenses of other 
verbs in both languages, it has been deemed proper to conjugate it first, for an 
acquaintance with its variations will make the intìection ol any other Yerb eaay 
to the learner. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 113 



Past Terise. 

Pers. 

Sing. 1. I was 

2. Thou wast 

3. He was 
Plur. 1. We were 

2. Ye or you were 

3. They were 

Compound Ttnses. 

Present Perfect. 

Its helps are have, hast, has 

or hath. 
Sing. 1 . I have been 

2. Thou hast been 

3. He has or hath been 
Plur. 1. We have been 

2. Ye have been 

3. They have been 

Plvperfect or Past Perfect. 

Its helps are had, hadst. 
Sing. 1 . I had been 

2. Thou hadst been 

3. He had been 
Plur. 1 . We had been 

2. Ye had been 

3. They had been 



Tim Seachadail. 

Pears. 

Aon. 1. Bha mi, no do bha mi 

2. Bhathu &ce. 

3. Bha e 
Iom. 1. Bha sinn 

2. Bha sibh 

3. Bha iad 

Timean Measgta. 

Lan Lathaireil. 

'Siad a thaicean tha iar, no air* 

Aon. 1 . Tha mi iar bhith no bhi 

2. Tha thu iar bith, &ce. 

3. Tha e iar bhith 
Iom. 1. Tha sinn iar bhith 

2. Tha sibh iar bhith 
8. Tha iad iar bhith 

Roilàn no Làn Seachadail. 
'Siad a thaiceaniAa iar, no air. 
Aon. 1. Bha mi iar bhith 

2. Bha thu iar bhith 

3. Bha e iar bhith 
Iom. 1. Bha sinn iar bhith 

2. Bha sibh iar bhith 

3. Bha iad iar bhith 



* The preposition " air," on, at, for, 
is very improperly used by Gaelic 
writers in compound tenses, or before 
the inrinitive, instead of " iar," after, 
which is used in the text, upon the 
authority of eminent grammarians; 
therefore the following, and like sen- 
tences, should be written thus : — 



* Tha 'n roimhear " air," on, at,for, 
'ga gnàthachadh gu fir neo cheart le 
sgriobhadairean Gaelig ann an timean 
measgta, no roimh an fheartach, an ait 
ii \M, ,, after, a ta gnàthaichte 'sa cheann- 
teagaisg fo theisteas ghramadairean 
ainmeil ; air an aobhar sin bitheadh na 
ciallairtean a leanas, agus an leithid 
èile sgriobhta mar so: — 
Tha e air posadh, (denoling that) he is at or on a marriage, or present at the 
ceremony. 

Tha e iar posadh, ( ■ ) he has married, or is after performing the 

marriage ceremony. 

BhaSèumas air trusadh nan caorach, (denoting that) James was at the gathering 

of the sheep, or assisting at it. 

Bha Sèumas iar trusadh nan caorach, ( ) James had gathered the 

sheep. 

From these, and many similar instances that may be adduced, it is perfectly 
clear that iar is the proper term for Compound Tenses, or the Infìnitive, and 
that air, when applied to time, signifies not after, but on or at.—See StewarVs 
Grammar, p. 89, and Munro ì s, p. 236. Iar is generally pronounced air or ear. 

H 



114 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Timean Measgta 'sa Bheurìa, 
ach Singilt 'sa Ghaelig. 

Tim Teacail Làthair. 
-idh. 

Pears. 

Aon. 1. Bithidh^ mi 
2. 
3. 
I. 
2. 
3. 



lom. 



Bithidh thu no tu 
Bithidh e 
Bithidh sinn 
Bithidh sibh 
Bithidh iad 



Compound Tenses in English, 
but Simple in Gaelic. 

Present Future Tense. 
Its helps are shall or will. 
Pers. 

Sing. 1. I shall or will be 

2. Thou shalt or wilt be 

3. He shall or will be 
Plur. 1. We shall or will be 

2. Ye shall or will be 

3. They shall or will be 

Past Futvre. 
Its helps are should or would. 
Sing. 1. I should or would be 

2. Thou shouldst or 

wouldst be 

3. He should or would be 
Plur. 1 . We should or would be 

2- Ye should or would be 
3. They should or would 
be 

Contracted thus : Giorraichte mar so : 
1. Bhi'inn, 2. & 3. bhiodh. 1. Bhiomaid, bhimid, 2. & 3. bhiodh. 



Teacail Seachad. 

Aon. 1 . Bhithinn (only I wouìd 
be here) 

2. Bhitheadh tu, &c. 

3. Bhitheadh e 
Jom. 1. Bhitheamaid no bhith- 

eadh sinn 

2. Bhitheadh sibh 

3. Bhitheadh iad 



Compound Tenses in both 
English and Gaelic. 

Present Future Perfect. 

Its helps are shall or will have. 

Sing. 

1 . I shall or will have been 

2. Thou shalt or wilthave been 

3. He shall or will have been 

Plur. 

1. We shall or will have been 

2. Ye shall or will have been 

3. They shall or will have been 



Timean Measgta 'san dà 
chainnt. 

Teacail Làthaireil Làn. 

A thaicean bithidh iar. 

Aon. 

1. Bithidh mi iar bhith no bhi 

2. Bithidh tu iar bhith 

3. Bithidh e iar bhith 

lom. 

1 . Bithidh sinn iar bhith 

2. Bithidh sibh iar bhith 

3. Bithidh iad iar bhith 



N.B — The Compound Gaelic Tenses marked are very 
seldom or never used, but are given here for the sake of order. 



* Sometimes contracted bi'dh or bidh. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Past Fuiure Perfect. 

Its helps are should or would 
have. 

Pers. Sing. 

1 . I should or would have been 

2. Thou shouldst or wouldst 

have been 

3. He should or would have been 

Plur. 

1. We should or would have 

been 

2. Ye should or would have 

been 

3. They should or would have 
been 



FOCLACHADH. 115 

Teacail Seachad Lan. 
A thaicean bhithinn &c iar. \ 

Pears. Aon. 

1. Bhithinn iar bhith 

2. Bhitheadh tu iar bith 

3. Bhitheadh e air bith 

Iom. 

1. Bhitheamaid no bhitheadh 

sinn iar bhith 

2. Bhitheadh sibh iar bhith 

3. Bhitheadh iad air bhith 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Compound Tenses. 

Present Tense. 

Its helps are may, can, or must. 

Sing. 1. I may* or can be 

2. Thou mayst or canst be 
S. He may or can be 

Plur. 1 . We may or can be 

2. Ye may or can be 

3. They may or can bef 



MODH COMASACH. 
Timean Measgta. 
Tim LathaireU 
A thaicean faodaidh, isurrainn, 
no fèumaidh, 

Aon. 

1. Faodaidh* no 's urrainn mi 

'bhith 

2. Faodaidh no 's urrainn thu 

'bhith 

3. Faodaidh no 's urrainn e 

'bhith 

lom. 

1 . Faodaidh no 's urrainn sinn a 

bhith 

2. Faodaidh no 's urrainn sibh a 

bhith 

3. Faodaidh no 's urrainn iad a 

bhithf 



• Vide Gaelic Auxiliary Verbs. 



|To be declined Interrogatively; thus, 
May I be ? am faod mi bhith ? &c. 
Can I be ? an urrainn mi bhith ? &c. 
Must I be ? am feum mi bhith ? &c. 
Negatively. 

I may not be, fyc. cha n-fhaod mi bhith. 

I I cannot be,frc. cha n-urrainn mi bhith. 
| And so on through all the other tenses. 



t Gu bhi teàrnte, gu Ceisteach ; mar. 
Might I be ? &c. ara faodainn a bhith ? 
Could 1 be ? fyc. am b'urrainn mi bhith? 

Gu Diùltach. 
I might not be, tyc. cha n-fhaodainn » 
bhi. 

/ could not be, fyc. cha b'urrainn mi 
bhith. 

Agus mar sin sios airfeadhnan timean 

eile. 



116 ETYMOLOGY. 

Past. 

Its helps are might or could. 

Pers. Sing. 

1 . I might or could be 

2. Thou mightst or couldst be 

3. He might or could be 

Plur. 

1. We might or could be 

2. Ye might or could be 

3. They might or could be 

Present Perfect. 
Its helps are may or can have. 

Sing. 

1 . I may or can have been 

2. Thou mayst or canst have 

been 

3. He may or can have been 

Plur. 

1. We may or can have been 

2. Ye may or can have been 

3. They may or can have been 



Past Perfect. 

Its helps are might or could 
kave. 

Sing. 

1 . I might or could have been 

2. Thou mightst or couldst have 

been 

3. He might or could have been 



FOCLACHADH. 

Seachadail. 
A thaicean dh-fhaodainn, 6' 
urrainn. 
Pears. Aon. 

1. Dh-fhaodainn no b'urrainn mi 

'bhith 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainnthu 

'bhith 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn e 

'bhith 

Iom. 

1. Dh-fhaodamaid no b'urrainn 

sinn a bhith 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn sibh 

a bhith 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn iad 

a bhith 

Lan Lathaireil.^l 
A thaicean faodaidh no's urrainn 
a bhi iar. 

Aon. 

1. Faodaidh no 's urrainn mi 

'bhi iar bhith 

2. Faodaidh no 's urrainn thu 

'bhi iar bhith 

3. Faodaidh no 's urrainn e 'bhi 

iar bhith 

Iom. 

1. Faodaidh no 's urrainn sinn a 

bhi iar bhith 

2. Faodaidh no 's urrainn sibh a 

bhi iar bhith 

3. Faodaidh no 's urrainn iad a 

bhi iar bhith 

Lan SeachadaiL^ 
A thaicean dh-fhaodadh no 6' 
urrainn a bhi iar. 

Aon. 

1. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn mi 

'bhi iar bhith 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn thu 

'bhi iar bhith 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn e 

'bhi iar bhith 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Pers. Plur. 

1 . We might or could have been 

2. Ye might or could have been 

8. They might or could have 
been 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Sing. 1. Let me be* 

2. Be thou or do thou be 

3. Let him be 
Plur. 1. Let us be 

2. Be ye or do ye be 

3. Let them be 

TNFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. To be 
Per. To have been 
Fut. About to be 

PARTICIPLES. 

Imp. Being 
Per. Been 
Comp.Per. Having been 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Be. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Aon. 

If I be Ma bhitheas mi 

If thou be Ma bhitheas tu 
If he be Ma bbitheas e 



FOCLACHADH. 



117 



Pears. Iom. 

1. Dh-fhaodadamaid no b'urrainn 

sinn a bhi iar bhith 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

sibh a bhi iar bhith 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn iad 

a bhi iar bhith 

MODH AINEACH. 
Aon. 1. Bitheam 

2. Bi no bi thusa, bi-sa 

3. Bitheadh e 
lom. 1. Bitheamaid 

2. Bithibh 

3. Bitheadh iad 



MODH FEARTACH. 
Lath. A bhith, do bhith, gu bhith 
Lan. Gu bhith iar bhith 
Teac. Dol a bhith 

PAIRTEARAN. 

Neo-chol. Bith 

Làn. Iar bhith ) . ,. 

Meas. Iarbhith} afterbein « 



MODH TEAGMHACH. 

Bi. 

Tttn Lalhair. 
Plur. Iom. 

If we be Ma bhitheas sinn 
If you be Ma bhitheas sibh 
If they be Ma bhitheas iad 



Past. ■ Seachad. 

If I were, Na'n robh mi, no na'm bithinn 

If thou wert, Na'n robh thu, no na'm bitheadh tu 

If he were, Na'n robh e, no na'm bitheadh e 



*?!The EnglÌ3h verb is imperative ouly in the second person ; thus, let me be, 
is for let thou me (to) be, fyc. 



118 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Pasl. Scaehad. 

If we were, Nan robh sinn, na'm bitheamaid. 

Tf you were, Nan robh sibh, na'm bitheadh sibh. 

If they were, Nan robh iad, na'm bitheadh iad. 
Rendered also, 

I were, thou wert, he were, we were, ye were, they were. 

Obs. — " The verb to be is the only one in the English language 
which has a conditional form, and that in the past tense alone. 
In the case of all other verbs, the form, when it occurs, is purely 
elliptical ; thus, "If he say so, it is well," is an ellipsis of the 
Pres. Fut. of the Ind. used for " If heshall say so," or " should 
say so." 

" Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him," is an ellipsis of 
the Past Fut. Ind. used for Jf he should slay me. 

Obs. — Be was formerly used in the present of the indicative ; 
as, " If thou beest he," Milton. *' We be twelve brethren," 
Gen. xlii. 32. " What be these two olive-branches ?" Zech. iv. 
12. But this usage is now obsolete. 



IHTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
Singular. 

1. Am beil mi ? Am I? 

2. Am beil thu ? Art thou ? 

3. Am beil e ? Is he? 

Another form. 
Am bheil ? A bheil ? &c 
1 . Mur 'eil mi, If I am not 

&c* &c. 
1. Nach 'eil mi, Am I not ? 
&c. &c. 
Past Tense. 
1. An robh mi, Was I? 



&c. 

1 . Mur robh mi, 
&c. 

1. Nach robh mi, 
&c. 



&c. 
If I was not 

&c. 
Was I not ? 

&c. 



MODH CEISTEACH. 
Tim Làthair. 

Plural. 

1 . Am beil sinn ? Are we ? 

2. Am beil sibh ? Are ye or you^. 

3. Am beil iad ? Are they ? 

Staid eile. 
Am bheil ? A bheil ? &c. 
I. Mur 'eil sinn, If we are not 

&c* &c. 
1. Nach 'eil sinn, Are we notl 
&c. &c 
Tim Seachad. 
1 . An robh sinn, Were we ? 

&c. &c. 
1 . Mur robh sinn, Ifwe were not 

&c. &c. 
1. Nach robh sinn? Were we notì 
&c &c. 



» When the three persons of the 
Gaelic verb are alike in both numbers, 
it is enough to lay down the lst person 
aingular and plural,which is a sufficient 
holdof all the rest, to be formed by add- 
'mg the pronouns. 



• 'Nuair tha tri pearsan a ^nioruhair 
Ghaelig, co ionann 'san dà aireimh, is 
leòr a l'ud phearsa aonar, agrus iomadh 
a chur sios, a ta 'na lan-phreim air 
cach, a nithear le cur nan riochdaran. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 119 



Future Tense. Tim Teac. 

Singulur. Plural. 

ì „ Am bi mi, Shallor will I be? 1. Ara bi sinn_, shall or will we be ? 

&c. &c. &c. &c. 

1. Nach 1 bì mi, Shall I not be ì 1. Nach 1 bi sinn, shallwe not be ? 
&c. &c. &c. &c. 

1 Nach renders the verb both 1 1 Ni Nach an ghniomhar araon 
Interrogative and Negative. j Ceisteach agus Diùltach. 

Beil, am ; Robh, was* 



SUB JUNCTIVELY. 

Present Tense. 
Singular. 

1 . Gu 'm beil mi, that I am 
Gu bheil, &c. 

Past. 

1. Gu 'n robh mi, that I was 
&c. 

Future. 
1 . Gu'm bi mi, that I will be 
&c. 

NEGATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 

Singular. 

1. Cba n-'eil mi, I am not 

&c. &c. 

1 . Ni bheil mi, ì / am not, 

Ni-m beil mi, j &c. 

Past Tense. 
1 . Cha 'robh mi, / was not 

&c. &c. 
1 . Ni-n robh mi, / was not 

&c. &c. 



GU LEANTACH. 
Tim Làthair. 
Plural. 

1. Gu'm beil sinn, that we are 
Gu bheil, &c. 

Seachad. 
1 . Gu'n robh sinn, that we were 
&c. 

Teacail. 

1. Gu'm bi sinn, that we will be 
&c. 

MODH DIULTACH. 
Tim Làthair. 
Plural. 

1. Cha n-'eil sinn, we are not 

&c. &c. 
1. Ni bheil sinn, \ We are not 
Ni-m beil sinn, J &c. 

Tim Seachad. 
1. Cha robh sinn, We were not 

&c. &c. 
1 . Ni-n robh sinn, We were not 

&c. &c. 



Future Tense. Tim Teacail. 

I. Cha bhi mi, Ishallorwill 1 . Cha bhi sinn, Weshaìlorwill 

not be, &c. not be, &c. 

1. Ni-m bi mi, / shall not be 1. Ni-m bi sinn, We shallnot be 



' in some parts of the Highlands, robh takes do before it ; aa, an d' robh ? cha 
(V robh. 



20 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



SUBJUNCTIVE, OR CONDITIONAL 

MOOD IN GAELIC. 

Past Tense. 
Aon. 

Ì. Bhithinn,* I would be 

2. Bhitheadh tu, thou wouldst be 

3. Bhitheadh e, he would be 

1 . Na'm bithinn, if I would be 
&c. 



MODH LEANTACH, NO TEAG- 

MHACH 'SA GHAELIG 

Tim Seachad. 
lom. 

1. Bhitheamaid,* we would be 

2. Bhitheadh sibh, you would bt 

3. Bhitheadh iad, they would be 
1. Na'm bitheamaid^ ifwe would 

be, &c. 



* Thia is no other form than the past future of the Indicative in both languages. 
Future. Tim Teacail. 

1 . Ma bhitheas* mi, if I shall or 1. Ma bhitheas sinn, ifwe shafi 

will be, or if I be or will be 

2. Ma bhitheas tu, if thou shalt 1. Ma bhitheas sibh, if ye shall 

or wilt be or will be, #r. 

3. Ma bhitheas e, if he shatl or 3. Ma bhitheas iad, ifthey shall 

will be or will be 

• Another form, ma bhios. 



Impersonal States of the Verb 
Bi. 

INDICATIVE. 

Pres. Lathair. 
~*Thatar, thathar, thathas, is, 
are, it is 

INTERROGATIVE. 

Am beilear, beileas ? is, are ? 
Nach 'eilear, 'eileas ? is, are 
not% 



Staidean Neo-phearsantail a' 
ghniomhair Bi. 

TAISBEANACH. 

'Past. Seachad. 
Bhatar, bhathar, bhathas, was, 
were 

Fut. Bithear, bitear, &ce. 

CEISTEACH. 

An robhar^ robhas, was, were ? 
Nach robhar, robhas, was, were 

not ? 
Subj. Na-m biteadh 

DITJLTACH. 

Cha robhar, robhas, was not, 

were not 
Subj. Bhiteadh, would be 
• Thus, thathar no thatar ag radh gu'm beil a Bhàn-righ a tighinn do dh-Alba, 
ll is said that the Queen is coming to Scotland. 



NEGATIVE. 

Cha n-'eilear, 'eileas, is not, 
are not 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

VERBS. 

To fold or wrap. 
To love or love. 



CHEUD SGEADACHADH. 

GNIOMHARAN. 

Paisg. 
Gràdhaich. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 121 



ACTIVE VOICE. AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 

Pres. Past. Imp. Part. Pcrf. Part. Comp. Part. 

Fold folded folding folded having folded. 

Paisg phaisg pasgadh paisgte iar pasgadh. 
Love loved loving loved having loved. 

Gràdhaich ghràdhaich gràdhachadh gràdhaichte iar gràdhachadh 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Simple 

Present Tense. 
Sing.l. I fold, or I am folding 

2. Thou foldest, &c. 

3. He folds, or foldeth 
Plur. 1. Wefold 

2. Ye fold 

3. They fold 

Past Tense. 

Sing. 1. I folded 

2. Thou foldedst 

3. He folded 
Plur. 1. We folded 

2. Ye folded 

3. They folded 



MODH TAISBEANACH. 
Singilt. 
Tim Lathaireil. 
Aon. 1. Tha mi 'pasgagh 

2. Tha thu 'pasgadh 

3. Tha e 'pasgadh 
Iom. 1 . Tha sinn a pasgadh 

2. Tha sibh a pasgadh 

3. Tha iad a pasgadh 

Tim Seachadail. 

Aon. 1. Phaisgmi, no do phaisg 

2. Phaisg thu, &c. [mi 

3. Phaisg e, &c 
lom. 1 . Phaisg sinn, &c 

2. Phaisg sibh, &c. 

3. Phaisg iad, &c. 



Present Perfect Tense. 

Sing. 1 . I have f olded 

2. Thou hast folded 

3. He has or hath folded 
Plur. 1. We have folded 

2. Ye have folded 

3. They have folded 



Compound. 

Tim Lathaireil Lan. 
Aon. 1. Tha mi iar pasgadh 

2. Tha thu iar pasgadh 

3. Tha e iar pasgadh 
Iom. 1. Tha sinn iar pasgadh 

2. Tha sibh iar pasgadh 

3. Tha iad iar pasgadh 



Pluperfect, or Past Perfect Tense. 
Sing. 1. I had folded 

2. Thou hadst folded 

3. He had folded 
Plur.ì. We had folded 

2. Ye had folded 

3. They had folded 



Roilan, no Lan Seachad. 
Aon. ] . Bha mi iar pasgadh 

2. Bha thu iar pasgadh 

3. Bha e iar pasgadh 
Iom. ì . Bha sinn iar pasgadh 

2. Bha sibh iar pasgadh 
3« Bha iad ìar pasgadh 



122 ETYMOLOGY. 
Present Fature Tense. 

Sing. 

1. I shall or will fold 

2. Thou shalt or wilt fold 

3. He shall or will fold 

Plur. 

1. We shall or will fold 

2. Ye shall or will fold 

3. They shall or will fold 

Pa^ Future. 
Sing. 

1. I should or would fold 

2. Thou shouldst or wouldst fold 
8. He should or would fold 

Plur. 

1. We should or would fold 

2. Ye should or would fold 

3. They should or would fold 

Present Future Perfect. 
Sing. 

1. I shall or will have folded 

2. Thou shalt or wilt have folded 

3. He shall or will have folded 

Plur. 

1. We shall or will have folded 

2. Ye shall or will have folded 

3. They shall or will have folded 

Past Future Perfect. 

Sing. 

1 . 1 should or would have folded 

2. Thou shouldstor wouldst have 

folded 

3. He 'should or would have 

folded 

Plur. 

1. We should or would have 

folded 

2. Ye should or would have 

folded 

3. They should or would have 

folded 



FOCLACHADH. 

Tim Teacail Làthaireil. 
Aon. 
J . Paisgidh mi 

2. Paisgidh tu 

3. Phaisgidh e 

lom. 

1. Paisgidh sinn 

2. Paisgidh sibh 

3. Paisgidh iad. 

Teacail Seachadail. 
Aon. 

1. Phaisginn 

2. Phaisgeadh tu 

3. Phaisgeadh e 

Iom. 

1. Phaisgeamaid, no phaisgeadh 

2. Phaisgeadh sibh [sinn 

3. Phaisgeadh iad 

Teacail Làthair. Lan.% 

Aon. 

1 . Bithidh mi iar pasgadh 

2. Bithidh tu iar pasgadh 

3. Bithidh e iar pasgadh 

lom. 

1 . Bithidh sinn iar pasgadh 

2. Bithibh sibh iar pasgadh 

3. Bithidh iad iar pasgadh 

Teacail Seachad Lan.^ 
Aon. 

1 . Bhithinn iar pasgadh 

2. Bhitheadh tu iar pasgadh 

3. Bhithead e iar pasgadh 

lom. 

1. Bhitheamaid iar pasgadh 

2. Bhitheadh sibh iar pasgadh 

3. Bhitheadh iad iar pasgadh 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 123 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
Pers. Singular. 

1 . I may, can, or must fold 

2. Thou mayst or canst* fold 

3. He may or can fold 

Plural. 

1. We may or can fold 

2. Ye may or can fold 

3. They may or can fold 

Past Tense. 

Singular. 

1. I might or could fold 

2. Thou mightst or couldst fold 

3. He might or could fold 

Plural. 

1. We might or could fold 
2- Ye might or could fold 
3. They might or could fold 
Present Perfect. 

Siugular. 

1. I may or can have folded 

2. Thou mayest or canst have 

folded 

S. He may or can have folded 



MODH COMASACH. 

Tìm Làthair. 

Pears. Aonar. 

1. Faodaidh, is urrainn.no feura- 

aidh mi pasgadh 

2. Faodaidh no's urrainn" thu 

pasgadh 

3. Faodaidhno's urrainn e pasg- 

adh 

Iomadh. 

1. Faodaidh no's urrainn sinn 



2. Faodaidh no's urrainn sibh 



3. Faodaidh no's urrainn iad 
pasgadh 
Tim Seachad. 

Aonar. 

1. Dh-fhaodainn no b'urrainn 

mi pasgadh 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

thu pasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn e 

. pasgadh 

Iomadh. 

1 . Dh-fhaodamaid no b'urrainn 

sinn pasgadh 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

sibh pasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

iad pasgadh 

Lan Làthair. 

Aonar. 

1. Faodaidh no's urrainn mi 

'bhi iar pasgadh 

2. Faodaidh no's urrainn thu 

'bhi iar pasgadh 

3. Faodaidh no's urrainn e 'bhi 

iar 



• Must aud Jeumaidh to be continued in the second and third persons of both 
numbers. 

The pupil should often be made to decline a verb with one help at a time ; 
thus, I can fold, ffc. ; I may lov^, $c. 



124 ETYMOLOGY. 

Pers. Pluraì. 

1 . We may or can have folded 

2. Ye may or can have folded 

3. They may or can have folded 



Pluperfect, or Past Perfect. 

Sìngular. 

1 . I might or could have folded 

2. Thou mightst or couldst have 

folded 

3. He might or could have 

folded 

'ir- Plural. 

1. We might or could have 

folded 

2. Ye might or could have 

folded 

3. They might or could have 

folded 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. 

1. Let me fold 

2. Fold, or fold thou, or do 

thou fold 

3. Let him fold 

Plural. 

1. Let us fold 

2. Fold ye or you, or do ye or 

you fold 
- 3. Let them fold 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. To fold 
Perf. To have folded 
Fut. About to fold 



FOCLACHADH. 

Pears. lomadh. 

1. Faodaidh wo's urrainn sinn 

a bhi air pasgadh 

2. Faodaidh wo's urrainn sibh a 

bhi iar pasgadh 

3. Faodaidh no's urrainn iad a 

bhi air pasgadh 

Roilan no Lan Seachad.^ 
Aonar. 

1. Dh-fhaodainn no b'urrainn 

mi 'bhi iar pasgadh 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

thu 'bhi iar pasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn e 

'bhi iar pasgadh 

Iomadh. 

1. Dh-fhaodamaid no b'urrainn 

sinn a bhi iar pasgadh 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

sibh a bhi iar pasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

iad a bhi air pasgadh 

MODH AINEACH. 
Aonar. 

1. Paisgeam 

2. Paisg, no paisg thusa 

3. Paisgeadh e 

lomudh. I 

1. Paisgeamaid 

2. Paisgibh no paisgibh-se 

3. Paisgeadb iad 

MODH FEARTACH. 
Lath. A phasgadh,do phasgadh 
Lan. Iar pasgadh 
Teach. Dol a phasgadh 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 125 



PARTICIPLES. 
Imp. Folding 
Perf. Folded 
Comp Perf. Having folded 



PAIRTEARAX. 
Neo-chol. A' pasgadh,* ag pasg- 
Lan. Paisgte [adli 
Measg. Iar pasgadh. 



PROGRESSIVE FORM OF THE 
YERB. 

Put the Imptrfect Participle 
of a Transitive or Intransitive 
Verb after the Verb To Be, 
in all its parts, and you have 
the Verb in the Progressive 
Form, which indicates that the 
verbal action or state is or was 
in progress, or going on ; thus, 
/ am folding ; we were writing. 



PROGRESSIYE FORM. 
To fold Active Voice. 



STAID AGHARTACH A GHXIOMH- 
AIR. 

Cuir Pàirtear Neo-cholionta 
gniomhair Asdolaich no Anasd- 
olaich an dèigh a Gniomhair Gu 
Bhi, 'na 'uilelùban, agusgheibh 
thu an Gniomhar 'san Staid 
Aghartaich a tataisbeanadh gu'm 
beil, no gu'n robh an gniomh, 
no'n staid gniomharail air ghlu- 
asad, no dol air aghaidh ; mar 
so, tha mi pasgadh ; bha sinn a 
sgriobhadh. 

STAID AGHARTACH. 
Gu pasgadh — Guth Spreigeach. 



INDICATIVE. — Present Tense. 



Sing. 



Plur. 



1. I am folding, 

2. Thou art folding, 

3. He is folding, 

1 . We are folding, 

2. You are folding, 

3. They are folding, 



Tha mi 
Tha thu 
Tha e 
Tha sinn 
Tha sibh 
Tha iad 
Past Tense. 

Sing. 1. I was folding, Bha mi 'pasgadh 

2. Thou wast folding, &c. 

3. He was folding, &c. 

&c. &c. 
Thus through all the Moods I Mar so air feadh nam Modhan 
and Tenses. J agus nan Timean gu lèir. 



• The Imperfect Participle, taken 
alone, is always a noun, expressive of 
the verbal action or effect. It is regu- 
larly declinedin the singular, andsome- 
times admits of a plural ; as, 

Sing. Nom. Pasgadh, folding. 

Gen. Pasgaidh, of folding. 

Dat. Pasgadh, to folding. 

Voc. A phasgaidh, folding. 
Obs.— The a' before the Imp. Part. ia 
as, a pasgadh. 



• Is ainmear do-ghnà am Pàirtear 
neo-cholionta 'nuair a ghabhar e leis 
fèin a nochdadh a ghuiomha no na 
buile gniomharail. Teàrnar e gu rialt- 
ach san aonar, agus air uairibh gabh- 
aidh e an Iomadh ; mar, 
Plur. Nom. Pasgaidhean. 

Gen. Phasgaidhean . 

Dat. Pasgaidhean. 

Voc. A phasgaidhean. 
often written without the apostrophe ; 



■ 



126 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



EMPHATIC FORM OF THE VERB. 

The Present and Past Indi- 
cative, and the Imperative, are 
put into the Emphatic Form, 
by the help of the verb do, to 
express the verbal action with 
greater precision ; thus, 



/ do fold ; I do write, 
than / Jold, I write. 

TNDICATTVE. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. 1 do write 

Thou dost write 

He does write 

Plur. We do write 

You do write 
They do write 
Past. 

Sing, I did write 

Thou didst write 
He did write 

Plur. We did write 
You did write 
They did write 



STAID NEARTAIL A GHNIOMH- 
AIR. 

Tha Làthaireil agus Seachad- 
ail an Taisbeanaich, agus an 
Ainich iar an cur anns an 
Staid Neartail, le taic a 
ghniomhair do (dean) gus an 
gniomh, no staid ghniomharail 
airis na 's pungaile ; mar so, 

much stronger mode of expression 



TAISBEANACH. 
Tim Làthair. 
Aon. Tha mi 'deanamh sgriobh- 
aidh 

Tha thu 'deanamh sgriobh- 
aidh 

Tha e deanamh sgriobh- 
aidh 

Iom. Tha sinn a deanamh sgriobh- 
aidh 

Tha sibh, &c. 

Tha iad, &c. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Rinn mi sgriobhadh 

Rinn thu, &c. 

Rinn e, &c. 
Iom. Rinn sinn sgriobhadh 

Rinn sibh, &c. 

Rinn iad, &c. 



Obs This form of the verb is often corrupted in the past 

tense by non-grammarians. Many say, Idid not got for i" did not 
get, and / did not heard for / did not hear, and similar vulgarisms. 

MODH LEANTACH, NO TEAGMHACH 'SA GHAELIG. 



Seachad. 
Aon. Phaisginn, 

Phaisgeadh tu, 
Phaisgeadh e, 
Na'm paisginn, &c. 



Past. 
I would* fold 
thou wouldst fold 
he would fold 
if I would fold, &c. 



• Enclished also by the helps mighl J * Iar a chur 'am Beurla fòs leis na 
and eovld. taicean might agus could* 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 127 



lom. Phaisgeadh sinn no phaisgeamaid, we wouldfold 

Phaisgeadh sibh, you would fold 

Phaisgeadh iad, they would fold 

Na'm paisgeadh sinn, no na'm paisgeamaid, if we would fold 

Teachd. Future. 

Aon. Ma phaisgeas mi, if I shall or willfold 

Ma phaisgeas tu, if thou shalt or wilt fold 
Ma phaisgeas e, ifhe shall or will fold 

Iom. Ma phaisgeas sinn, if we shalt or will fold 
Ma phaisgeas sibh, if you shall or will fold 
Ma phaisgeas iad, if they shall or will fold 



Aon. 



lom, 



INTERROGATIYE. 
Present. 
1. Am beil mi 'pasgadh ? 
1. Nach 'eil mi 'pasgadh ? 
1. Mur 'eil mi 'pasgadh, 
1. Am beil sinn a pasgadh ? 
1 . Nach 'eil sinn a pasgadh ? 
1. Mur 'eil sinn a pasgadh, 



Past. 

Aon. 1 . An do phaisg mi ? 
1 . Nach do phaisg mi ? 
1 . Mur do phaisg mi 
1. An robh mi pasgadh ? 

Iom. 1. An do phaisg sinn ? 
1 . Nach do phaisg sinn ? 
1. Mur do phaisg sinn 
1. An robh sinn a pasgadh 

Future. 
Aon. 1. Am paisg mi ? 

1. Mur paisg mi, 
lom. 1. Am paisg sinn ? 

1 . Mur paisg sinn ? 



CEISTEACH. 

Làthaireil. 
am I folding ? 
am I not jolding 
if I am not folding. 
are we folding ? 
are we not folding ? 
if we are not folding*. 



Seachad. 
dMIfold? 
did I not fold ? 
if I did not fold 
was I folding ? 
did we fold ? 
did we notfold ? 
if we did not fold 
? were we folding ? 

Teac. 
shall or will I fold ? 
if I shall or will not fold. 
shall or will we fold ? 
ifwe shall or will not fold. 



NEGATIVE. DIULTACH. 
Present. Làthair. 

Aon. 1 . Cha n-'eil mi 'pasgadh, / am not folding. 

Ni bheil mi, &c, 

Iom, 1. Cha n-'eil sinn a pasgadb, we are not folding. 
Ni bheil sinn, &c. 



128 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Past. Seachad. 
Aon. 1. Cha do phaisg mi, I did notfold. 

Ni-n do phaisg mi, &c. 

Cha robh mi 'pasgadh, / was notfolding. 
lom. 1. Cha do phaisg sinn, we did notfold. 

Ni-n do phaisg sinn. &c. 

Cha robh sinn a pasgadh, we were notfolding. 



Future. 

Aon. Cha phaisg mi, 

Ni-m paisg mi, &c. 

lom. Cha phaisg sinn, 

Ni-m paisg sinn, &c. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GAELIC 
VERB " BI." 

Am bheil, of the interrogative of 
bi, is oftener used than am beil, 
but the latter seems to be the 
correct form, because the con- 
junctive am does not aspirate 6 
in any other part of this, or in 
any part whatever of any other 
verb beginning with b ; as, 

Am bi, am bitheadh, am 

Cha'n y eil is used for cha bheil; 
bh is thrown out for euphony's 
sake, and n is inserted betvveen 
cha and 'eil, to prevent a hiatus. 
In that case an apostrophe be- 
fore the n, thus cha 'ra 'eil is 
improper, because n is evidently 
here an euphonic letter, and 
ehould be written n- (hyphen) 
thus, cha n-'eil. 



Teac. 

I shall or wiìl not fold. 
we shall or will not fold. 



BEACHDACHADH AIR A GHNIOMH- 
AR GHAELIG " BI." 

Gnàthaichear, am bheil 'sa 
chèisteach aig bi ni 's trice na, 
am bheil, ach tha e coltach gur 
i an staid dheirreannach a ta 
ceart ; do bhrigh nach sèidich an 
co-naisgean am b, 'an lùib air 
bith eile de 'n ghniomhar so, no 
ann an lùib sam bith de ghniomh- 
ar èile, a' toiseachadh le 6 ; mar, 
buail, am briseadh, &c. 

Tha cha n-eil gnàthaichte 'an 
aite cha bheil agus air sgà fuaim- 
glan tilgear a-mach bh, agus cuir- 
ear a stigh n eadar cha agus 'eil 
gu spleuc a sheachnadh. Uime sin 
tha ascair roimh n ; mar so_, cha 
'n 'eil, mi-cheart, do bhrigh gu'm 
beil n gu soilleir 'na litir bhinn 
an so bu chòir a sgriobhadh le 
- (tàthan), mar so, cha n-'eil. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

A Verb is said to be in 
the Passive Voice when the 
inoun or pronoun, instead 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. 

Theirear gu'm beil Gni- 
omhar anns a' Ghuth Fhul- 
angaeh, 'nuair tha 'n t-ain- 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 129 



of being the agent, is the 
object of the action. 



mear, no 'n riochdar, an 
ait' a bhith 'na dheanadair, 
na chuspair do'n ghnìomh. 

Thus, u John looes" is in the active voice, and the subject of 
the verb loves is John, the agent; but " John is loved" is in the 
passive voice, and therefore the subject John is the object of the 
verbal action, or the patient. 



An Active* Verb is put 
into the Passive form in 
English by putting its per- 
fect participle affcer the verb 
to be in all its parts. — The 
Passive Voice in Gaelic is 
often formed in the same 
way. 



Cuirear Gniomhar Spreig- 
each anns an staid Fhulan- 
gaich 'sa Bheurla le cur 
a phàirteir cholionta an 
dèigh a' ghniomhair gu 
bhi, 'na 'uile lùban. Tha 'n 
Gùth Fulangach 'sa Ghae- 
lig iar a chumadh gu tric 
air an dòigh chèudna. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

INDICATIVE. 

To be folded 
To be loved 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. 

TAISBEANACH. 

A bhi paisgte 

A bhi gràdhaichte 



Làth. 

Pres. 
Am folded 
Tha paisgte 
Am loved 



Seachad. 

Past. 
was folded 
phaisgeadh 
was loved 



Pàirt. Neo-cho. 
Imp. Part. 
being folded 
bhi paisgte 
being loved 



Pàirt. Colion. 

Perf. Part. 
been folded 
iar bhi paisgte 
been loved 



Thagradhaichte ghr àdhaicheadh bhigràdhaichte iar bhi gràdhaichte. 



Compound. 



Present Tense. 

Sing. 1. I am folded 

2. Thou art folded 

3. He is folded 
Plur. 1. We are folded 

2. Ye are folded 

3. They are folded 



Tim Latht 



il. 



Aon. 1. Tha mi paisgte 

2. Tha thu paisgte 

3. Tha e paisgte 
Iom. 1. Tha sinn paisgte 

2. Tha sibh paisgte 

3. Tha iad paisgte 



* Some intransitive verbs admit of a passive form too, but the«e have no pas- 
sive signifieation ; as, He is come. She is gone, &c. 

I 



130 ETYMOLOGY. 

Past. 

Sing. 

1. I was folded 

2. Thou wast folded 

3. He was folded 

Plnr. 

1. We were folded 

2. Ye were folded 

3. They were folded 

Present Perfect. 

Sing. 

1. I have been folded 

2. Thou hast been folded 

3. He or she has or hath 

been folded 

Plur. 

1 . We have been folded 

2. Ye have been folded 

3. They have been folded 

Piuperfect, or Past Perfect. 

Sing. 

1. I had been folded 

2. Thou hadst been folded 

3. He had been folded 

Plur. 

1 . We had been folded 

2. Ye had been folded 

3. They had been folded 

Present Future. 

Sing. 

} . I shall or will be folded 

2. Thou shalt or wilt be folded 

3. He shall or will be folded 

Plur. 

1. We shall or will be folded 

2. Ye shall or will be folded 
8. They shall or will be folded 



FOCLACIIADH. 
Seachad. 

Aon. 

1. Phaisgeadh mi, no bha mi 

paisgte 

2. Phaigeadh thu, no bha thu,&c 

3. Phaisgeadh e, no bha e, &c. 

lom. 

1. Phaisgeadh sinn, no bha sinn 

&c. 

2. Phaisgeadh sibh, no bha sibh 

&c. 

3. Phaisgeadh iad, no bha iad 

&c. 

Làn Làthaireil. 

Aon. 

1. Tha mi iar mo phasgadh 

2. Tha thu iar do phasgadh 
f 3. Tha e iar a phasgadh 

\ Tha i iar a pasgadh 

lom. 

1. Tha sinn iar ar pasgadh 

2. Tha sibh iar bhur pasgadli 

3. Tha iad iar am pasgadh 

Roilàn, no Làn Seachad. 
Aon. 

1. Bha mi iar mo phasgadh 

2. Bha thu iar do phasgadh 

3. Bha e iar a phasgadh 

lom. 

1 . Bha sinn iar ar pasgadh 

2. Bha sibh iar bhur pasgadh 

3. Bha iad iar am pasgadh 

Teacail Làthair. 

Aon. 

1. Paisgear mi, no bithidh mi 

paisgte 

2. Paisgear thu, no bithidh tu, 

&c. 

3. Paisgear e, no bithidh e, &c. 

Iom. 

1 . Paisgear sinn, no bithidh sinn 

&c 

2. Paisgear sibh, no bithidh sibb, 

&c. 

3. Paisgear iad^, no bithidh iad^ 

&c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 131 



Past Future. Teacail Seachadail. 

Sing Aon 

1. I should or would be folded ]. Phaisgteadh* mi, no bhithinn 

paisgte 

2. Thou shouldst or wouldstbe 2. Phaisgteadh ihu,no bhitheadh 

folded tu, &c. 

3. He should or would be folded 3. Phaisgteadh e, no bhìtheadh 

e, &c. 

Plur. Iom. 

ì. We should or wouldbe folded 1. Phaisgteadh sinn, no bhith- 

eamaid, &c. 

2. Ye should or would be folded 2. Phaisgteadh sibh, no bhith- 

eadh sibh, &c. 

3. They should or would be 3. Phaisgteadh iad, no bhitheadh 

folded iad, &c. 

Present Future Perfect. Teacail Làthair Làn. 

Sing. Aon. 

1. I shall or will have been 1. Bithidh mi iar mo phasgadh 

folded 

2. Thou shalt or wilt have been 2. Bithidh tu iar do phasgadh 

folded 

3. He or she shall or will have , f e iar à phasgadh 

, f11 , 3. Bithidh -J . . „ F & ,, 

been iolded ( ì ìar a pasgadh 

Plur. lom. 

1. We shall or will have been 1. Bithidh sinn iar ar pasgadh 

folded 

2. Ye shall or will have been 2. Bithidh sibh iar bhur pasgadh 

folded 

3. They shall or will have been 3. Bithidh iad iar am pasgadh 

folded 

Past Future Perfect. Teacail Seachad. Làn. 

S.Ì.J should or would have A. 1, Bhithinn iar mo phasgadh 
been folded 

2. Thou shouldst or wouldst 2. Bhitheadh tuiar do phasg- 

have been folded adh 

3. He or she should or would n ^,, . , feiar à phasgadh 

, , „ , 3.Bhitheadh . J b „ 

have been tolded, li ìar a pasgadh 

P. 1. We should or would have /. 1. Bhitheamid iar ar pasgadh 

been folded 

2. Ye should or would have 2. Bhitheadh sibh iar bhur 

been folded pasgadh 

3. They should or would 8. Bhitheadh iad iar am 

have been folded pasgadh 

• The termination udli is oiten cut off altogether in thia tense by good Gaelie 
writers. 



132 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH, 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 



MODH COMASACH. 



Present. 
Sing. 

1 . I may or can be folded 

2. Thou mayst or canst be 

folded 

3. He may or can be folded 

Plur. 

1. We may or can be folded 

2. Ye may or can be folded 

3. They may or can be folded 

Past. 
Sing. 

1 . I might or could be folded 

2. Thou mightst or couldst be 

folded 

3. He might or could be folded 



Compound. 

Lathair. 
Aon. 

1. Faodaidh no's urrainn mi 'bhi 
paisgte 

2. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn thu 
'bhi paisgte 

3. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn e 'bhi 
paisgte 

lom. 

1. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn sinn 
a bhi paisgte 

2. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn sibh 
a bhi paisgte 

3. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn iad 
a bhi paìsgte 

Seachadail. 
Aon. 

1. Dh-fhaodainn, no b'urrainn 
mi 'bhi paisgte 

2. Dh-fhaodadh, no b'urrainn 
thu bhi paisgte 

3. Dh-fhaodadh, no b'urrainn 
e bhi paisgte 



ÀNOTHER FORM OF THE 

Present 1. Faodar, no 's urrainnear mo phasgadh ; 2. Faodar, 

no 's urrainnear do phasgadh ; 3. Faodar^ no 's urrainnear à phasg- 
adh,/<?m. a pasgadh — 1. Faodar, no 's urrainnear ar pasgadh, &ce. 

Neg Cha n-fhaodar, no cha n-urrainnear mo phasgadh, &ce. 

Past. — l. Dh-fhaodteadh,* no b'urrainnear mo phasgadh ; 2. 
Dh-fhaodteadh, no b'urrainnear do phasgadh ; 3. Dh-fhaodteadh, 
no b'urrainnear à phasgadh. — 1. Dh-fhaodteadh no b'urrainnear ar 
pasgadh, &ce. 

Interrog — Am faodteadh, no am b'urrainnear mo phasgadh?&ce. 
Neg. — Cha n-fhaodteadh, no cha b'urrainnear mo phasgadh,&ce. 



* Soinetimes dh'-fhaodtadh or dh'-J'haoiteadh. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 133 



Plur. 

Pers. 

1. We might or could be 

folded 

2. Ye might or could be 

folded 

3. They might or could be 

folded 



Iom. 

Pears. 

1. Dh-fhaodamaid, nob'urrainn 

sinn abhi paisgte 

2. Dh-fhaodadh, no b'urrainn 

sibh a bhi paisgte 

3. Dh-fhaodadh, no b'urrainn 

iad a bhi paisgte 



Present Perfect. 
S. 1. I may or can have been 
folded 

2. Thou mayst or canst 

have been folded 

3. He may or can have been 

folded 



Làn Ldthair. 
A. 1. Faodaidh, no 'surrainn mi 
'bhi iar mo phasgadh* 
2« Faodaidh no 's urrainn thu 

'bhi iar do phasgadh 
3. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn e 
'bhi iar a phasgadh 



P. 1. We may or can have been I. 1. Faodaidb,no 's urrainn sinn 



ft folded 

2. Ye may or can have been 

folded 

3. They may or can have 

been folded 



a bhi iar ar pasgadh 

2. Faodaidh,rco 's urrainn sibh 

a bhi iar bhur pasgadh 

3. Faodaidh, no 's urrainn iad 

a bhi iar am 



Pluperfect or Past Perfect. 
S. I. I might or could have 
been folded 

2. Thou mightst or couldst 

have been folded 

3. He might or could have 

been folded 

P. 1. We might or could have 
been folded 

2. Ye might or could have 

been folded 

3. They might or could have 

been folded 



Roi-lan no Lan Seachad. 
A. 1. Dh-fhaodainn no b'urrainn 
mi 'bhi iar mo phasgadh 

2. *Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

thu 'bhi air do phasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn" 

e 'bhi iar a phasgadh 

i". 1 . Dh-fhaodamid no b'urrainn 
sinn a bhi air ar pasgadh 

2. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

sibh a bhi iar bhar pasgadh 

3. Dh-fhaodadh no b'urrainn 

iad a bhi iar am pasgadh 



* Another form : Seòl eile : Faodaidh, no urrainn mi 'bhi paisgte, #c. 



134 ETYMOLOGY. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Pers. 

S. I. Let me be folded 

2. Be ye or you, or do ye 

be folded 

3. Let him be folded 

P. 1 . Let us be folded 

2. Be ye or you, or do ye be 

folded 

3. Let them be folded 



INFINITIVE. 

Pres. To be folded 

Perf. To have been folded 
Fut. About to be folded 

PAETICIPLES. 
Impt. Being folded 
Perf. Been folded 
Comp. Having been folded 



FOCLACHADH. 

MODH AINEACH. 

Pears. 

A. 1. Paisgtear mi no bitheam 
paisgte 

2. Paisgtear thu, bi paisgte 

3. Paisgtear e, bitheadh e 

paisgte 

/. 1. Paisgtear sinn, bitheamaid 
paisgte 

2. Paisgtear sibh, bithibh 

paisgte 

3. Paisgtear iad, bitheadh iad 

paisgte 

FEARTACH. 
Lath. A bhi paisgte, do bhi 

paisgte 
Lan. Iar bhi paisgte 
Teac. Dol a bhi paisgte* 

PAIRTEARAN. 
Neo-chol. Bhith paisgte 
Lan. Iar bhith paisgte 
Measg. Iar bhith paisgte 



MODH LEANTACH. 
Seachadail. 



( mi 

A. Phaisgteadhf < thu 



sinn 

7. Phaisgteadh sibh 
iad 



{i 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Past. 

S. J . I would or could be folded 

2. Thou wouldst or couldst 

be folded 

3. He would or could be 

folded 

P. 1. We would or could be 
folded 

2. Ye would or could be 
folded 

2. They would or could be 
folded 



• Or poing to be folded. 
t Adh, in this part of the Gaelic verb is often suppressed ; it is scarcely heard 
in the pronunciation. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 135 



f mi 

A. Ma phaisgear 1 thu 
f sinn 

I. Ma phaisgeaiv sibh 
tiad 



CEISTEACH. 
Lath. 

A. 1. Am beil mi paisgte ? 

2. Am beil thu paisgte ? 

3. Am beil e paisgte ? 
/. 1. Am beil sinn paisgte ? 

2. Am beil sibh paisgte ? 

3. Am beil iad paisgte ? 

1 . Nach 'eil mi paisgte ? 
&c. &c. 

Seachad. 
An do paisgeadh mi ? &c. \ 
An robh mi paisgte ? &c. / 
Nach do phaisgeadh mi? &c. ) 
Nach robh mi paisgte ? &c. j 

TeacaiU 
Am paisgear mi ? &c. ) 
Am bi mi paisgte ? &c. j* 
Nactt paisgear mi ? &c. \ 
Nach bi mi paisgte ? &c. / 



Future. 

S. 1. If Ishall or willbe folded 

2. If thou shalt or wilt be 

folded 

3. If he shall or will be folded 
P. 1 . If we shall or will be fold- 

ed 

2. lf ye shall or willbe folded 

3. If they shall or will be 

folded 



INTERROGATIYE. 
Present. 
S. 1. Am I folded ? 

2. Art thou folded ? 

3. Is he folded ? 
P. 1. Are we folded ? 

2. Are ye folded? 
3 Are they folded ? 

1 . Am I not folded ? 
&c. &c. 

Past. 

Was I folded ? &c 
Was I not folded ? &c 
Future. 

Shall or will I be folded ? &c 
Shall or will I not be folded? &c 



DIULTACH. 
Làth. 

S. 1. Cha n-'eil mi paisgte 

2. Cha n-'eil thu paisgte 

3. Cha n-'eil e paisgte 
P. I. Cha n-'eil sinn paisgte 

2. Cha n-'eil sibh paisgte 

3. Cha n-'eil iad paisgte 



NECATIVE. 
Present. 
S. 1. I am not folded 

2. Thou art not folded 

3. He is not folded 
F. 1. We are not folded 

2, Ye are not folded 

3. They are not folded 



136 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Ni bheil mi ) . _ 
Ni-mbeil miF ais S te > &c ' 

Seachad. 
Cha do phaisgeadh mi, &c. ì 
Cha robh mi paisgte, &c. j 

Teacail. 
Cha phaisgear mi, &c. ì 
Cha bhi mi paisgte, &c. J 



AN DARA SGEADACHADH* 
AN GTJTH SPREIGEACH. 
Orduich. 
Pàirtean Stèigheil. 
Orduich dh'-òrduich. 



I am not folded, c. 

Past. 

I was not folded, &c 

Future. 
I sball or will not be folded 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
Order or to order. 
Principal parts. 
Orduichidh òrduchadh. 



AN T-AINEACH. 
A. 1. Orduicheam 

2. Orduich no òrduich thusa 

3. Orduicheadh e 
/. 1. Orduicheamaid 

2. Orduichibh 

3. Orduicheadh iad 



IMPERATIVE. 
S. 1. Let me order 

2. Order or do ye or you order 

3. Let him order 
P. l- Let us order 

2. Order ye or do ye order 

3. Let them order 



TAISBEANACH. 
Seachad. 
A. 1. Dh'-òiduich mi 

2. Dh'-òrduich thu 

3. Dh'-òrduich e 

I. ] . Dh'-òrduich sinn 

2. Dh'-òrduich sibh 

3. Dh'-òrduich iad 

Teaeail. 
A. 1. Orduichidh mi 

2. Orduichidh thu 

3. Orduichidh e 

1. 1. Orduichidh sinn 

2. Orduichidh sibh 

3. Orduichidh iad 



S. 1. 
2. 

3. 
P. 1. 

2. 



S. 1. 

2, 
3, 

P. 1. 
2. 

3. 



INDICATIVE. 
Past. 

I ordered or did order 
Thou orderedst or didst 
order 

He ordered or did order 
We ordered or did order 
Ye ordered or did order 
They ordered or did ofder 

Future. 
I shall or will order 
Thou shalt or wilt order 
He shall or will order 
We shall or' will order 
Ye shall or will order 
They shall or will order 



• Tha gniomharan de 'n Dara sgèad- j * Verb3 of the Second conjugation 
achadh a-mhain a dealachadh 'nan I differ only in their initial form from 
staid thoisich uatha-san de 'n Cheud.± j those of the First. 



ETYMOLOG-Y. 



FOCLACHADH. 137 



LEANTACH. 
Seachad. 

1. Dh'-òrduichinn 

2. Dh'-òrduicheadh tu 

3. Dh'-òrduicheadh e 

/. L. Dh'-òrduicheamaid 

2. Dh'-òrduicheadh sibh 

3. Dh'-òrduicheadh iad 

Teac. 

A. ì. Ma dh'-òrduicheas mi 

2. Ma dh'-òrduicheas tu 

3. Ma dh'-òrduicheas e 

/. 1 . Ma dh'-òrduicheas sinn 

2. Ma dh'-òrduicheas sibh 

3. Ma dh'-òrduicheas iad 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Fast. 

S. 1. I would or could order 

2. Thou wouldst or couldst 

order 

3. He would or could order 
P. 1. We would or could order 

2. Ye would or could order 

3. They would or could order 

jFwfwre. 
S. 1 . If I shall or will order 

2. Tf thou shalt or wilt order 

3. If he shall or will order 
P. 1. If we shall or will order 

2. If ye shall or will order 

3. If they shall or will order 



FEARTACH. 
Xa^. Dh' - òrduchadh, A dh- 

òrduchadh 
Lan. Iar òrduchadh 
Teac. Dol a dh-òrduchadh 

PAIRTEAEAN. 
Neo-chol. Ag òrduchadh 
Colion. Orduichte 
Measg. Iar òrduchadh 

Gu cèisteach. 
Seachad. 
An d' òrduich mi ? &c 
Nach d' òrduich mi ? &c. 
Mur h-òrduichinn, 

Teac. 

An òrduich mi ? &c. 
Nach òrduich mi ? &c. 

Gu diàltach. 
Seachad. 
Cha d' òrduich mi, &c. 

Teacaìl. 
Cha n-òrduich mi, &c. 



INFINITIVE. 
Pres. To order 

Per. To have ordered 
Fut. Going to order, or about 
to|order 

PARTICIPLES. 
Imp. Ordering, at ordering 
Perf. Ordered 
Comp. Having ordered 

Interrogatively. 
Past. 
Did I order ? &c. 
Did I not order ? &c. 
If I did not order, &c* 

Future. 
Shall or will I order ? &c 
Shall or will I not order ? &c. 

Negatively. 
Past. 

I did not order, &c. 

Fuiure. 
I shall or will not order, &c. 



* Or, should not order. 



138 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Orduichtear, Be ordered. 



AN-T-AINEACH. 
A.l. Orduichtear mi 

2. Orduichtear thu 

3. Orduichtear e 

I. 1. Orduichtear sinn 

2. Orduichtear sibh 

3. Orduichtear iad 

TAISBEANACH. , 
Seachad. 
A.l. Dh'-òrduicheadh mi 

2. Dh'-òrduicheadh thu 

3. Dh'-òrduicheadh e 

1. 1. Dh'-òrduicheadh sinn 

2. Dh'-òrduicheadh sibh 

3. Dh'-òrduicheadh iad 

Teacail. 
A.\. Orduichear mi 

2. Orduichear thu 

3. Orduichear e 

I. 1. Orduichear sinn 

2. Orduichear sibh. 

3. Orduichear iad 

LEANTACH. 
Seachad. 
A.ì. Dh'-òrduichteadh mi 

2. Dh'-òrduichteadh thu 

3. Dh'-òrduichteadh e 

/. 1. Dh'-òrduichteadh sinn 

2. Dh'-òiduichteadh sibh 

3. Dh'-òrduichteadh iad 



IMPERATIYE. 

SA. Let me be ordered 

2. Be ye or you ordered 

3. Let him be ordered 
P.l. Let us be ordered 

2. Be ye or you ordered 

3. Let them be ordered 

IXDICATIVE. 

Fast. 

5.1. I was ordered 

2. Thou wast ordered 

3. He was ordered 
P.ì. We were ordered 

2. Ye were ordered 

3. They were ordered 

Future. 

S.l. I shall or will be ordered 

2. Thou shalt or wilt be or- 

dered 

3. He shall or will be ordered 
P. 1 . We shall or will be ordered 

2. Ye shall or will be ordered 

3. They shall or will be or- 

dered 

SUBJENCTIYE. 
Past. 

5.1. I would be ordered 

2. Thou wouldst be ordered 

3. He would be ordered 
P.l. We would be ordered 

2. Ye would be ordered 

3. They would be ordered 



Teacail. Futurc. 
A. 1. Ma dh'-òrduichear mi S.l. If I be ordered, or shall or 

&c. &c. will be ordered, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Gu cèisteach. 
Seachad. 
A. 1 . An d'òrduicheadh mi ? 
&ce. &ce. 

Teacail. 
1. An òrduichear mi? &ce. 

Gu diùltach. 
Seachad. 
I. Cha d'òrduicheadh mi, &ce. 

Teacaiì. 
1. Cha n-òrduichear mi,* 
&ce. &ce. 



FOCLACHADH. 139 

Interroyatively. 
Past. 

S. 1. Was I ordered? 
&c. &c. 

Future. 

l.Shall or wìU I be ordered ? &c. 

JSegatively. 
Past. 

1. I was not ordered, &c. 

Future. 
1. I shall or will not be or- 
dered, &c 



Samplair de Ghnìomhar 
Gaelig, a toiseachadh le F. 

KS GUTH SPREIGEACH. 



Exampìe of a Gaelìc Verb, 
beginnìng wìth F. 

ACTITE YOICE. 



Fàisg, wring or squeeze. 
Fàisg, dh'-fhàisg, fàisgidh, 



fàssradh. 



AINEACH. 

Aon. 1. Fàisgeam, 

2. Fàisg no fàisg thusa, 

3. Fàisgeadh e, 
lom. 1. Fàisgeamaid, 

2. Fàisgibh, 

3. Fàisgeadh iad, 



IMPERATTYE. 

Let me wring 
Wring thou 
Let him wring 
Let us wring 
Wiing ye 
Let them wring 



TAISBEANXACH. 

Seuchud. 

Aon. Dh'-fhàisg mi, &c. 

Teac 'il. 

Aon. Fàisgidh mi, &c. 



INDICATITE. 
Past. 

1 wrung or did wring, &c. 

Future. 

I shall or will wring, &c. 



LEANTACH. 

Seac/iad. 

Aon. Dh'-fhàisginn, &c. 

leac. 



SL'BJUNCTIYE. 

PasL 

I would wring, &c. 

Future. 



Aon. Ma dh'-fhàisgeas mi, &c. If I shall or wiU wring, &c. 

• The Compound Tenses of a verb of' the Second Conjupation, are forined like 
those of the First, iu. both voices. (c pp. 121, 122-, and 129, 130, &c.) 



140 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



FEARTACH, INFINITIVE. 

Dh'-fhàsgadh, no ) ^ 

A dh'-fhasgadb, j T ° wrm ^ 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Seachad. 
An d'-fhàisg mi ? &c. 

Teac. 
Am fàisg mi ? &c. 



GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. 
Cha d'-fbàisg mi, &c. 
Teac. 

Cha n-fbàisg mr, &c. 



PAIRTEARAN. PARTICIPLES. 

A' fàsgadh, wringing. 
Fàisgte, wrung. 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

Past. 
Did I wring ? &c. 

Future. 
Shall or will I wring ? &c. 

NEGATIVELY. 

I did not wring. 

Future. 
I shall or will not wring. 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Fàisgtear, wrung. 



AINEACH. 

Pears. Aon. 

Aon. 1. Fàisgtear mi, 

2. Fàisgtear thu, 

3. Fàisgtear e, 

Jom. 

lom. 1. Fàisgtear sinn, 

2. Fàisgtear sibh, 

3. Fàisgtear iad, 



IMPERATIVE. 

1. Let me be wrung 

2. Be thou wrung 

3. Let him be wrung 

Plur. 

1. Let us be wrung 

2. Be ye or you wrung 

3. Let them be wrung 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Dh'-fhàisgeadh mi, &c. 
Teac. 

Aon. Fàisgear mi, &c. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I was wrung, &c. 

Future. 
I shall or will be wrung 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Dh'-fhàisgteadh mi, &c. 
Teac. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would be wrung, &c. 
Future. 



Aon. Ma dh'-fhàisgear mi, &c. If I shall or will be wrung, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 141 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 

Aon. An d'-fhàisgeadh mi ? &c. Was I wrung ? &c. 

Teac. Future. 

Aon. Am fàisgear mi ? &c. Shall or will I be wrung ? &c. 



GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELT. 

Seachad. Past. 

Aon. Cha d'-fhàisgeadh mi^ &c- I vvas not wrung, &c. 

Teac. Future. 

Aon. Cba n-fbàisgear mi, I sball or will not be wrung, 



&c. & 



OF PARTICIPLES. 

English and Gaelic Verbs 
have three Participles, the 
Imperfect* tlie Perfect* 
and the Compound Parti- 
ciple ; or thej maj be call- 
ed, the First, the Second, 
and the Third. 



FORMATION OF PARTICIPLES. 

The Imperfect Parti- 
ciple of everj English verb 
is formed bj adding ing to 
the root of the verb ; as, 

Fold, folding 

The Perfect Pari 
and Past Tense of all regu- 
lar English verbs are formed 



MU PHAIRTEARAIBH. 

Tha tri Pàirtearan 



aig 



gniomharan Beurla 'us 
Gaelig, an Neo-cholionta, 
an Golionta, no Làn agus 
am Measgta ; no faodar a 
Chèud, an Dara, agus an 
Treas a radh riù. 



DEANAMH PHAIRTEARAN. 

Tha Pairtear Neo-cho- 
lionta gaeh gniomhair 
Bouiia deanta, le ing a 
chur ri stèigh a ghniomh- 
air ; mar, 
write, writing ; carry ; cnrrying. 

Tha Pàirtear Colionta 
agus Tim Seachadail gach 
uile ghniomharan rialtach 



• The two first participles are commonly called tbe present and past parti- 
ciples ; but as these contain in themselves no expression oi time, but simply spe- 
ciiy whetber tbe verbal action or state be untìnished, or complete, tbey are more 
properly named, as above, the imperfect and perfect. The time is expressed only 
by the verb Be, wlth which tbe participle standa connected, as the following 
examples will clearlyshow: — I am writing ; I was writing; to-morroic I icill be 
writing. The glass is tìlled ; it icas fiiled ; next day it will be tìlled. Here the 
time is expressed by am, icas, icill ùe. 



142 ETYMOLOGY. 

by adding d or ed to the 
root of the verb ; as, 

Love, lovee/ j 

The Cornpound Parti- 
ciple is formed by prefixing 
having to the perfect ; as, 
Having loved 

In Gaelic. 
The Imperfect Participle 
or Infinitive of Gaelic verbs 
is generally formed by add- 
ing adh to the root of the 
verb ; as, 



FOCLACHADH. 

Beurla, deanta le cur d no 
ed ri stèigh a' gniomhair ; 
mar, 

fold, hlàed. 

Tha 'm Pàirtear Measgta 
deantaleroimh-chur having 
ris a cholionta ; mar, 
huving been. 

Gaelig. 
Tha Pdirtear Neo-cho- 
lionta TìoFeartach ghniomh- 
aran Gaelig deanta gu 
cumanta le cur adh ri 
stèigh a' gniomhair ; mar, 



Bris, (break) hnseadh ; sgriobh, (write) sgriobbaaTi. 



The Infinitive of Gaelic 
verbs is variously formed ; 
some are like the root of 
the verb, some are con- 
tracted before adding adh, 
and others add a different 
termination from adh. The 
Gaelic verbs corresponding 
to the irregular English 
verbs in the subjoined list, 
will give a fair idea of the 
anomalous formation of the 
Infinitive. 

The Perfect Participle 
of active verbs is formed by 
adding ta or te to their 
roots ; as, 



Tha Feartach ghniomh- 
aran Gaelig deanta air ioma 
dòigh; cuid coltach ri stèigh 
a' ghniomhair, cuid gior- 
raichte mu'n cuirear adh 
riù, agus cuid èile ris an 
cuirear icean eu-coltach ri 
adh. Bheir na gniomh- 
aran Gaelig a ta co-fhreag- 
airt do na gniomharan Neo- 
rialtach Beurla 'sa chlàr a 
leanas, beachd chuimseach 
air cumadh mi-rialtach an 
Fheartaich. 

Tha Pdirtear Làn 
ghniomharan spreigeach 
deanta le cur ta no te ri na 
stèighean aca ; mar, 



Sgriobh, sgridbhtaj bris, briste. 



The Compound Parti- 
ciple is formed by prefixing 



Tha'm Pairtear Measgta 
deanta le roimh-chur iar 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 143 



iar to the Imperfect or In- 
finitive ; as, 

lar briseadh ; 

SIGNIFICATION OF PARTICIPLES. 

The Imperfect Participle 
expresses the continuance 
of an action. 

The Perfect Participle 
expresses the completion of 
an action. 

The CompoundParticiple 
expresses the previous com- 
pletion of an action. 



ris an Neo-cholionta no ris 
an Fheartach ; niar, 
iar sgriobhadh. 

BRIGH PHAIRTEARAN. 

Tha 'm Pàirtear Neo- 
cholionta 'nochdadh mars- 
uinn gniomha. 

Tha 'm Pàirtear Làn a 
nochdadh co-lionadh gnio- 
mha. 

Tha 'm Pàirtear Measgta 
'nochdadh roimh cho-lion- 
adh gniomha. 



Examples of Verbs with their 
Present and Past Tenses, 
and their three Participles. 



Samplairean de ghniomharan le 
'n Timean Làth. agus Seach- 
adail, agus tri Pàirtearan. 



pres. Tense. Past Tense. 

Destroy destroyed 
wrote 
drank 
Seaehad. 
bhris 
sgriobh 
dh-òl 



Write 
Drink 

Lath. 

Bris 

Sgriobh 

01 



Imp. Part. 
destroying 
writing 
drinking] 
Paìrl. Neo-chol. 
briseadh 
sgriobhadh 
òl, ag òl 



Perf. Part. 

destroyed 

written 

drunk 

Pairt. Ldn. 
briste 
sgriobhta 
òlta, òilte 



Comp. Part. 

having destroyed 
having written 
having drunk 

Pairt. Measg. 

iar briseadh 
iar sgriobhadh 
iar òl 



IRREGULAR ENGLISH 
YERBS. 

An Irregular Verb is one 
which does not form its 
Past Tense and Perfect 
Participle by adding d or 
ed to its root ; as, 



GNIOMHARAN NEO-RIALTACH 
BEURLA. 

Is e Gniomhar Neo-rialt- 
ach aon nach dean a Thim 
Seachad, agus a Phàirtear 
Ldn, a chumadh le cur d 
no ed ri 'stèigh ; mar, 



Write 



wrote 



ivritten. 



There are nearly two hundred Irregular Verbs in Englislr, and 
such of them as are Regular as well as Irregular, have the letter R 
annexed to them in the following list. 



144 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Rule 1. — The Past Tense 
of a Gaelic verb of the first 
conjugation is formed by 
aspirating the initial con- 
sonant of its root ; as, 

Paisg, Phaisg ; 

Obs — Verbs beginning with 
/, n, r, sc, sg, sm, st, &c. do 

not take the aspirate form 

(v. p. 27.) 

Rule 2. — The Past of a 
verb of the second conjuga- 
tion is formed by prefìxing 
dh'- to its root ; as, 

01, dìi-òl ; 

Imper. or 
fres. Past. Perf. Part. 

Abide n* abode abode 
Am « was been 
Arise « arose arisen 
Awake awoke awaked 

or awaked 
Bake baked baken or 

baked 
Bear, to bore born 
bring forth, r bare 
Bear, to bore borne 

carry, or bare 
Beat beat beat 

or beaten 
Become« became become 
Begin began begun 
Behold beheld beheld 

or beholden 
Bend R bent bent 
Bereavei? bereft bereft 
Beseech besoughtbesought 



Rialt. l.-Tha Tim Seach- 
ad. gniomhair Gaelig de 'n 
chèud sgèadachadh iar a 
dheanamh, le seideachadh 
connraig thoisich a stèigh ; 
mar, 

Buail, Bhuail. 

Faic. — Cha ghabh gniomh- 
aran a toiseachadh le /, n, r, sc, 
sg, sm, st, Scce. an staid shèid- 
each.— (f. t. 27J 

Rialt. 2. — Tha Seachad. 
gniomhair de 'n dara sgèad- 
achadh, deanta le roimh- 
chur dh'-ri 'stèigh ; mar, 

Fill, dW-fhill. 



Aineach 






Feartach, no 


no Steigh. 


Seachad. Pairt. Lan 


Paìrt. Neo-chol. 


Fan 


dh'-fhan + 1 


fantainn 


Tha 


bha 


t 


a bhith, bhi 


Eirich 


dh'- 


t 


èiridh 


Dùisg 


dh- 


dùisgte 


dùsgadh 


Fuin 


dh'-fh 


- fuinte 


fuineadh 


Beir 


rug 


iar breith breith ; 


Giùlain 


gh- 


giùlainte 


giùlan 


Buail 


bh- 


buailte 


bualadh 


Fàs 


dh'.fh 


• iar fàs 


[fàs 


Toisich 


th- 


toisichte 


toiseachadh 


Seall 


sh- 


II 1 


sealltuinn 


Lùb 


1- 


lùbta-e 


lùbadh 


Creach 


ch- 


creachta-e creach 


Guidh 


gh- 


II 


guidh 



* The n is to show tbat the verb is neuter or intransitive. 
ì The raarks | and || in the vacant spaces show^that the Perf. Part. ia formed 
by prefixing iar to tbe Infin. ; as, iar fantainn.^ 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 145 



Pres. Past. Perf. Part. 
Bid (fir) bade bidden 
or bid 



Bind 


bound 


bound 


Bite 


bit 


bitten or 






bit 


Bleed 


bled 


bled 


Bless R , blessed 


blest 


Blow 


blew 


blown 


Break 


broke 


broken 


or 


brake 




Breed 


bred 


bred 


-Bring 


brought brought 


Build R 


built 


built 


Burn R 


burnt 


burnt 


Burst 


burst 


burst 


Buy 


bought 


bought 


Cast 


cast 


cast 


Catch R 


caught 


caught 


Chide 


chid 


chidden 


Choose 


chose 


chosen 



Cleave, to clave or cleaved 

adhere, cleaved 
Cleave, clove cloven 
to clave, or or 

splii, cleft cleft 
Climb climbed climbed 

or clomb 
Cling clung clung 
Clip R clipt clipt 
Clothe R clad clad 
Come n came come 
Cost cost cost 
Creep crept crept 
Crow R crew crowed 
Cut cut cut 
Dare, to durst or dared 

venture dared 
Deal R dealt dealt 
Dig R dug dug 
Do, mis did done 
Draw drew drawn 
Drink drank drunk or 

drunken 
Drive drove driven 



Feart. no 

Ain. no Ste. Seachad. Pairt. Lan. P. Neo-cliol. 
Iarr dh'- iarrta iarraidh 

Ceangail ch- ceangailte ceangal 
Tèum th- tèumta tèumadh 



Fuil 


dh'- h 


- fuilte 


fuilleadh 


Beannaich bh- 


-ichte 


beannachadh 


Sèid 


sh- 


sèidte 


sèideadh 


Bris 


bh- 


briste 


briseadh 


Gin 


gh- 


trinte 


gintinn, &c. 


Thoir 


thug 


II 


toirt 


Tog 


th- 


togta-e 


togail 


Loisg 


1- 


loisgte 


losgadh' 


Sgàin 


sg- 


sgàinte 


sgaineadh 


Ceannaich ch- 


-ichte 


ceannach 


Tilg 


th- 


tilgte 


tilgeadh,-eil 


Glac 


gh- 


glachta- 


e glacadh 


Coirich 


ch- 


-ichte 


coirreachadh 


Tagh 


th- 


taghta-e 


taghadh 


Dlùthaich dh- 


-ichte 


dlùthachadh 


Sgoilt 


sg- 


sgoilte 


sgoltadh 


Streap 


st- 


streapta 


streapadh 


Greimicfr 


gh- 


-ichte 


greimeachadh 


Bearr 


bh- 


bearta 


bearradh 


Eid 


dh'- 


èidte 


èideadh 


Thig 


thainig " + 


teachd, tighinn 


Còsd 


ch- 


II 


còsd-adh 


Snàig 


sh- 


snàigte 


snàgadh 


Goir 


gh- 


goirte 


goirsinn 


Gearr 


gh- 


gearrta 


gearradh 


Dùraig 


dh- 


t 


dùrachdainn 


Roinn 


r- 


roinnte 


roinn 


Bùraich 


bh- 


bùraichte burach 


Deann 


rinn 


deanta 


deanamh 


Tarruing th- 


-uingte 


tarruing 


01 


dh'- 


òlta,-e 


òl 


Greas 


gh- 


greasta 


greasad,-adh 



K 



146 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Feurt. no 



Pres. 


Past. 


Perf. Purt. 


Ain.no Slè. Seuchad. Pairt L 


n. P. Neo.-chol. 


Dwell R dwelt 


dwelt 


Tuinnich th- 


-ichte 


tuinneachadh 


Eat 


ate or 
eat 


eat or 
eaten 


Ith dh - 


ithte 


itheadh, ith 


Fall n 


fell 


fallen 


Tuit th- 


r 


tuiteam 


Feed 


fed 


fed 


Biadh bh- 


biadhta 


biadhadh 


Feel 


felt 


felt 


Fairich dh'-fh- 


• -ichte 


farachadh 


Fight 


fought 


fought 


Cog ch - 


cogta 


cogadh 


Find 


found 


found 


Amais dh'- 


amaiste 


amasadh 


Flee, 


fled 


fled 


Teich th- 


t 


teicheadh 


from a foe 










Fling 


flung 


flung 


Tilg, (sgap, sgaoil) tilgte 


tilgeadh 












tilgeil 


Fly (as 


flew 


flown 


ltealaich dh - 


t 


itealaich 


a bird) 












Forbear 


forebore forborn 


oeachain sh- 


II 


s?achnadh 


or forbare 










Forget 


forgot 


forgotten 


Dearmaid dh- 


II 


dearmad,-adh 




forgat 


forgat 






Forsake 


forsook forsaken 


lreig tn- 


trèigte 


trèigsinn 


Freeze n 


froze 


frozen 


XAjCOIIJ I- 


reòthta 


reodhadh 


Get 


got or 
gat 


gotten or 
gat 


Faigh fhuair 


II 


faighinn 
faotainn 


Gild R 


gilt 


gilt 


Ur un - 


òrta, òirte òradh 


Gird It 


girt 


girt 


Crioslaich ch- 


-ichte 


crioslachadh 


Give 




Thoir, thug 


II 


toirt, 


gave 


given 


Tabhair — 




tabhairt 


Go n 


went 


gone 


Falbh dh'.fh 


- iar dol 


falbh, dol 


Grave R 


graved 


graven 


Grabh gh- 


grabhta 


grabhadh 


Grind 


ground ground 


Bleith bh- 


bleithte 


bleith 


Grow n 


grew 


grown 


Fàs dh'-fh 


- iar fàs 


fàs 


Hang R 


hung 


hung 


Croch ch - 


crochta 


crochadh 


Have 


had 


had 


Sealbhaich sh- 


-aichte 


sealbhachadh 


Hear 


heard 


heard 


Eisd dh'- 


èisdte 


èisdeachd 


Heave R 


hove 


hoven 


Tog th- 
Cuidich ch- 


togta 


togail 


Help R 


helped helped 


-ichte 


cuideachadh 






or holpen 








Hew R 


hewed 


hewn 


Snaigh shn- 


snaighte 


snaigheadh 


Hide 


hid 


hidden 
or hid 


Folaich dh'-fh- 


-aichte 


folach 


Hit 


hit 


hit 


Cuimsich ch- 


-ichte 


cuimseachadh 



i Neuter Gaelic verbs have no regular Perfpct Participle, i.e. by adding ta or te 
to their root. It i.s commonly formed by prolixing iar to tbe Imperfect; as, iar 
tuiteam. Alany active verbs, to prevent a barsh sourid, have tbeir Perf. Part. 
formed in the same manuer. See this mark R in tbe list above. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 14? 



Pres. 


Past. 


Perf. Part. 


Hold 


held 


holden 






or held 


Hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


Keep 


kept 


kept 


Kneel R 


knelt 


knelt 


Knit R 


knit 


knit 


Know 


knew 


known 


Lade 


laded 


laden 


Lay 


laid 


laid 


Lead 


led 


led 


Learn R 


learnt 


learnt 


Leave 


left 


left 


Lend 


lent 


lent 


Let 


let 


let 


Lie, to 


lay 


lain or 


lie down 




lien 


Lift R 


m 


lift 


Light R 


lit 


lit 


Load R 


loaded 


loaden 


Lose 


lost 


lost 


Make 


made 


made 


Mean R 


meant 


meant 


Meet 


met 


met 


Melt R 


melted 


molten 


Mow R 


mowed 


mown 


Pay 


paid 


paid 


Pen, to 


pent 


pent 


shut up 






Put 


put 


put 


Quit R 


quit 


quit 


Rap R 


rapt 


rapt 


Rèad 


read 


read 


Rend 


rent 


rent 


Rid 


rid 


rid 


Ride n 


rode 


ridden 


or rid 


or rid 


Ring 


rung 


rung 


or rang 




Rise n 


rose 


risen 


Rive 


rived 


riven 


Runra 


ran 


run 


Saw R 


sawed 


sawn 




said 


said | 


See 


saw 


seen 


Seek 


sought 


sought 



Ain. no Ste. Seack. Pairt Lan 


P. Neo-ckol. 


Cum ch- 


cumta 


cumail 


Ciùrr ch- 


ciùrrta 


ciùrTadh 


Glèidh gh- 


glèidhte 


gleidheadh 


Slèuchd sh- 


slèuchta 


slèuchdadh 


Figh dh'-fh-fighte 


figheadh 


Aithnich dh'- 


-ichte 


aithneachadh 


Luchdaich 1- 


-aichte 


luchdachadh 


C\\ix(leig)ch- 


iar cur 


cur 


Treòraich th- 


-aichte 


treòrachadh 


lonnsaich dh'- 


-aichte 


ionnsachadh 


Fàg dh'-fh-fàgta 


fàgail 


Thoir an iasad, 


&ce. |j 




Ceadaich ch- 


-ichte 


ceadachadh 


Luidh 1- 


f 


luidh 


Tog thog 


togta-e 


togail 


Las 1- 


lasta 


lasadh 


Luchdaich 1- 


-ichte 


luchdachadh 


Caill ch- 


caillte 


call 


Dealbh dh- 


dealbhta 


dealbhadh 


Rùnaich r- 


-aichte 


rùnachadh 


Coinnich ch- 


-ichte 


coinneachadli 


Leagh 1- 


,leaghta-e leaghadh 


Speal sp- 


spealta 


spealadh 


Diol dh- 


diolta-e 


dioladh 


Dùin, dh- 


dùinnte 


dùnadh 


(suas ) 






Cuir ch- 


cuirte 


cur 


Cùidich ch- 


-ichte 


cùideachadh 


Buail bh- 


buailte 


bualadh 


Lèugh 1- 


lèught-e 


lèugadh 


Rèub r- 


rèubta 


rèubadh 


Saor sh- 


saorta-e 


saoradh 


Marcaich mh- 


-aichte 


marcachd 


Sèinn, sh- 


sèinnte 


sèinn 


(buait) 






Eirich dh'- 


t 


èiridh 


Strac sh- 


stracte 


stracadh 


Ruith r- 


f 


ruith 


Sàbh sh- 


sàbhta 


sàbhadh 



Abair thubhairt iar ràdh ràdh 

Faic chunna,-ic faicte faicinn,-sinn 

Sir sh- sirte sireadh 



148 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Pres. 


Past. 


Perf. Part. 


oeetne 


seethed 


sodden 




or sod 




ocll 


SOltl 


sold 


C - „ J 

oend 


sent 


sent 


oet 


set 


set 


fenake 


shook 


shaken 


Shape R 


shaped 


shapen 


onave it 


shaved 


shaven 


Shear jff 


shore 


shorn 


oned 


shed 


shed 


Shew 


shewed 


shewn 


Show 


showed 


shown 


onine 


shone 


shone 


onoe 


shod 


shod 


Shoot 


shot 


shot 


Shred 


shred 


shred 


Shrink 


shrank 




or shrunk 




Shrive R 


shrove 


shriven 


Shut 


shut 


shut 


Sing 


sang 


sung 


Sink 


or sung 


sunk oi 


sunk or 




sank 


sunken 


Sit n 


sat 


sitten or 






sit 


Slay 


slew 


slain 


Sleep n 


slept 


slept 


Slide 


slid 


slidden 




or 


slid 


Sling 


slung, 


slung 


or 


slang 




Slink 


slunk, 


slunk 


or 


slank 




Slit R 


slit 


slit 


Smell R 


smelt 


smelt 


Smite 


smote 


smitten 




or smit 


Sow R 


sowed 


sown 


Sew R 


sewed 


sewn 


Speak 


spoke spoken 


or spake 




Speed 


sped 


sped 


Spell R 


spelt 


spelt 



Feart. no 

Ain.no Ste. Seach. Pairt.l àn. P. Neo-chol» 



Bruich 


bh- 


-ichte 


bruicheadh 


Rèic 


r- 


rèicte 


reiceadh 


Cuir 


ch- 


cuirte 


cur 


Suithich 


sh- 


-ichte 


suitheachadh 


Crath 


ch- 




crathadh 


Cum 


ch- 


cìimta 


cumadh 


Bea^r 


bh- 


bearrta 


bearradh 


Buain 


bh- 


buainte 


buain 


Dòirt 


dh- 


dòirte 


dòrtadh 


Fèuch 


dh'-fh 


- II 


fèuchainn 


Nochd 


n- 


nochda 


nochdadh 


Dealraich dh- 


-ichte 


dealrachadh 


Brògaich bh- 
Tilg th- 


brògaicht 
tilgte 


e brògachadh 
tilgeadh,tilg- 
eil 


Svac,reub shrac 


sracta 


sracadh 


Crup 


ch- 


ch- 


crupadh 


Eisd (ri 
Druid 


aideachadh) \\ 
dh- II 


druideadh 


Sèinn 


sh- 


sèinnte 


sèinn 


Tùm, 


th- 


tùmta 


tumadh 


(cuir fodha) 
Suidh sh- 


t 


suidh 


Marbh 


mh- 


marbhta 


marbhadh 


Cadail 


ch- 


t 


cadal 


Sleamh- 


sh- 


II 


sleamhnach- 


nuich 






adh 


Tilg (le 


crann tabhuill) 





Siap (goid sh- siapta siapadh 

air falbh) 
Sgaoil sg- sgaoilte sgaoileadh 
Srònaich (gabh toc/id) <$ce. 
Buail, bh- buailte bualadh 

(mill) 

Sgaoil (cuir siol) sg- sgaoilte sgaoileadh 
Fuaigh dh'-fh- -ighte fuaghal 
Labhair 1- || labhairt 

Luathaich 1- -ichte luathachadh 
Litrich (spellig, cub) -ichte litreachadh 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 149 



Pres. Past. 

Spend spent 
Spill R spilt 
Spin spun 
or span 
Spit spit 
or spat 
Split R split 
Spread spread 
Spring sprung 
or sprang 



Stand 
Stave 



stood 
stave 



Steal 
Stick 
Sting 
Stink 



stole 
stuck 
stung 
stank 
or stunk 
Strew Ro r s tre wed 
Strow or strewed 
Stride strode 
or strid 



Peif. Part. 
spent 
spilt 
spun 

spit or 

spitten 

split 

spread 

sprung 

stood 
staven or 
staved 
stolen 
stuck 
stung 
stunk 



strown 
stridden 



Strike 



struck struck 
or stricken 
strung 
striven 
sworn 



String strung 
Strive strove 
Swear swore 

or sware 
Sweat R swet 
Sweep swept 
Swell R swelled 
Swim swam 

or swum 
Swing swang 

or swung 
Take took 
Teach taught 
Tear tore 

or tare 
Think thought thought 
Tell told told 
Thrive throve thriven 
Throw threw thrown 
Thrust thrust thrust 
Toss R tost tost 



swet 
swept 
swollen 
swum 



swung 

taken 

taught 

torn 



Feart. no 

Ain.no Ste. Seach. Pairt. Lan. P. Neo chal. 
Caith ch- caithte caitheamh 
Dòirt dh- dòirte dòrtadh 
Sniomh sh- sniomhte sniomh 

Tilg (smugaid) &ce. 

Sgealb sg- sgealbte sgealbadh 
Sgap, sgaoil sg- sgapta sgapadh 
Spùt, leum sp- || spùtadh 

Seas sh- -f- seasamh 
Bris (cuir 'na chlaraibh) 

Goid gh- || goid 
Sàth (lean ri) sàthte sathadh 
Guin (cuir gath)gh- guinte guineadh 
Dean boladh aofaille 



Sgaoil, sgap, &ce. 
Cèumaich ch- 



cèumachadh 



Buail bhuail buailte bualadh 



Sreangaich shr- -aichte 
Gleac {dean spairn) gh- 
Mionnaich mh- -aichte 



sreangachadh 
gleachd, gleac 
mionnachadh 



Fallusaich -ichte fallusachadh 
Sguab sg- sguabta sguabadh 
At ( sei d, boc) dh'- j| at 
Snàmh sh- snàmh 



-ichte seògannachadh 



gabhta gabhail 
teagaisgte teagasg 
rèubta rèubadh 



Seògainnich sh 

(luaisg) 
Gabh gh- 
Teagaisg th- 
Rèub, (srac 

spoin) 
Smuanich sm- 
Innis dh'- 
Soirbhich sh- 
Tilg th- 
Sàth (spar) sh- 
Luaisg (gluais) 1- luaisgte luasgadh 



-ichte 



tilgte 
sàthta 



smuanachadh 
innseadh 
soirbheachadh 
tilgeadh 
sàthadh 



3 50 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Pres. Fast. Ve~f. Part. 

Tread trod trodden 

or trode 
Uphold upheld upheld 
Wax R waxed waxen 
Wear wore worn 
Weave wove woven 
Weep n wept wept 
Wet R wet wet 
Win won won 
Wind R wound wound 
Work R wrought wrought 
Wrap R wrapt wrapt 
Wring R wrung wrung 
Write wrote written 

or writ or writ 
Writhei?writhed writhen 



Ain. no Ste. Seach. 
Saltair sh- 

Cum (suas) ch- 
Cèirich,(citt«)ch 



Caith 
Figh 
Guil 
Fliuch 
Coisinn 
Toinn 
Oibrich 
Paisg 
Fàisg 



ch 
dh'-fh. 
gh- 
fhl- 
ch- 
th- 
dh'- 
ph- 
dh'-fh 



Sgriobh sg- 
Toinn, cas th- 



Pair'. Lan. 



■ -ichte 
caithte 
fighte 
t 
II . 

coisinnte 
toinnte 
oibrichte 
paisgte 
• fàisgte 
sgriobhta 



Feart. nv 
P. Neo-chol. 

saltrachadh 

saltairt 

cumail 

cèireachadh 

caitheamh 

figheadh 

guiì 

flivichadh 

cosnadh 

toinneadh 

oibreachadh 

pasgadh 

fàsgadh 

sgriobhadh 



toinnte toinneadh 



DEFECTIVE YERBS. 

A Befective Verb is one 
which wants some of its 
parts ; as, 



GNIOMHARAN GAOIDEACH. 

Is e Gniomhar Gaoideack 
aon a ta dh-easbhuidh cuid 
de 'lùban ; mar, 



Present. 


Past. 


Làth. 


Seackad. 


Can 


could 


Is urrainn 


h'urrainn 


Forego (p. p. forgone) 


Fà g 


dh'-fhàg 


May 


might 


Faod 


dh'-fhaodadh 


Must 




Is èigin 




Ought 


ought 


Is còir 


hu chòir 


Quoth 


quoth 




arsa, ars', orsa, osa 


Shall* 


should 


Is còir 


hu chòir 


Will* 


would 


Ts aill 


h'aill 


Wist 


wist | 


Is aithne 


h'aithne 


Wit or wot 


wot | 



IRREGULAR GAELIC VERBS. 

There are ten Irregular 
Gaelic Verbs, and so called 



GNIOMHARAN NEO-RIALTACH 
GAELIG. 

Tha deich Gniomharan 
Neo-rialtach Gaelig ann, 



* Shall and tcill are not translatable 
into Gaelic when used to exprtss future 
action ; the Gaelic verb itself assumes 
a form suited to. that purpose. 



* Cha ghabh shall 'us icill eadai- 
theangachadh gu Gaelig, 'nuair a 
ghnàthaichear iad a dh-airis gniomha 
theacail ; tha staid aig a ghniomhar 
Ghaelig ièin, freisgarrach ris a chuisso. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 151 



because they differ in some 
of their tenses from their 
roots ; seven of them are 
of the jìrst conjugation, ancl 
three of the second. 



Steigh. 

Beir 

Cluinn 

Dean 

Rach 

Theirig 

Tabhair 

Thoir 

Ruig 

Thig 
Abair 
Faic 



bear 

hear 
make 



give 

reach 

come 

say 

see 



agus thugadh an t-airnn 
sin dhoibh, do bhrigh gu'm 
beil cuid de'n lùban èu-col- 
tach ri'n stèighean ; tha 
seachd dhiù de'n cheucl 
sgèadachadh, agus tri de'n 
dara. 



Seachad. 



Teac. 
beiiidh 



rug 

chuala cluinnidh 

rinn ni 

chaidh . ., 

deach theld 

thug bheir 



rainig ruigidh 

thainig thig 
thubairt their 
chunna-ic chi 



Faigh get fhuair gheibh 



Pairt Lan. Pàirt. Neo-chol. 
f iar breith f beirsinn 
( beirte a ( breith 
— a cluinntinn 
deanta adeanamh,.adh 

iar dol a dol 



a f toirt, 
( tabhairt 
t ruigsinn 
| ruigheachd 
ì teachd 
( tighinn 
ag radh 
j faicinn 
( faicsinn 
{ faotainn 
a 2 faghail 
( faighinn 



iar teachd a 
iar radh 
faicte 



CHEUD SGEADACHADH. 

AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 

Beir, bear, 

AINEACH. 

A. 1. Beirearn, 

2. Beir, beir thusa, 

3. Beireadh i, 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

S. 1. Let me bear 

2. Bear thou 

3. Let her bear 



I. 1. Beireamaid, 

2. Beiribh, 

3. Beireadh iad, 



P. 1. Let us bear 

2. Bear ye 

3. Let them bear 



152 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



I. 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 

1 . Rug mi, 

2. Rug thu, 

3. Rug i, 

1. Rug sinn, 

2. Rug sibh, 

3. Rug iad, 

Teac. 
A. 1. Beiridh mi, 

2. Beiridh tu, 

3. Beiridh i, 

1. Beiridh sinn, 

2. Beiridh sibh, 

3. Beiridh iad, 



I. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 

S. 1 . I bore or bare 

2. Thou borest or barest 

3. She bore or bare 
P. 1. We bore or bare 

2. Ye or you bore or bare 

3. They bore or bare 

Fut. 

S. 1. I shall or will bear 

2. Thou shalt or vvilt bear 

3. She shall or will bear 
I. 1 . We shall or will bear 

2. Ye or you shall or will bear 

3. They shall or will bear 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
A. I. Bheirinn, 

2. Bheireadh tti, 

3. Bheireadh i, 
I. 1 , Bheireamaid, 

2. Bheireadh sibh, 

3. Bheireadh iad, 

Teac. 

A. 1. Ma bheireas mi, 
&ce. 

Mur beir mi, &ce. 
1. 1. Ma bheireas sinn, &ce. 
Mur beir sinn, &ce. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

S. 1. I would bear 

2. Thou wouldst bear 

3. She would bear 
P. 1. We would bear 

2. Ye would bear 

3. They would bear 

Fut. 

S. 1. If I shall or will bear 
&c. 

If I shall or will not bear 
P. 1. If we shall or will bear 
If we shall or will not bear 



FEARTACH. 

A' bheirsinn, a' bhreith. 



INFINITIVE. 

To bear 



PAIRTEAR. 

A' beirsin, a' breith, 

GU CEISTEACH, $Ce. 

Lath. 
Am beil mi breith ? 
Cha n'-eil mi breith, 



PARTICIPLE. 

Bearing. 

INTERROGATIVELY, $C. 

Present. 
Am I bearing ? &c. 
1 am not bearing 



ETYMOLOGY. 
Seachad. 
An do rug* mi ? &ce. 
Cha do rug mi ? &ce. 
An robh mi breith ? &ce. 
Cha robh mi breith, &ce. 
Nach do rug mi ? &ce. 

Teac. 
Am beir mi ? &ce. 
Cha bheir mi, &ce. 
Am bi mi breith ? &ce. 
Cha bhi mi breith, &ce. 
Nach beir mi ? &ce. 



FOCLACHADH. 
Past. 
Did I bear ? 
I did not bear. 
Was I beai ing ? 
I was not bearing. 
Did I not bear ? 

Fut. 

Shall or vvill I bear ? 
I sliall or will not bear. 
Shall or will 1 be bearing ? 
I shall or will not be bearing. 
Shall or will I not bear ? 



153 



Obs. — Beir signifies also to catch, to seize upon, or overtake ; 
in this sense, it is followed by the preposition air, simple or com- 
pounded ; as, beir air, catch him ; rug mi air, I caught or overtook 
him ; bèiridh mi air an eun. 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. 
AINEACH. 

A. 1. Beirthear no beirtear mi, 

2. Beirthear, beirtear thu, 

3. Beirthear, beii tear e, 

I. 1. Beirthear no beirtear sinn, 

2. Beirthear, beirtear sibh, 

3. Beirthear, beiitear iad, 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

S. 1. Let me be born 

2. Be thou born 

3. Let him be born 
P. I . Let us be born 

2. Be ye born 

3. Let them be born 



TAISBEA NACH. 

Seachad. 
A. Rugadh mi, &ce. 
I. Rugadh sinn, &ce. 

Teac. 
A. Beirear mi, 

&ce. 
I. Beirear sinn, 

&ce. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I was born 
We were born 

Fut. 

I shall or will be born 
&c. 

We shall or will be born 
k &c. 



* Often d , rug cha d'rug. 



54 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. 1. Bbeirteadh mi, &ce. 
1. Na'm beirteadh mi 
&ce. 

Iom. 1. Bheirteadh sinn, &ce. 
1. Na'm beirteadh sinn 
&ce. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

S, 1. I would be born, &c. 
1. If I could, &c. be born 

P. 1. We would be bom, &c. 
1 . If we could, &c. be born 



Teac. 

Aon. I . Ma bheirear mi, &ce. 
Iom. 1. Ma bheirear sinn 



Future. 

S. 1. If I shall or will be born 
P. 1 . If we shall or will be born 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 

Aon. 1. An do rugadh mi ? &ce. S. 1. Was I born ? 

J . Am beirear mi ? J . Shall I be born ? 



GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 

Aon. 1. Cha do rugadh mi, &ce. S. 1. I was not born 

Teac. Fut. 

1 . Cha bheirear mi 1 . I shall not be born 

&ce. &c. 
Pàirtear. Iar breith, beirte, born. 



2. CluiiiB, hcar, listen. 



AN GUTH SrREIGExiCH. 
AINEACH. 

A. 1. Cluinneam, let me hear 

2. Cluinn, hear thou 

3. Cluinneadh e, ìethimhear 

TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
A. 1. Chuala mi, I heard 

2. Chuala tu, tìiou heardst 

3. ChuaP e, he heard 



ACTIYE YOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

/. 1- Cluinneamaid, let us hear 

2. Cluinnibh, hear ijou 

3. Cluinneadh iad, ìet them 

hear 

INDICATIVE. 

PasL 

I. 1. Chuala sinn, we heard 

2. Chuala sibh, yuu heard 

3. Chual' iad, they heard 



Teac. 

A. 1. Cluinnidh mi, / shall or 
will hear, &c 



Future. 

I. 1. Cluinnidh sinn, we shall or 
will hear, &c 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 155 



LEANTACH. 

Scacìtad. 
Aon. I. Chluinninn, 

2. Chluinneadh tu, 

3. Chluinneadh e, 
lom. 1. Chluinneamaid, 

2. Cbluinneadh sibh, 

3. Chluinneadh iad, 



SUBJUNCTITE. 

Past. 
I would, &c. hear 
Thou wouldst, &c hear 
He would, &c. hear 
We would, &c. hear 
You would, &c. hear 
They would, &c. hear 



Teac. 

Aon. 1. Ma chluinneas mi, 
Iom. 1. Ma chluinneas sinn, 



Future. 
If I shall, &c. hear 
If we sball, &c hear 



FEARTACH. INFINITIVE. 

A' chluinntinn, to hear. 



PAIRTEAR. PARTICIFLE. 

A' cluinntinn, hearing. 



GU CEISTTEACH. 
Seachad. 
An cuala mi ? &ce. 
Nach cuala mi ? &ce. 



INTERROGATITELT. 

Past. 
Did 1 hear? 
Did I not hear ? 



Teac. 

An cluinn^ mi ? &ce. 
Nach cluinn mi % &ce. 



Future. 
Shall or will I hear? 
Shall or will I not hear? 



GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. 
Cha chuala mi, &ce. 



NEGATITELT. 

Pust. 
I did not hear 



Teac. 

Cha chluinn mi, Scce. 



Future. 

I shall or will not hear, &c. or 
I do not hear. 



AS GCTH FULAXGACIL 
AINEACH. 

Aon. 1. Cluinntear mi, 

2. Cluinntear thu, 

3. Cluinntear e, 
Iom. 1. Cluinntear sinn, 

2. Cluinntear sibh, 

3. Cluinntear iad, 



PASSITE TOICE. 
IMPERATITE. 

1. Let me be heard 

2. Be thou beard 

3. Let him be beard 

1. Let us be heard 

2. Be you beard 

3. Let them be heard 



'This part ia used for the present ; as, An cluinn thu ? do vou hear? Cluinnidh, 
yes, or l do. 



156 ETYMOLOGY FOCLACHADH. 

TAISBEA NACH. INDICATIVE. 

Seachad. Past. 
Aon. 1. Chualadb mi, *chualas mi, 1. I was heard, &c. 
Iom. 1. Chualadh sinn, chualassinn, 2. We were heard, &c. 

Teac. Future. 
Aon. Cluinnear mi, &ce. I shall or will be heard, &c. 

lom. Cluinnear sinn. &ce. We shall or will be heard, &c 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Chluinnteadh mi, 
lom. Chluinnteadh sinn, 
Teac 

Aon. Ma chluinnear mi, 
lom. Ma chluinnear sinn, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would or could be heard, &c. 
We would or could be heard, &c. 
Future. 

If I shall or vvill be heard, &c. 
If we shall or will be heard, &c. 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

An cualadh mi ? &ce. Was I heard ? 

An cualas mi ? &c. 



GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Cha chualadh mi, I was not heard 

Cha chualas mi, &c. 

Teac. An cluinnear mi, Fut. Shall or will I be heard ? 
Cha chluinnear mi, I shall or will not be heard 



3. Dean, do, make. 



AN GrUTH SPREIGEACII. 
AINEACH. 

Aon. 1. Deanam, 

2. Dean, 

3. Deanadh e, 
Iom. 1. Deanamaid, 

2. Deanaibh, 

3. Deanadh iad, 



ACTIVE VOICE. 

IMPERATIVE. 

1. Let me do or make 

2. Do thou 

3. Let him do 

1. Let us do or make 

2. Do ye 

3. Let them do 



'Chualas is most commonly used as " chualas guth aun an Rama," a voice was 
heard in Rama. Mata ii. lb. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 157 



Aon. 
lom. 

Aon. 
lom. 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
1. Rinn mi, &ce. 
1. Rinn sinn, &ce. 

Teac 
l. Ni mi, &ce. 
[. Ni sinn, &ce. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 

1 . I did or made 

2. We did or made 

Future. 

1. I shall or vvill do or make 
1. We shall or vrill do or make 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Àon. 1. Dheanainn, 

2. Dheanadh tu, 

3. Dheanadh e, 
lom. 1. Dheanamaid, 

2. Dheanadh sibh, 

3. Dheanadh iad 

Aon. 1. Na'n deanainn, &ee. 
lom. 1. Na'n deanamaid, &ce- 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Past. 

1. I would or could do 

2. Thou wouldst or couldst do 

3. He would or could do 

1. We would or could do 

2. Ye would or could do 

3. They would or could do 
] . If I would or could make 

1. If we would or could make. 



Teac. 

Aon. 1 . Ma ni mi, &ce. 
Iom. 1. Ma ni sinn, 
Aon. 1. Mur dean mi, 
lom. 1. Mur dean sinn, 

FEARTACH. 

A' dheanamh, \ 
A' dheanadh, / 

PAIRTEAR. 

A' deanamh, 1 
A' deanadh, j 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. An do rinn mi, no an 
Aon. Nach do rinn mi, no 



Future. 

1. If I shall or will make, or do 
1. Tf we shall or will make, &c 
1. lf I shall or will not make 
1 . If we shall or will not make 

INFINITIVE. 

To make, or do 

PARTICIPLE. 

Making^ doing 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

Past. 

d'rinn mi ? Did I make ? 
nach d'rinn mi ? Did I not make ? 



GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. 

Aon. Cha do rinn, no cha d'rinn mi, 
Teac. 
An dean mi, &ce. 
Nach dean mi, &ce. 
Cha dean mi, &ce. 



NEGATIVELY. 

Past. 
I did not make 
Future. 
Shall or will I make ? 
Shnll or will I not make ? 
I shall or will not make 



Ì58 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

AN GUTH FUL ANGACII. PASSIVE VOICE. 

AINEACH. IMPERATIVE. 

Aon. 1. Deantar, no deanar mi, 1. Let me be made 

2. Deantar, no deanar thu, 2. Be thou made 

3. Deantar, no deanar e, 3. Let him be made 
lom. 1. Deantar, no deanar sinn, 1. Let us be made 

2. Deantar, no deanar sibh, 2. Be you made 

3. Deantar, no deanar iad, 3. Let them be made 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Rinneadh mi, &ce. 
lom. Rinneadh sinn, &ce. 
Teac. 

Aon. Nithear* mi, &ee. 
lorn. Nithear sinn, &ce. 

LEANTACII. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Dheantadh mi, &ce. 

Na'n deantadh mi, 
lom. Dheantadh sinn, &ce. 
Na'n deantadh sinn, 
Teac. 

Aon. Ma nithear mi, &ce. 

Mur deanar mi, &ce. 
lom. Ma nithear sinn, &ce. 

Mur deanar sinn, &ce. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I was made 
We were made 

Futnre. 
I shall or will be made 
We shall or will be made 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would or could be made 
If I would or could be made 
We would or could be made 
If we would or could be made 

Future- 
If I shall or will be made 
If I shall or will not be made 
If we shall or vvill be made 
If we shall or will not be made 



FAIRTEAR. PARTICIPLE. 

Deanta, deante, made, done. 

GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 
An do rinneadh mi, no an d'rinneadh mi ? Was I made ? &c. 

Nach d'rinneadh mi ? Was I not made ? &c. 

Teac An deanar mi ? &c Fut. Shall I be made ? &c. 

GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 
Cha do rinnneadh mi, no cha d'rinneadh mi, I was not made, &c. 

Cha deantadh mi, &ce. I would not be made, &c. 

Teac. Future. 

Cha deanar mi, I shall or will not be made, &c. 



* Also, nitear. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 159 



4. Rach, theirig, go. 

AN GUTH SPEEIGEACH. ACTIVE VOICE. 

AINEACH. IMPERATIVE. 

A. 1. Racham, no theirigeam, Let me go 

2. Rach, no theirig thusa, Go thou 

3. Rachadh, no theirigeadh e, Let him go 
I. 1. Rachamaid, no theirig- Let us go 

eamaid 

2. Rachaibh, no theirigibh Go you 

3. Rachadh, rcotheirigeadh iad Let them go 



TAISBEANACH. INDICATIVE. 

Seachad. Past. 

A. Chaidh mi, &ce. I went or did go, 

I. Chaidh sinn, &ce. We went or did go, 

Teac. Fut. 

A. Thèid mi, &ce. I shall or will go 

I. Thèid sinn, &ce- We sball or will go 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
A. Racbainn, 

Rachadh tu, &ce. 
I. Rachamaid, 

Rachadh sibh, &ce. 

Teac 

A. Ma thèid mi, #ce, 
I. Ma thèid sinn, 



STJBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would or could go 
Tbou wouldst or could go 
We would or could go 
You would or could go 

Fut. 

If I shall or will go 
If we shall or will go 



FEARTACH, INFINITIVE. 

A' dhoh. to go. 



PAIRTEAR, PARTICIPLE. 

A' dol, going. 



GU CEISTEACH. 

An deachaidh""" mi ? &ce. 
Nach deachaidh mi ? 
An tèid* mi ? &ce. 
Nacb tèid mi ? 



INTERROGATIVELY. 

Did I go ? 
Did I not go ? 
Shall or will I go ? 
Shall or will 1 not go ? 



a * ^ he [ h T- ìa S0Un ? pd d ' ? Dd hence the corru Ptions dèid, d-theidear, dètdeu, 
and deackmdh ìs sometimes shortened into deach. 



160 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Cha deachaidh mi, &ce. I did not go 

Cha tèid mi, &ce. I shall or will not go 

GU NEO-PHEARSANTAIL. IMPERSONALLY. 

Jmp. Rachar, theirigear , narachar 

Past. Deachas, chaidheas, an deachas? cha deachas 

Fut. Tèidear, theidear, an tèidear ? cha tèidear 



5. Tabhair, thoir, beir,* give, afford, impart. 



AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



Aon. 



Iom, 



AINEACH. IMPERATIVE. 

1. Tabhaiream, thoiream, thugam Let me give 

2. Tabhair thoir Give thou 

3. Tabhaireadh e, thoireadh e, thugadh e Let him give 

1. Tabhaireamaid, thoireamaid, thugamaid Let us give 

2. Tabhairibh, thoiribh, thugaibh Give you 

3. Tabhaireadh, thoireadh, thughadh iad Let them give 



TAISBEANACH. 

Secwhad. 
Aon. 1. Thug mi, &ce. 
Iom. 1. Thug sinn, 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 

I gave, or did give, S$c. 
We gave, or did give, <fyc. 



Teac. 

Aon. 1. Bheir mi, &ce. 
Iom. Bheir sinn, &ce. 



Future. 
I shall or will give 
We shall or will give 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. 1. Bheirinn, 

2. Bheireadh tu, 

3. Bheireadh e, 
Iom. 1. Bheireamaid, 

2. Bheireadh sibh, 

3. Bheireadh iad, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would, fyc. give 
Thou wouldst, t5fc. give 
He would, §c. give 
We would, <fyc. give 
You would, Sfc. give 
They would, fyc. give 



Teac. 

Aon. 1. Ma bheir mi, &ce. 
Iom. i. Mabheir sinn, &ce. 



Future. 
If I shall or will give 
If we shall or will give 



• Beir in the Imperative signifies ratlier to take away ; as, in the phrase, " beir 
uainn e," take him awayfrom us. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. ÌGI 



FEARTACH. INFINITIVE. 

A' thabairt, a' thoirt, to give. 

GU CEISTEACH. 

An d' thug mi ? 

Nach d' thug mi ? 

An toir,^ no tabhair mi? 

Nach toir mi ? 

Na'n tugainn,* no toirinn, 

GU DIULTACH. 

Cha d'thug mi, 
Cha toir no tabhair mi, 
Cha d'thugainn, 
Cha toirinn, 



AN GTJTH FULANGACH. 

Aon. 
lom. 



Aon. 
lom. 



Aon. 
lom. 

LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Bheirteadh mi, Sfce. 

Na'n tugteadh ) no na n 
toirteadh mi, S)Ce. 
Iom. Bheirteadh sinn, 

Na'n tugteadh, no na'n 
toirteadh sinn, fyce. 

Teac. 

Aon. Ma bheirear mì, 
Iom. Ma bheirear sinn, 



PAIRTEAR. PARTICIPLE. 

A' tabhairt, a' toirt, giving. 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

Did I give ? 
Did I not give ? 
Shall or will I give ? 
Shall or will I not give ? 
If I would give, S)C. 

NEGATIVELY. 

I did not give 

I shall or will not give, S)C 

I would not give, 

I would not give, §c. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Pasl. 
I would be given 
If I would be given 

We would be given 
If we would be given 

Future. 
If I shall or will be given 
If we shall, Sjc. be given 



Thugar, no thoirear mi,, Sjc. 
Thugar, no thoirear sinn, S)C. 

TAISBEANNCH. 

Seachad. 
Thugadh mi, Sfce.' 
Thugadh sinn, Sjce. 

Teac. 
Bheirear mi, Sjce. 
Bheirear sinn, Sjce. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Let me be given 
Let us be given 

INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
1 was given 
We were given 

Fuiure. 
I shall or will be given 
We shall or will be given 



» The t in toir and tugainn assumes the sound of d, and hence the.mis-spellinS' 
doir and dvgainn. — See note under rach and thig. 



162 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 

An d' thugadh mi ? Was I given ? 

Nach tugadh mi ? &ce. Was I not given ? 

Teac. Future. 

An toirear mi ? Shall I be given ? 
Na'n tugteadh, no na'n toirteadh mi? &ce. If I would be given. 

GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 

Cha d'thugadh mi, I vvas not given 

Teac. Future. 

Cha toirear mi, I shall not be given 
Cha tugteadh mi, no cha toirteadh mi, &ce. I would not be given 



6. Ruig, reach, arrwe. 



AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 
AINEACH. 

Aon. Sing. 

Ruigeam, let me reach 

Ruig, reach thou 

Ruigeadh e, let him reach 

TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Rainig mi, 
Iom. Rainig sinn, 

Teac. 
Aon. Ruigidh mi, 
Iom. Ruigidh sinn, 

LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 

Aon. Ruiginn, 

Ruigeadh tu, 
Ruigeadh e, 

Iom. Ruigeamaid, 
Ruigeadh sibh, 
Ruigeadh iad, 
Teac. 

Ma ruigeas mi, &ce. 

Ma ruigeas sinn, &ce. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 
Iom. Plur. 
Ruigeamaid, let us reach 
Ruigibh, reach you 

Ruigeadh iad, let them reach 

INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I reached 
We reached 

Future. 
I shall or will reach 
We shall or will reach 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 
I would, &c. reach 
Thou wouldst, &c. reach 
He would, &c. reach 
We would, &c. reach 
Ye would, &c. reach 
They would, &c. reach 

Future. 
If I shall or will reach 
If we shall or will reach 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 16a 



FEARTACH. 

A' ruigsinn, a' ruigheachd, 

PAIRTEAR. 

A' ruigsinn, a' ruigheachd, 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Seachad. 

An do rainig, no an d'rainig mi ? &ce. 
Nach d'rainig mi ? &ce. 

Teac. 
An ruig mi ? &ce. 

GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. 

Cha do rainig, no cha d'rainig mi ? &ce. 

Teac. 
Cha ruig mi, &ce. 



INFINITIVE. 

To reach 

PARTICIPLE. 

Reaching 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

Past. 
Did I reach ? 
Did I not reach ? 
Future. . 
Shall I reach ? 

NEGATIVELY. 

Past. 
I did not reach 

Future. 
I shall or will not reach 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Past. Raineadh, no raineas. Fut. Ruigear. Past Subj. Ruigteadh. 

Ruig runs often with leas, ( dleas) to signify need : as, An 
ruig thu leas falbh 'sa mhaduinn ? Do you need to go in the 
morning ? Cha ruig mi leas, I need not. 



7. Thig * 

AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 
AINEACH. 

Aon. 

Thigeam, Let me come 
Thig, Come 
Thigeadh e^ Let him come 

TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Thainig mi, 
Iom. Thainig sinn, 

Teac. 
Aon. Thig mi, &ce. 
Iom. r I'hig sinn, &ce. 



come, arrvoe. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Iom. 

Thigeamaid, Let us come 
Thigibh, Come you 

Thigeadh iad, Let them come 

INDICATIVE. 

PasU 
I came or did come 
We came or did come 

Future. 
I shall or will come 
We shall or will come 



* T is sounded, in every part of this verb, like d, except tighinn aud teachd. 



J64 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 

Aon. Thiginn, 

Thigeadh tu, 
Thigeadh e, 
Na'n tiginn, &ce. 

Iom. Thigeamaid, 

Thigeadh, sibh, 
Thigeadh iad, 
Na'n tigeamaid, &ce. 
Teac. 

Aon. Ma thig mi, &ce. 
Ma thig sinn, &ce. 
Mur tiginn, &ce. 
Mur tigeamaid, &ce. 

FEARTACH. 

A' thighinn, a' theachd, 

PAIRTEAR. 

A' tighinn, a' teachd, 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Seachad. An d' thainig mi ? 

Nacb d' thainig mi ? 

An tig mi ? 

Nach tig mi ? &ce. 

GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. Cha d'thainig mi, 
Teac. Cha tig mi, 

GU NEO-PHEARSANTAIL. 

Past. Taineas, cha taineas. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would come 

Thou wouldst come 

He would come 

If I would come 

We would come 

Ye would come 

They would come 

If we would come 
Future. 
If I shall or will come 
If we shall or will come 
If I had or would not come 
If we had or wouid not come 

INFINITIVE. 

To come 

PARTICIPLE. 

Coming 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

Past. Did I come ? 

Did I not come ? 
Fut. Shall or will I come ? 

Shall I not come ? 



NEGATIVELY. 

Past. I did not come or I came not 
Fut. I shall or will not come 

IMFERSONALLY. 

Fut. Tigear, cha tigear. 



AN DARA SGEADACHADH. SECOND CONJUGATION. 
8. Abair, say, repeat, recite. 

AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. ACTIVE VOICE. 

AINEACH. IMPERATIVE. 

Aon. Abaiream, abram, Let me say 

Abair, Say thou 

Abaireadh, abradh e, Let him say 

Jom. Abaireamaid, abramaid, Let us say 

Abairibh, abraibh, Say you 

Abaireadh, abradh iad, Let them say 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 165 



Gnàthaichear air uairibh tim 
singilt lathaireil de'n ghniomhar 
so, — staid a thugadh o'n chainnt 
Eireannaich ; mar, 

Deirim no deiream, I say, 

Deir thu, thou sayest, 

Deir e, he says. 



Aon. 
Iom. 



Aon. 
lom. 



Aon. 
lom. 



TAISBEAXACH. 

Seachad. 
'Thubhairt mi, &ee. 
Dubhairt mi, &ce. 
Thubhairt sinn, &ce. 
Dubhairt sinn, &ce. 

Teac. 
Their mi, 
Their sinn, 

LEAXTACH. 

Seachad. 
Theirinn, 

Theireadh tu, &ce. 



A sìmple present tense of this 
verb is sometimes used, — a form 
borrowed from the Irish ; as, 

Deirimid, no deireamaid, ive say 
Deir sibh, you say 
Deir iad, they say 

INDICATIYE. 

Past. 
I said or did say, &c 

We said or did say, &c. 

Fut. 

I shall or will say 
We shall or will say 

SUBJUNCTIYE. 

Past. 
I would say 
Thou, &c. 



Theireamaid, no theireadh sinn, We would say 



Theireadh sibh, &ce. 
Teac. 

Aon. Ma their mi, If I, &c. 

FEARTACH. 

A' ràdh, ràdhainn, ràite, 

PAIRTEAR. 

Ag radh, &ce. 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Seachad. 
An dubhairt mi ? 
Nach dubhairt mi ? 

Teac. 
An abair mi ? 
Nach abair mi ? &ce. 
Lean. Nach abairinn, abrainn ? 

GU DIULTACH. 

Seachad. 
Cha dubhairt mi, 
Cha n-abairinn, cha n-abrainn 

Teac. 
Cha n-abair mi, 



Ye, &c. 
Fut. 

lom. Ma their sinn, If we, &c. 

IXFINITIYE. 

To say 

PARTICIPLE. 

Saying 

I>"TERROGATI YEL Y . 

Past. 
Did I say ? 
Did I not say ? 
Fut. 

Shall or wLU I say ? 
Shall I not say ? 
Would I not say ? 

NEGATIYELY. 

Past. 
I did not say 
I would not say 
Fut. 

I shall or will not say 



Thubhairt and dubhairt are often contracted into thuirt and duirt. 



166 
Subj. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Cha n-abairinn, clia n-abrainn, 



FOCLACHADH. 
I would not say 



GU NEO-PHEARSANTAIL. IMPERSONALLY. 

Past. Dubhairteadh,* theirteadh, abairteadh. 



9. Faic, see, behold, ohserve. 



AN GrUTH SPREIGEACH. 
AINEACH. 

Aon. Faiceam, 
Faic, 

Faiceadh e, 
lom. Faiceamaid, 
Faicibh, 
Faiceadh iad, 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Let me see 
See thou or you 
Let him see 
Let us see 
See ye or you 
Let them see 



TAISBEANACH. INDICATIVE. 

Seachad. Past. 
Àon. Chunnaic no chunna mi, &ce. I saw 
lom. Chunnaic no chunna sinn, &ce. We saw 



Teac. 

Aon. Chi mi, &ce. 
lom. Chi sinn, &ce. 

LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Chithinn, 

Chitheadh tu, &ce. 
lom. Chitheamaid, 

Chitheadh sibh, &ce. 
Teac. 
Aon. Ma chi mi, 
Iom. Ma chi sinn, 
Aon. Na'm faicinn, 

Nam faiceadh tu, &ce. 
Iom. Na'm faiceamaid, 

Nam faiceadh sibh, &ce. 



FEARTACH. 



INFINITIVE. 



Future. 
I shaìl or will see 
We shall or will see 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 
I would see 
&c. 
We would see 
&c. 

Future. 
If I shall or will see 
If we sball or will see 
If I could or would see 
&c. 

If we could or would see 
&c 

PAIRTEAR. PARTICIPLE. 



A dh'-fhaicinn, a dh'-fhaicsinn, to see. A' faicinn, a' faicsinn, seeing 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. 

Seachad. 

Am facf mi ? Did I see ? Cha n-fhac mi, 
Nach fhac mi ? Cha n-fhaicinn, 

Teac. 

Am faic mi ? Shall I see ? Cha n-fhaic mi, 



GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Past. 
I did not see 
I would not see 
Future. 

I shall, &c. not see 



• Also dubhradh and duirteadh ; and thubhairteadh becomes thubhradh 
thuirteadh. 

f Generally spoken and written " faca." 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 167 



AN GUTH FULANGACH. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



AINEACH. IMPERATIVE. 

Aon. Faicear, no faicthear mi, &ce. Let me be seen 

lom. Faicear, no faicthear sinn, &ce. Let us be seen 

TAISBEANACH. INDICATIVE. 

Seachadail. Past. 

Aon. Chunnacadh, no chunnacas mi, &ce. I was seen 
Iom. Chunnacadh, no chunnacas sinn, &ce. We vvere seen 

Teac. Future. 

Aon. Chithear, no chitear mi, &ce. I shall or will be seen 

lom. Chithear, no chitear sinn, &ce. We shall or will be seen 



LEANTACH. 

Seachadail. 
Aon. Chiteadh mi, &ce. 
lom. Chiteadh sinn, &ce. 
Aon. Na'm faicteadh mi, &ce. 
lom. Na'm faicteadh sinn, &ce. 

Teacail. 
Aon. Ma chithear mL, &ce. 
Iom. Ma chithear sinn, &ce. 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Am facadh mi ? ) 
Am facas mi ? j 
Nach facadh mi ? 1 
Nach facas mi ? J 
Am faicear mi ? 
Nach faicear mi ? 

GU DIULTACH. 

Cha n-fhacadh mi ; \ 
Cha n-fhacas mi, ) 
Cha n-fhaicear mi, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 
I would be seen 
We would be seen 
If I would be seen 
If we would be seen 

Futitre. 
If I shall or will be seen 
If we shall orwill be seen 

INTE RROGATIVELY. 

Was I seen ? 

Was I not seen ? 

Shall I be seen ? 
Shall I not be seen ? 

NEGATIVELY. 

I was not seen 
I shall not be seen 



10. Faigh, get, obtain, find. 



AN GUTH SPREIGEACH. 
AINEACH. 

Aon. Faigheam, 
Faigh, 

Faigheadh e. 
Iom> Faigheamaid, 
Faighibh, 
Faigheadh iad, 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Let me get 
Get thou or you 
Let him get 
Let us get 
Get ye or you 
Let them get* 



168 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Aon. 
Iom. 

Aon. 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Fhuair mi, 
Fhuair sinn, 

Teac 
Gheibh mi, 



Iom. Gheibh sinn, 

LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Gheibhinn, 
lom. Gheibheamaid, 
Aon. Na'm faighinn, 

Na'm faigheadh tu, &c 
lom. Na'm faigheamaid, 

Na'm faigheadh tu, &c, 
Teac. 

Aon. Ma gheibh mi, &ce. 
lom. Ma gheibh sinn, 
Aon. Mur faìgh mi, 

FEARTACH. INFTNITIVE. 

A dh'-fhaighinn, a dh'-fhaotainn, 
to get. 

GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY, 

Seachad. 
An d' fhuair mi ? 

Teac. 
Am faigh mi ? 

AN GrUTH FULANGfACH. 
AINEACH. 
Aon. Faighear, no faightear mi, 
lom. Faighear, no faightear sinn, 

TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Aon. Fhuaradh* mi, & ce 
Iom. Fhuaradh sinn, &ce. 

Teac. 

Aon. Gheibhear mi, &ce. 
lom. Gheibhear sinn, &ce. 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I got or did get 
We got or did get 
Fulure. 
I shall or vvill get 
We shall or will get 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

I would or could get 
We would or could get 
If I would or could get 

If we would or could get 

Fut. 

If I shall or will get 
If we shall or will get 
If I shall not get 

PAIRTEAR. PARTICIPLES. 

A' faighinn, a faotainn, 
getting. 

. GU DIULTACH. NEGaTITELY 

Past. 
Cha d' fhuair mi 

Fut. 
Cha n-fhaigh mi 

PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Let me be got 
Let us be got 

INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I was got, &c. 
We were got, &c 
Fut. 

I shall or will be got 
We shall or will be got 



* Also, FkuaraSy cha d'fkuuras. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 169 



LEANTACH. 

Aon. Gheibhteadh mi, 

Na'm faighteadh mi, &ce. 
Iom. Gheibhteadh sinn, 

Na'm faighteadb sinn, &ce. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

I would or could be got 
We would or could be got 



GU CEISTEACH. INTERROGATIVELY. GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Seachad. Past. 
An d' fhuaradh mi? Was I got? Cha d' fhuaradb mi } I was not got 
Nach d' fhuaradh mi ? 

Teac. Future. 
Am faighear mi ? Shall I be got ? Cha n-fhaighear mi 3 I shall not 
Nach faighear mi ? &c. be got 



Absolute Form oftlie Gaelic 
Verb. 

Sing. 1. Iar dhomh a bhi, 

2. Iar dhut a bhi, 

3. Iar dha a bhi, 

1. lar dhuinn a bhi, 

2. Iar dhuibh a bhi, 

3. Iar dhoibh a bhi, 



Plur. 



Staid Fhcineil «' Ghniomh- 

air Ghaelig. 
I being, or having been 
Thou being, or having been 
He being, or having been 
We being, or having been 
Ye or you being, or having been 
They being, or having been 

Sing. Iar dhomh pasgadh, &ce. I having folded 

Iar dhomh a bhi paisgte, &c. or \ 1 being folded, or 

lar dhomh a bhi iar mo phasgadh, &c. j having been folded 
lar dhuinn pasgadh, &ce. We having folded 

Tar dhuinn a bhi paisgte, &c. or ì We being folded, or 
Iar dhuinn a bhi iar ar pasgadh, &c. J having been folded 



Plur. 



A Concise View of the Gaelic 
Verb. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Paisg, fold. 

Sing. Aon. 

I. 2. 3. 

paisg -eadh 

lot -adh 



Pers \ Vais 8 eam 
\ Lotam 



Gearr Shealladh de 'n 
Gniomhar Ghaelig. 

CHEUD SGEADACHADH. 

GUTII SPREIGEACH. 
AINEACH. 

Lot, wound. 

Plur. Iom. 
1. 2. 3. 

-eamaid -ibh -eadh 
-amaid -aibh -adh 



170 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Pres. 



^•{•L„r 

Fut. J PfisgWA 
( Lotaidh 



INDICATIVE. 

Sing. Aon. 
2. 



TAISBEANACH. 

Plur. Iom. 



3. 



phaisg phaisg 
'lot 'lot 



-idh 
-aidh 



-idh 
-aidh 



phaisg 
'lot 

-idh 
-aidh 



phaisg 
r lot 

-idh 
-aidh 



3. 



phaisg 
'lot 

-idh 
-aidh 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PasL f Phaisgmn -eadh -eadh 
' \ Lotainn -adh -adh 

Fut. f Phais g eas - ea s -eas 
\'Lotas -as -as 

INFINITIVE. i PaS ^f 

( Lotadh 



LEANTACH. 

-eamaid -eadh 
-amaid -adh 

-eas -eas 
-as -as 



-eadh 
-adh 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Mi thu 



Past.J paisgear 
(^Lotar 



GUTH FULANGACH. 







AINEACH. 




e no i 


sinn 


sibh 


iad 


-ear 


-ear 


-ear 


-ear 


-ar 


-ar 


-ar 


-ar 



INDICATIVE. 



Past J Poais g" eac ^ -eadh -eadh 

* l "Lotadh -adh -adh 

p ut J Paisgear -ear -ear 

( Lotar -ar -ar 



-eadh 
-adh 



-ear 
-ar 



TAISBEANACH. 

-eadh -eadh 
-adh -adh 



• ear 
-ar 



-ear 
-ar 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



jj ast j Vhaisgteadh -teadh -teadh 
" { 'Loiteadh* -teadh -teadh 



Fut. 



INFINITIVE. 



Phaisgear, &ce. 

A bhi paisgte 



A bhi loite,* no lota 



LEANTACH. 

-teadh -teadh -teadh 
-teadh -teadh -teadh 

'Lotar, &ee. 



PERF. PART. 



( Paisgte 

{ Loite^f no lota 



* The t here should be doubled, as teadh and te are mere tensal terminations to 
be annexed to the root oi' the verb, but 1 have followed the prevailingorthography. 

f The i is inserted in loiteadh and loite, to correspond with its class-vowel e of 
the next syllable ; but this practice is not generally i'ollowed in forming the perf. 
part. by adding te, nor is there any valid reason that it should. 



ETYMOLOGY. 
SECOND CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Orduich, command. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Orduicheam,* &c. 
Ind. Tais. 
Dh'-òrduich, &c. 
Dh'-fhuin, &c. 



Past. 



Fut. 



FOCLACHADH. 171 
DARA SGEADACHADH. 

GrUTH SPREIGEACH. 

Fuin, bake. 

AINEACH. 

Yuìneam* &c. 
Subj. Lean. 
dh'-òrduiclnn/i, &c. 
dh'-fhuim'nn, &c. 
dh'-òrduicheas, &c. 
dh'-fhuineas, &c. 

Imp. Part. 
Ag òrduclWA. 
A' fuineaa'A 

GUTH FULANGACH. 
AINEACH. 

Fumtear, no fuinear, &c. 
Subj. Lean. 
dh'-òrduich£eaa7i 
dh'-fhuin£eaa 7 A 
dh'-òrduichear 
dh'-fhuinear 
Perf. Part. 
Orduichte 
Fuinfe 

Form and decline each of the following Verbs according to its 
own conjugation : — Buail, slrike ; dearbh, prove ; glac, catch ; 
mill, spoil ; loisg, burn ; neartaich, strengthen ; ròsd, roast ; sgoilt, 
split ; òl, drink ; aom, incline ; fìll, fold ; ùraich, refresh. 

In the foregoing view of the Gaelic Verb, all its variations in 
its Simple Tenses are seen at once. Lot is given as an example 
of verbs beginning with /, n, r, sc, sg, sp, or st, &c. which do not 
assume an aspirate form when written, in any part ; but it is quite 
audible in the pronunciation. Their aspirated positions may be 
distinguished by the mark ('). — (See p. 75, Obs.) 

In the Second Conjugation, the expletive do is aspirated before 
a vowel, but when the verb begins with / pure, both do and / are 
aspirated ; but / is always silent in its aspirated position. — See 
p. 26, last note. 



S Orduichz'o'A, &c. 
1 Fumidh, &c. 
Infin. 

Ovàxxchadh 

Fumeadh 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Orduic£ear,no orduichear, &c. 
Ind. Tais. 
( Dh'-òrduicheaaVi, &c. 
\ Dh'-fhumeaaVi, &c. 
f Orduichear, &c. 
\Fuinear, &c. 
Infin. 
A bhi òrduichtfe 
A bhi iumte 



Past. 



Fut. 



* Annex the same terminations in every part as iu paisg. 



172 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

Is, arsa, orsa, osa no ol, 
agus theab. 

The Defective Verbs are 
thus declined : — 

Is, am, is. 

TAISBEANACH. 

Làthaireil. 
Àon. 1. Is mi, no is mise, 

2. Is tu, no is tusa, 

3. Is e, no is esan, 
lom. 1 . Is sinn, no is sinne, 

2. Is sibk, no is sibhse, 

3. Is iad, no is iadsan, 

Seachad. 
Aon. 1. Bu mhi, no bu mhise, 

2. Bu tu, no bu tusa, 

3. B' e, no b' esan, 
lom. 1. Bu sinn, rao bu sinne, 

2. Bu sibh, no bu sibhse, 

3. B' iad, no b' iadsan, 

LEANTACH. — TEAGMHACH. 

Làth 

Aon. 1 . Ma's mi, 

2. Ma's tu, 

3. Ma's e, 
Iom. 1. Ma's sinn, 

2. Ma's sibh, 

3. Ma's iad, 

Aon. 1 . Ged is mi, &ce. 
lom. 1. Ged is sinn, &ce. 



GNIOMHARAN GAOIDEACH. 

iod no fèud, fèum no fìmir, 

Teàrnar na Gniomharan 
Gaoideach ; mar so, 

Bu, was. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. 
It is I, or I am 
It is thc-Uj or thou art 
It is he, or he is 
It is we, or we are 
It is ye, or ye are 
It is they, or they are 

Past. 
It was I, or I was 
It was thou, or thou wast 
It was he, or he was 
It was we, or we were 
It was ye, or ye were 
It was they, or they were 

SUBJUNCTIVE. — CONDITIONAL. 

2Ìr. 

If it be I 
If it be thou 
If it be he 
If it be we 
If it be you 
If it be they 

Though it is I 
Though it is we 



Seachad. 

Aon. 1. Na'm bu mhi, If it were I 

lom. 1. Na'm bu sinn, If it were we 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 173 



GU CEISTEACH. 

Aon. 1. Am mi ? 

2. An tu ? 

3. An e ? 
lom. 1. An sinn ? 

2. An sibh ? 

3. An iad ? 

yfcm. 1. Nach mi ? 

2. Nach tu ? 

3. Nach e ? 
lom. I. Nach sinn? 

2. Nach sibh ? 

3. Nach iad ? 

^4on. 1 . Am bu mhi ? 

2. Am bu tu ? 

3. Am V e, no am b'i, 
Iom. 1. Am bu sinn ? 

2. Am bu sibh ? 

3. Am b' iad ? 

^•ion. 1. Nach bu mhi? &ce. 
Iom. 1 . Nach bu sinn ? &ce. 

GU DIULTACH. 

Aon. 1. Cha mhi, 

2. Cha tu, 

3. Cha n-e, 
Iom. 1. Cha sinn, 

2. Cha sibh, 

3. Cha n-iad, 

Aon. 1 . Cha bu mhi, &ce. 
Iom. 1. Cha bu sinn^ &ce. 

Obs. — It is remarkable that, 
in the Present lnterrogative and 
Negative, &c no part of the 
Verb " Is" is seen at all, — the 
Conjunctives,am, cha,nach,gur, 
and mur, fyc. with the Pronouns 
annexed to them, convey and 



INTERROGATIVELY. 

Is it I, or am I ? 
ìs it thou, or art thou ? 
Is it he, or is he ? 
Is it we, 07- are we ? 
Is it ye, or are ye ? 
Is it they, or are they ? 

Is it not I ? 
ls it not thou ? 
Is it not he ? 
Is it not we ? 
Is it not ye ? 
Is it not they ? 

Was it I? 
Was it thou ? 
Was it he or she ? 
Was it we ? 
Was it ye ? 
Was it they ? 

Was it not I ? 
Was it not we ? 

NEGATIVELY. 

It is not I 
It is not thou 
It is not he 
It is not we 
It is not ye 
It is not they 

It was not I 
It was not we 

Faic Isneònach nach faicear 

lùb idir de 'n Gbniomhar " Is/' 
ann an Tim Ldthaireil a Chèist- 

ich, agusan Diùltaich } lkce tha 

na Co-naisgeanan,a»^ cha, nach, 
gur, mur, <$ce. agus na riochd- 
aran co-dhùinte riu a' giùlan 'sa 



ì 74 ETYMOLOGY. 

express the sense as distinctly 
as if the Verb was expressed ; 
thus, 

Am mise ? (Is) it I ? 

Cha tusa 'n duine, thou (art) 

not the man. 
Nach e so an t-each bàn ? (Is) 

not this the white horse ? 



FOCLACHADH. 

cur an t-seadh an cèill cho 
soilleir 'us ged a bhiodh an 
Gniomhar iar àiris ; mar so, 
Gur i mo rùn, that she (is) my 
love. 

Mur iad sin mo chaoraich-sa, if 
these (are) not my sheep. 

Cha luchd-bratha sinn, we (are) 
not spies. 



2. Arsa no orsa, said or quoth. 
Arsa Sine, said or quoth Jane. Orsa Iain, said or quoth John. 



3. Faod no fèud, may or be able. 



TAISBEANACH. 

Seachad. 
Dh-fhaod no dh-fhèud mi, 
Dh-fhaod no dh-fhèud sinn, 

Teac. 

Faodaidh, no fèudaidh mi, 
Faodaidh, no fèudaidh sinn, 

LEANTACH. 

Seachad. 
Dh-fhaodainn, no dh-fhèudainn, 
Dh-fhaodamaid, no dh-fheudamaid, 
Teac. 

Ma dh-fhaodas, no ma dh-fhèudas mi, 
Ma dh-fhaodas, no ma dh-fhèudas sinn, 

GU CEISTEACH. 

Am faod no am fèud mi ? 

GU DIULTACH. 

Cha n-fhaod, no cha n-fhèud mi, 



INDICATIVE. 

Past. 
I was able 
We were able 

Future. 
I may 
We may 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 
I might or could 
We might or could 
Future. 
If I may 
If we may 

INTERROGATIVELY. 

May I? 

NEGATIVELY. 

I may not 



4. Fèum, fìmir, must, need. 

TAISBEA NACH. INDICATIVE. 

Seachad. Past. 
Dh-fhèum, no dh-fhimir mi, Dh-fhèumadh, no dh-fhimireadh mi, 
&ce. &ce. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 175 

Teac Future. 
Fèumaidh, no fimiridh mi, I must, &c. Fèumar, fimirearf 

LEANTACFJ. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Seachad. Past. 
Dh-fhèumainn, no dh-fhimirinn, I would need 
Dh-fhèumteadh, dh-fhimirteadh.f 

GU CEISTEACH. INTEBBOGATIVELY. j 

Am fèum mi, am fimir mi ? Must I ? 

Am fèumar, no am fimirearf 

GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Cha n-fhèum mi, cha n-fhimir mi, I must not 

Cha n-fhèumar cha n-fhimirearf 

5. Theab, had almost, had nearly; ivas ivell nigh, was 
on the eve of. 

Theab mi, I had almost, &c. Theabadh, theabas.f 

GU CEISTEACH. INTEBBOGATIVELY. 

An do theab mi ? Had I almost ? &c. An do theabadh ? theabas ?f 

GU DIULTACH. NEGATIVELY. 

Cha do theab mi, 1 had not almost, &c. Cha do theabadb, theabasf* 

The following defectives, are J Gnàthaichear na gaoidich a 
used only in the 2nd person | leanas a-mhain ann an 2ra 
singular and plural of the Im- pearsa aonar, agus iomadh an 
perative ; thus, | Ainich ; mar so, 

Fèuch, behold ; Fèuchaibh, behold ye ; Tiugainn, come thouaway; 
Tiugainnibh, come (ye) away ; Siuthad, say away ; Siuthadaibh, 
say ye away ; Trothad, come (thou) here ; Trothadaibh, come ye 
here. 



AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS. 

An Auxiliary Verb in 
Gaelic, aswell as inEnglish, 
is prefixed to the Infinitive 
of a Specific Verb, to express 
power, dutj, or abilitj of its 
subject. 



ONIOMHARAN TAICEIL. 

Tha Gniombar Taiceil 
'an Gaelig, cho math 'sam 
Beurla, iar a roimh-chur ri 
Feartach Gniomhair araid, 
a dh-ains cumhachd, dleas- 
annais, no comais a' chùiseir. 



f The Passive Form here is Impersonal. 



176 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Tha na gniomharan neo-rialt- 
ach agus taiceil a leanas gnàth- 
aichte gu h-àraid mar thaicearan, 
eadh. 

Ta, is, faod, no fèud, is còir, is urrainn,* is èudar, is èigin, 
fèumaidh, no fimiridh, dean, agus rach. 



Tbe following defective and 
irregular verbs are chiefly used 
as auxiliaries, viz. 



Làthair. 
Ta mi 'g innseadh, 
Faodaidh mi an t-each a rèic, 
Is còir dhomh èiridh, 
Is urrainn dhuinn clach abhriseadl 
Is èudar dha posadh, 
Is èigin dhut falbh, 
Fèumaidh tu litir a sgriobhadh, 

Seachad. 
Eha mi 'g innseadh, 
Dh-fhaodainn an t-each a rèic, 
Bu chòir dhomh èiridh, &c. 

The simple tenses of dean 
prefixed to the Infinitive of a 
verb, correspond to the English 
verb do, or mahe ; as, 



Present. 
I tell, do tell, or am telling 
I may sell the horse 
I ought to rise 
, We can break a stone 
He must marry 

You must depart, you must go 
You must write a letter 

Past. 
I was telling 

I might have sold the horse 

I ought to rise, &c. 

Tha timean singilt dean, iar 
an roimh-chur ri Feartach, a 
freagairt do'n ghniomharBheurla 
do, no make ; mar, 



Dean seasamh (— Seas) Make a standing, i.e. stand or do stand. 
Rinn e seasamh f=Sheas e) He made a standing, i.e. he stood or 
did stand. 

JSi mi seasamh (=Seasaidh mi) 1 will make a standing, i.e. I 
will stand. 

Dheanainn cuir agus buain (=Chuirinn agus bhuaininn) I would 
make sowing and reaping, i.e. I would sow and reap. 
Dean combined with a noun J Tha dean, naisgte ri ainmear 
is equal to a verb, active or j ionann ri gniomhar spreigeach 



jieuter, formed from that noun ; 
thus, 

Dean bròn, 
Na dean goid, 
Rinn e ca' 



The Infinitìve of a tran- 
sitive verb, when combined 
with dean or racìi, requires 



no neotair deanta o'n ainmear 
sin; mar so, 
Make weeping, i.e. weep 
Do not make stealing, i.e. steal not 
He made haste, or hastened 

'Nuair a ta Feartach 
gniomhair asdolaich naisgte 
ri dean, no rach, gabhaidh 



* Urrainn is sometimes, but improperly, spoken and written urra and 
urradh. 



ETFMOLOGrY. 

a pronoun or a noun before 
it, to point out what person 
or tliing is meant ; thus, 

Dean mo bbualadh (-buail mi) 
llinn e mis' a bhualadk (-bbuail 
Chaidb a bhean sin a bbualadh, 
Ni e 'rt leanabk 'bhualadh, 
Theid rno bhualadh, 

ing will go, or take place, 

ThePassive simple tenses 
of dean, and the active 
tenses of rach, combined 
with the Infìnitive of a tran- 
sitive verb, oorrespond to 
the Passive Voice of that 
verb ; thus, 



FOCLACHADH. 



.77 



e riochdar, no ainmear 
roimhe, a chomharrach a- 
mach ciod am pearsa, no 
'ni, a chiallaichear; mar so, 
Makemy striking, i.e. strike me 
e mise) He did strike me. 
That wife was struck. 
He will strike the child. 
T shall be struck, i.e. my strik- 
or happen. 

Tha na timean singilt 
Fulangach aig dean, agus 
na timean spreigeach aig 
rach, naisgte ri Feartach 
gniomhair asdolaich, a 
seasamh airson Gruth Fhul- 
angaich a ghniomhair sin ; 
mar so, 

Rinneadh mo chiùrradh (-chiùrradh mi) My hurting was made, i.e. 

I was hurt 

Chaidh à chiùrradh (-cbiùrradh e) His hurting went or hap- 

pened, i.e. he was hurt 
An d' rinneadh mo chiùrradh ? Was I hurt ? &c. 

An deach à chiùrradh ? Was he hurt ? &c. 

f ' Thèid am buacbaill a bhualadh, agus an trèud a sgapadh The 
shepherd shall be smitten^ and the flock shall be scattered. 



IMPERSOXAL VERBS IN GAELIC. 



1. A Transitive, or an 
Intransitive Verb is said to 
be impersonal, when it is 
used in the Passive Form, 
without anj nominative ex- 
pressed; thus, 

Cluinnear* (one) Hears, or may hear 

Chluinnteadh (one) Might hear 

Chitbear ( one) Sees, or may see 

Chiteadh (one) Might see 



GNIOMHARAN NEO-PHEARSANT- 
AIL 'SA GHAELIG. 

1. Theirear gu 'm beil 
gniomhar Asdolach, no 
Anasdolach, neo-phearsant- 
ail 'nuair a ghnàthaichear 
e 'san Staid Fhulangaich 
gun ainmeach leis ; mar so, 



178 ETYMOLOGY. 

2. Verbs used in this 
way, may be declined in 
both numbers with the 
Compound Pronoun leam ; 
thus, 

Buailear* leam, 



Buailear leat, 
Buailear leis, 



FOCLACHADH. 

2. Faodar Gniomharan 
gnàthaichte air an dòigh 
so a theàrnadh 'san dà 
àireimh, leis an riochdar 
Mheasgta leam ; mar, 
It shall be struck by me, or I strike, or shall 
strike 

It shall be struck by thee, or thou strikest, 

or shalt strike 
It shall be struck by him, or he strikes, or 
shall strike 

Buailear leinn, &c. It shall be struck by us, or we strike, or shall 
strike 

But it is reckoned more elegant to use the verb in this form 
without the pronoun. 



3. To . the class of Im- 
personals is to be referred 
a certain part of the verb, 
which, in form, is like the 
Future of the Indicative 
Passive, and has an active 
present and affirmative sig- 
nification. 



3. Do 'n roinn Neo- 
phearsantail, buinidh lùb 
àraid de 'n ghniomhar, aig 
am beil staid ionann ri 
Teacail Fulangach an 
Taisbeanaich, agus seadh 
spreigeach làthaireil, agus 
dearbhach. 



Obs In the course of a narration, when the speaker wishes 

to enliven his style by representing the occurrences narrated as 
present, and passing actually in view — instead of using the past 
tense, he adopts the part of the verb now described, employing it 
impersonally. A few examples are annexed, to exhibit the use 
and effect of this anomalous tense. 

" The young woman sat on a 
rock,and tier eye on the sea ; she 
spied a ship coming on the tops 
of the waves ; she perceived the 
likeness of her lover, and her 
heart bounded in her breast. 
Without delay or stop, she has- 



" Shuidh an òg-bhean air 
sgèir is a suil air an lear ; chunn- 
aic i lòng a teachd air barraibh 
nan tonn ; dh'-aithnich i aogas 
a leannain is chlisg a cridhe 'n 
a com. Gun mhoille gun tàmh 
buailear dh' - ionnsuidh na 



• Founded on the aame principle as the Latin lmpersonals ; as, Pugnatur a me, 
a te, ab illo, fyc; it is t'ought by me, thee, him, <fec; or, I tìglit, thou tìghtest, he 
fìghts, &c. Cogar leam, leat, leis, tyce. Flebatur a rne, ghuileadh \eam,Jlebatura 
nobis, ghuileadh leinn, flebxtur a me, guilear Leain, &ce. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

tens to the sbore and finds the 
hero with his men around him." 

" As we were strangers in 
the land, we strike up to the 
top of the moor, — ascend the 
hill with speed, and look around 
us on every side. We see over 
against us a rapid stream rush- 
ing down a narrow valley."— 
Db Stewart. 



FOCLACHADH. 179 

tràighe, agus faighear an laoch 
's a dhaoine m' a thimchioll." 

" bha sinn 'n ar coigrich 
anns an tir, gabhar suas gu mull- 
ach an t-slèibh direar an tulach 
gu grad, agus seallar mu 'n 
cuairt air gach taobh. Faicear 
fa 'r comhair sruth càs ag ruith 
le gleann cumhann." — Ollh. 
Stiuard. 



COMPOSITE VERBS. 

AComposite Verb ismade 
up of a noun, or an adjec- 
tive, joined with the verb 
Is or Ta, and followed by 
a prepositional pronoun for 
its noininative; itis express- 
ed in Engiish by one simple 
or compound verb ; as, 

Is toigh leam, 
Is ait leis, 

Tha gràdh agam dhùibh, 

Verbs of this structure are 
numerous, and frequently used 
ra Gaelic, but chiefly in the 
present and past tense. 



GNIOMHARAN EALTACH. 

Tha Gniomhar Ealtash 
iar a dheanamh suas, le 
ainme ar, no buadhar naisg le 
ris a' ghniomhar Is no Ta, 
iar an leantainn le riochdar 
measgta mar ainmeach ; 
airisear 'am Beurl' e le 
gniomhar singilt, no measg- 
ta ; mar, 

I love, or do love 
He rejoices 

I love, or do love you. 

Tha gniomharan de 'n dean- 
amh so lionmhor, agus gnàth- 
aichte gu minig 'sa Ghaelig ; ach 
a chuid a's mò 'san tim Idthair 
agus seachad. 



NOUNS TO FORM COMPOSITE VERBS. AINMEARAN GU DEANAMH GHNIOMH- 

ARAN EALTACH. 

Ag, aithne, àbhaist, còir, cuimhne, deòin, èigin, èis, eagal, 
duil, gràin, feòil, fiach, fios^ fuath, lèir, &ce. 

Adjectives Ait, àrd, beag, beò, binn, caomh, coma, daor, 

duilich, gasda, fad, fearr, ion, math, mor, neònach, suarrach, 
taitneach, &ce. 



180 



ETYMOLOGY. 



A Composite Verb is thus 
Conjugated : — 



FOCLACHADH. 

Sgèadaichear Gniomhar Ealt- 
ach, mar so : — 



Aon. 



Jom, 



INDICATIVE. TAISBEANACH. 

Is toigh leam, I love. 



Làthair. 



3. 



&ce. 
? &ce. 
&ce. 



&ce. 
, &ce. 



Is toigh leam, 
Is toigh leat, 
Is toigh leis, 
Is toìgh leatha, 
An toigh leam ? 
Nach toigh leam 
Cha toigh leam, 

1. Is toigh leinn, 

2. Is toigh leibh, 

3. Is toigh leò, 
An toigh leinn ? 
Nach toigh leinn 
Cha toigh leinn, 

Seachad. 
Bu toigh leam, &ce. 
Am bu toigh leam^ &ce. 
Cha bu toigh leam, &ce. 
Bu toigh Jeinn, 
Am bu toigh leinn ? &ce. 
Cha bu toigh leinn, 

LEANTACH. 

Ma's toigh leam^ &ce. 
Mur toigh leam, &ce. 
Gur toigh leam, &ce. 
Ma 's toigh leinn, &ce. 
Mur toigh leinn 
Gur toigh leinn^ &ce. 
Seachad. 



Present. 

I love 

Thou lovest 
He loves 
She loves 
Do I love ? 
Do I not love ? 
I do not love 
We love 
Ye or you love 
They love 
Do we love ? 
Do we not love ? 
We do not love 

Past. 

I loved 
Did I love ? 
I did not love 
We loved 
Did we love ? 
We did not love 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

If I love or do love 
If I do not love 
That I love 
If we love or do love 

That we love 
Past. 



Na'm bu toigh leam ? If I, &c. [Na'm bu toigh leinn? If we, &c. 



The object of these Verbs is 
placed after the Pronoun ; as, 



Cuirear cuspair nan gniomh- 
aran so an dèigh an riochdair 
mar. 



Is toigh leam foghlum, I love learning ; is beag orra 'n ceò, they 
dislike the smoke: 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 181 



CLAR GHNIOMHARAN EALTACH, 

Gu bhi iar an Sgeadachadh a 
rèir " Js toigh." 

Is àbhaist dhomh, &ce. 

B'abhaist dhomh, 

Is ag leam, 

Is aithne dhomh, 

Is còir dhomh, 

Is cuimhne leam, 

Is coma leam, 

Is deòin leam, 

Is docha leam, 

Is eagal leam, 

Is èis domh, 

Is èigin domh, 

Is gràin leam, 

Is feòil domh, 

Is fiach leam, 

Is fuath leam, 

B'fhuath leam, 

Is lèir dhomh, 

Is ait leam, 

Is àrd leam, 

Is beag orm, 

Is beò dhomh, 

Is binn leam, 

Is caomh leam, 

Is daor leam, 

Is duilich leam, 

Is gàbhaidh leam, 

Is gasda leam, 

Is'^fada leam, 

Is fearr leam, 

Is ion dhomh, 

Is math leam, 

Is lugh' orm, 

Is mò leam, 

Is neònach leam, 

Is òg leam e, 
Is trom leam sin, 
&ce, &ce. 

The Verb " Bi," eombined 
with a Prep. Pronoun, is often 
rendered to have or possess in 
Gaelic } as well as to form Com- 



LIST OF COMPOSITE VERBS, 

To be Conjugated after the man- 
ner of " Is toigh." — 

I use, I am wont, &c. 

I used, I was wont 

I doubt 

I know, I am acquainted with 
I ought 
I remember 

I care not, I do not like 
I am willing, 1 wish 
I suppose, I think 
I fear, I am afraid 
I delay, am detained 
I must 

I abhor, disdain 

I know, I am acquainted 

I value, condescend 

I hate, dislike 

I hated 

I see, I perceive 
I rejoice, I am glad 
I think (it) high 
I hate, I dislike 
I live, I am in life 
I like, I think (it) melodious 
I love, I like 
I think (it) dear 
I regret, am sorry 
I wonder, am surprised 
I delight 
I long 
I prefer 
It becomes me 
I am glad 
I hate more 
I think more of 
I wonder, I am surprised 
I think it young 
I think that heavy 
&c. &c 

Gabhar an Gniomhar " Bi," 
naisgte ri Riochdar Measgta, gu 
trica chiallachadh " biodh agad" 
no "seilbhich" 'sa Ghaelig, cho 



182 ETYMOLOGY. 

pound and Composite Verbs ; 
thus, 

Tha tigh agam," x I have ahouse 
Tha tigh agad, thou hast a house 
Tha tigh aige, he has j & housg 
Tha tigh aice, she has J 
Am beil tigh agam ? have I a 

house ? &ce. 
Cha n-'eil tigh agam, I have not 

a house, &ce. 

And so on in all its other Moods and Tenses. 

Tha fuachd orm, I am cold, &c. Tha fuachd oirnn, we are cold, &c. 

After the same manner : — Tha fios agam, I know ; tha codal 
orm, I am sleepy ; tha dùil agam, I hope, I expect ; tha eagal 
orm, I am afraid ; tha fearg orm 3 I am angry ; tha cuimhne agam, 
I remember, &ce. 



FOCLACHADH. 

math 'us gu deanamh Ghniomb- 
aran ealtach; mar so, 
Thatigh againn, wehaveahouse 
Tha tigh agaibh, youhaveahouse 
Tha tigh aca, they have a house 

Am beil tigh againn ? have we 

a house ? 
Cha n-'eil tigh againn, we have 

not a house 



INDE CLINABLE PARTS OF 
SPEECH. 

There are four Indeclin- 
able Parts of Speechin both 
Gaelic and English, viz. 
the Adverb, the Preposition, 
the Conjunction, and the 
Interjection. 

These are divided into 
two classes in Gaelic, viz. 
Simple and Compound. 



THE ADVERB. 

An Adverb is a word 
joined to a verb, adjective, 
or another adverb, to ex- 
press the time, place, or 



PAIRTEAN CAINNT EU-TEAR- 
NACH. 

Tha ceithir Pàirtean 
Cainnt Eu-teàrnach araon 
'sa Ghaelig agus anns a 
Bheurla, eadh. an Co- 
ghniomhar, an Roimhear, an 
Naisgear, agus an Clisgear. 

Tha iad sin sgairte gu dà 
roinn 'sa Ghaelig, eadh, 
Singilt agus Measgta. 



AN CO-GHNIOMHAR. 

Is e Co-ghniomhar focal 
naisgte ri gniomhar, buadh- 
ar, no co-ghniomhar èile, 
dh-airis an time, an aite, no 



• Much the same in the Latin, as, jE^ mihi liber, I have a book ; i.e. a book ìs 
to me. Tha leabharr agam, or ls leahhar dhomh, no leam. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

manner in wliicli a thing is 
done ; as, 

Nouo Peter re&àsjluently, 
he is a very fine boy, and 
writes very ivell. 



FOCLACHADH. 183 

na dòigh air an deanar ni ; 
mar, 

Nis lèughaidh Peadar 
gu glan, is balachan ro 
ghrinn e, agus sgriobhaidh 
e gu ro mhath. 



List of English Adverbs, | Clàr Cho-ghniomharan 
with their corresponding Gaelic Beurla, 'sam feadhain Ghaelig 
ones. I fhreagarach. 

C To be committed to memory.) 



Gaelic. 

Ris, a rithist, a rist 
Roimh so 
Ach beag 
A-mhain, leis fèin 
Cheanna, mar tha 
Daondan, a ghnà 
Gu gràd 

A leth taobh 



Eng. 
Again, 
Ago, 
Almost, 
Alone, 
Already, 
Always, 
Apace, 
Apart, > 
Aside, j 
Asunder, 
At all, 
Away, 
Backward. 
Daily, 

Down, ) g. ^.jjjj^jj j oras 
Downward, \ ' > 
Doubtless, Gun teagamh, gun ag 
Ere, Roimhe, mu'n, mun 

Ever, Riamh, gu bràth 
Enough, Gu leòir 
Exceedingly,Gu h-anabarrach 
Far, afar, Fada, fad'as, an cèin 
^ An tùs, air toiseach, 



As a chèile 
Idir 

Air falbh 

Air ais, gu chùl 

Gach là 



First, 



Forth, 
Forward, 
Haply, 
Here, 
Hither, 
Hence, 
How, 
IU, 



roimh 
A mach, a-mach 
Air aghart 
Theagamh 
An so 

Gu so, an taobh so 
As a so 

Cionnas, cia mar 
Gu h-olc, gu tinn 



Eng. 

Indeed, 

In fine, 

Little, 

Less, 

Least, 

Much, 



Gaelìc. 

Gu dearbh 
Mu dhèireadh 
Beagan, car beag 
A's lugha 
A's lugha, a's bige 
Moran, ro, glè 



More,most,Na's mò, na's ro mhò 



Nay, 

Never, 

No, not, 

Now, 

Oft, often, 

Only, 

Once, 

Perhaps, 

Peradven- 

ture, 
Quite, 
Rather, 
Scarcely, 
Seldom, 
Since, 
Sometimes 



Ni h-eadh, cha n-'eil 
Gu brach, am feasd 
Ni, cha, cha n-e 
Nis, a nis, an dràsda 
Tric, minic, minig 
A mhain, a-bhàn 
Uair- eigin, aon uair 
Theagamh, faodaidh 

| Ma, dh'fheudta* 

Gu tur, gu buileach 
Docha, ni 's toiliche 
Is gann 
Ainmig, tearc 
O chionn, o'n 
, Air uairibh 



So, Mar so, mar sin 

Soon, Gu luath, grad, a chlisge 
Still, Fathast, fòs 
Then, Air an àm sin, uime sin 
Thence, As a sin, o sin 
Thither, Thun sin, do'n àite sin 
There, An sin, 'san aite sin 
Together, Comhlath, maraon 



Also ma dhaoite ; from ma dh'fhaodadh, il it might be. 



184 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Eng. Gaelic. 
Too, Mar an cèudna, fos, 

tuille is, 
To & fro, H-uige 's uaithe 
Thrice, Tri uairean, tri chuairt 
Twice, Dà uair 
Thus, Mar so, air an dòigh so 
Up, up- Suas gu h-àrd 'naird 

wards, 

Viz. (vi- Is e sin ri radh,eadhon 

delicei) 

Some adverbs are compared like Adjectives ; as, ofien, oftener, 
oftenest ; soon, sooner, sooner. 





FOCLACHADH. 


Eng. 


Gaelic. 


Very,verily, Ro, flor, gu fìor 


Well \- 


ftpnrHi rnmìiatll hhnil 

kJCallll, l \J lllllCtLU, ULl UIA 




r"oi* c ar 


When,' 


Cuin, 'nuair 


Whence, 


Cia as, co as 


While, ì 


Am feadh, rè na h- 


Whilst, j 


uine 


Why 


C'arson, 


Yea, yes, 


Seadh, 'se, tha 


Yet, 


Fathast, osbàrr 



Adjectives in English are 
c-hanged into Adverbs by 
adding ly to them ; as, 
sweet,sweet?2/; glad,gladty. 

Adjectives in Gaelic are 
used adverbially by pre- 
fixing gu to them ; as, 



Mthear Co-ghniomharan 
de Bhuadharan 'sa Bheurla 
le ly chur riù ; mar, bad, 
badl^ ; nice, mGQÌy. 

Gnàthaichear Buadharan 
gu co-ghniomharail, 'sa 
Ghaelig le roimh-chur na 
smid gu riù ; mar, 
Gu binn, melodiously; gu h-olc, ill, badly; gu dana^ 
holdly. 

Most English words ending in ly are Adverbs. 



Nouns and A djectwes, 
and also Adverhs, combined 
with the Gaelic Article, and 
with Prepositions, form 
phrases of adverbial mean- 
ing. 

There are many Adverbs 
of this description, and 
such as are commonly used 
are given in the following 
catalogue. 



Tha Ainmearan agus 
Buadharan, agus fòs Co~ 
ghniomharan, co-naisgte ris 
a' Phungar Ghaelig, agus 
ri Boimhearan, a' deanamh 
sheòllairtean,* aig am beil 
seadh co-ghniomharail. 

Thamòran cho-ghniomh- 
aran de 'n dealbh so ann, 
agus cuirear sios a mheud 
'sa glmàthaichear gu tric, 
anns a chlàr-ainm a leanas. 



• Stòl-Iathairt no gnàth-fhoca'. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 185 



Co-GHNIOMHARAN MEASGTA GaE- 

lig, no Seòllairtean co-ghnio- 
mharail ag airis Uine. 

Caelic. 

A cheanna, 

A chianamh, 

A chlisge, 

Air bàll, 

Air a bho 'n de, 

Air a bho 'n raoir, 

Air deireadh, 

Air a mhionaid, 

Air an uair, 

Air toiseach, ) 

Air tùs, J 

Air uairibh, 

Am feadh, 

Am feasd, 

Am màireach, 

An comhnuidh, an conuidh, 

An dè, 

An eeartair (ceart uair), 
An diùgh, 

An dràsda, (tràth so,) 
An earar, (iar thra,) 
An nochd, 
i An raoir, 
An sin, 

An cumaint, gu cumanta, 
An so 
An tràth, 

An uiridh, (uair ruith, 

A so suas, 

As ùr, 

Car uine, 

Cath, 

Cia lion, 

Cia minic, 1 

Cia tric, J 

Comhluath, 

De 'n uair, 

Do la, a là, 

Do dh'-oidhche, 

Do shior, • 

Fa dheòidh, \ 

Fa dheireadh, j 



Compound Gaelic Adverbs, or 
Adverbial Phrases denoting 
Time. 

English. 
Already 

A little while ago 

Soon, quickly 

Immediately, on the spot 

The day before yesterday 

The night before last * 

Last, hindermost 

This moment, immediateìy 

Presently, instantly 

First, at first, foremost 

Occasionally, sometimes 

While, whilst, as long 

For ever 

To-morrow 

Always, continually 

Yesterday 

Just now, this very hour 
To-day 

Now, at this time 
The day after to-morrow 
To-night 
Last night 
Then, thereupon 
Commonly, generally 
Here, hereupon 
When, the time 
Last year 
Henceforward 
Anew, afresh 
For a time 

Incessantly, continually 
How many 

How often 



What time 
By day, daily 
By night 
For ever 

Finally, after, at last 



186 ETYMOLOGY. 

Fo fheasgar, 
Gach bliadhna, 
Gu bràch, gu la bhrath, 
Gu dilinn, (dith linn,) 
Gu minic, gu tric, 
Gu sior, gu siorruidh (sior ruith, 
Gu suthain, 
Mu dheireadh, 
Mu dheireadh thall, 
Mu seach, 
Na thrà, 
O cheann, 
O cheann treis, 
O chian, 

O chian nan ciam, 
Rè seal, 
Bi h-ùine, 
Sa bhliadhna, 



FOCLACHADH. 

Towards evening 
Annually, yearly 
For ever 

To the end of time, for ever 
Often, oft 

ways running,) For ever and ever 
For evermore 
At last, lastly 
At long last 
Alternately, by turns 
Duly, in due time. 
Some time ago, long ago 
A while ago 

Of old, of yore, long ago 
Very long ago, from time immemorial 
For a time 
In time, by and bye 
A year, per annum 



Co-GNIOMHARAN MEASGTA, no 

Seollairtean Co-ghniomharail 
ag airis Aite. 

Gaelic. 

A-bhàn, a-mhàin, 
A bhos, 

A mhàin 'sa 'n àirde, 

An aird, 

A nàll, 

A nùll, nunn, 

A nuas, 

A nios, 

Am fad, 

Am fagus, 

An cois, an còir, 

Air fuaradh, 

Air fasgadh, 

Air 'fhad, 

Air thoiseach, 

Am mach," \ 

A-mach, V 

Am muidh, ) 

An còis, 

An làimh, an sàs, 
A steach, a stigh, 



Compound Adverbs, or Adverbial 
Phrases denoting Place. 

English. 
Down, downwards, only 
On this side, here 
Up and down 
Up, upward 
To this side, over 
To the other side 
From above, down 
Up, from below 
Afar, far 
Near at hand 
Near, nearly 
A-head, a-windward 
Leeward 
Lengthwise 
Foremost, in the van 

Out, abroad, a-field 

At the foot, along with 

In hand, in hold, in custody 

In the house, within, at home 



• Much is a guttural pronunciation of magh, a field, a level country. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 187 

Fad as, Far ofF, far distant 

Le bruthach, ) tì j 

Leleathad, | Down hril, down 

Shios,-ud, Down, yonder 

Shuas,-ud, Up, west yonder 

Thall,-ud, Over yonder 

Urad,-ud, Up yonder 



Seòllairtean Co-ghniomharail ag 
airis Doigh no Buaidh. 

Gaeìic. 

A dh'-aindeòin, 
A dh-aon-obair, 
A dh-aon-bhèum, 
A dheòin, 
A dheoin Dia, 
A mheud, 
A nasgaidh, 
A rireadh, 
Aill air n-àill, 
Air achd, air alt 's, ì 
Air mhodh, air sheòl, J 
Air athais, 
Air àird, 

Air chuthach, ) 
Air bhoil, j 
Air chàll, 
Air chàrn, 
Air chòir, 
Air a chor &in, 
Air a h-uile cor, 
Air chor-eigin, 
Air chuairt, 
Air fògradh, 
Air ghlèus, 

Air iomadan, air siùdan, 
Air iomrall, 
Air seachran, 
Air ionndrainn 
Air lagh, 
Air sgèul, 
Am bitheantas, 
Am feòthas, 
Amhuil, amhluidh, 
'An coinneamh a chinn, 
'An comhair a chinn, 



Adverbial Phrases denoting Man- 

NER Or QUALITY. 
English. 
ln spite of 
Purposely 

At once, with one bite 
Willingly, purposely 
God willing (Deo volente) 
Inasmuch, forasmuch 
Freely, gratis 
In earnest, truly 
Whether willing or not (nolens volens) 

So that, in such a manner that 

Leisurely, slowly 
In order, in train 

Mad, crazy 

Lost, astray 
Outlawed 
Right, well 
In that manner 
At all events 
Somehow or other 
Sojourning 
In exile, banished 
In tune, ready 
Adrift, tossed about 

Astray, a-missing, lost 

Ready, cock'd up 
Found, not lost 
Habitually, commonly 
Better, convalescent 
Like, as 

V Headlong, precipitately 



188 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



j- Backwards 

Wanting, without 
Wishing for 
In pursuit, after 
Topsy-turvy 
Rolling, tumbling 
Heads and thraws 
With the wrong side out, inside ou t 
Astride 

Wrong side up, inverted 
Spontaneously 
» Individually, severally 
Clearly, truly 
Altogether, quite 



'An coinneamh a chùil, 
'An ccmhair a chùil, 
A dhith, 

An dèidh, an geall, 
An tòir, 
Bun-os-cionn, 
Car air char, 
Cas mu seach, 
Caoin air ascaoin, 
Casa gobhlach, 
Cùl-air-thoin, 
Dadheòin, 
Fa leth, 
Gu beachd, 
Gu buileach, gu lèir 
Gun amharus, l 
Gun chèist, ( 
Gun chàird, 
Leth mar leth, 
Le chèile, 
Mu làimh, 
Os àird, 

Os iosal, | 
Thar a chèile, 
Troi chèile, 
Tuille fos, 
Uigh air n-uigh, 

PREPOSITIONS. 
A Preposition is a word 
put before nouns and pro- 
nouns, to show the relation 
thatsubsists between them; 
as, 

" I wentfrom Edinburgh 
io Glasgow, in two hours, 
by the railroad." 

To be got perfectly by heart, — 
to be conned. 

English. 

About, 
Above, 



Doubtless, undoubtedly 

Speedily, incessantly 
Half and half 
Together 

So, so, indifferently 

Openly, publicly 

Privately, secretly 

At variance, (athwart each other) 

Confused, through other 

Moreover 

By degrees, gradually 

ROIMHEARAN. 

*" Is e Boimhear focal a 
chuirear roimh ainmearan 
agus riochdaran a nochdadh 
an t-seasaimh anns am beil 
iad ; mar, 

" Chaidh mi bho Dhun- 
èidin do Ghlaschu, ann an 
dà uair, air an rathad-iar- 
uinn." 

Gu bhi sàr-ionnsuichte air an inn- 
tinn, no 'n teangaidh. 

Gaelic. 

Mu, timchioll, mu 'n cuairt 
Os cionn, os 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



189 



According to, 


Rèir, a rèir 


Across, 


Tar, thar, thair, thairis 


After, 
Against, 


Iar, an dèigh 


Ri, ris, an aghaidh 


Along, 


Le, leis 


Amid, 


Am meadhon 


Amidst, ! 
Among, | 


An, 'am, anns, 


Am measg, 


Amongst, J 




Around, 


Mu, um, mu cuairt 


At, 


Ag, aig, ann 


Athwart, 


Tarsuinn 


Before, 


Roi, roimh 


Behind, 


Air chùl, air cùl 


Below, ) 
Beneath, J 


Fo, fodha, fu, fuidh 


Beside, \ 
Besides, \ 


Fagus, faisg, ri taobh 


Between, ) 
Betwixt, \ 


Eadar, anns a mheadhon 


Beyond, 


Thall, air taobh èile 


By, 


Le, tre, trid, troimh 


Down, 


Le, leis 


During, 


Rè, car 


For, 


Airson, air son 


From, 


0, bho, ua 


Tn, 


Ann', 'am, 'an 


Into, 


Gu, gus 


Instead of, 


An aite 


Near, ) 
NighJ 


Fagus, dlùth 


Of, 


De, do 


Uu, 


Deth, air falbh, bharr 


On, 


Air 


Over, 


Thar, thairis 


Out of, 


A, as, a-mach as 
Seachad, thar 


Past, 



<• Ann denote8 being or existence, corresponding, in many cases, to the English 
word there ; as, Tlia 'n t-uisg ann, It raìns. Am beil thu ann? Are you there ? 
Cha n-'eil famhairean ann a nis, There are no giants now. From ignorance of 
the distinction between this ann and the prepositional pronoun ann, in it, or in 
him, non-grammarians who think in Gaelic, frequently err in such expressions 
as, There was high wind in it last night, for, There was high wind last night. 
Bha gaoth mhòr ann an raoir, There is hard frost in't to-day. Tha ròethadh 
cruaidh ann 'an diùgh, There is no room in it for you. Cha n-'eil [rum ann 
rìut-sa, so, in it, is iimproper in each of these sentences ; but if the speaker refers 
to a noun of the maseuline gender, it is right to use in it ; as, Cha n-'eil rùm ann 
('san tigh) dhuit, There is no room (in the house) for you. 



190 ETYMOLOGY. 

Round, 
Since, 

Through, t 

Throughout,) 

Till, until, 

To, > 

Towards,) 

Under, ì 

Underneath,} 

Unto, 

Up, 

Upon, 

With, 

Within, 

Without, 



FOCLACHADH. 

Mu 'n cuairt, timchioll 
O, bho 

Tre, trid, troimh 
Chum, gu, gus 

Chum, do, gu, gus, ri, ris, dluth, 
thun 

Fo, fodha, &c. 

Do, gu, chum 
'Naird, suas 
Air, air muin 
Le, leis, maille ri 
A stigh 

Gun, dh'-easbhaidh 



ROIMHEARAN GAELIG 
MEASGTA. 
Guelic. 
A choir, do choir, 
A chum, do chum, 
A dhith, de dhith, 
A dh'-ionnsuidh, 
A dh'-easbhaidh, ) 
As eugmhais, j 
A los, air los, 
A rèir, do rèir, 
A thaobh, do thaobh, 
Am fagus do, 
'Am fianuis, ) 
'An làthair, / 
'Am fochair, 
'An aghaidh, 
'An aite, 
'An ceann, 

An codhail, an coinneamh, 
An cois, 
'An dàil, 

An deadhaidh, \ 
An dèigh, an dèis, j 
An èirig, 
An lòrg, 
As leth, 
Do bhrigh, 
Dh'-fhios, 
Air bèulthaobh, 



COMPOUND GAELIC PREPOSI- 
TIONS. 

English. 

Near to 

For the purpose, in order that, for 
For want, without 
To, towards 

Without, in want of 

For the purpose of, for 
According to 

Regarding, respecting, as to 
Near to, nigh to 

In the presence of, before 

With, alongside 
Against, contrary to 
Instead of, in lieu of 
At the head of, among 
To meet 

Along with, at the foot 
Against, (as a foe) 

After, following 

In return, as a ransom for 
In consequence, in the track 
In behalf, for 
Because, since 
To, towards 
Before, in front of 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADII. 191 



Behind, at the back [during 
Through, throughout, among, 

For the love of, on account of 

For the sake of 
On the back, on the top 
In pursuit of, after 
By reason of, because 
Opposite to 
To, towards 
Beside, near, (hand to) 
Along with, together with 
Opposite to 
Round about 
From the top 
Above, overhead 
During, for 

Here, it may be observed, that the use of Compound 



Air cùlthaobh, 
Air fad, air feadh, 
Air ghaol, ) 
Air ghràdh, j 
Air sgàth, 
Air muin, 
Air tòir, 
Fa chùis, 
Fa chomhair, 
Ghios (dh'-ionnsuidh) 
Lamh ri, 
Maille ri, mar, 
Mu choinneamh, 
Mu 'n cuairt, 
O bhàrr, 
Os ceann, 
Rè, 

N.B. 



Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions, or phrases under these 
names, is not peculiar to the Gaelic only, for we fìnd such in 
French also ; as, 

Adv. Peu-etre que, Perhaps, 

Prep. Au derriere, Behind, 

Conj. Au lieu que, Whereas, 



Fèudaidh bhi 

Air deireadh, air cùl 

Air a mheud 's gu 



NAISGEARAN. 

Is e Naisgear focal a 
ghnàthaichear a cho-nasg- 
adh fhocal agus chiallairt- 
ean ri cheile ; niar, Thèid 
thus' agus mise dò^'n sgoil/ 
ach f ànaidh Tearlach aig an 
tigh. 

List of English Conjunctions, Clàr 'Naisearan Beurla 'san 
with their corresponding Gaelic. Gaelic f hreagarrach. 
(To be committed to Memory.) 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

A Conjunction is a word 
used to connect words and 
sentences ; as, You and I 
will go to school, but Chaiies 
will staj at home. 



English. 
Althougb, albeit, 
Though, yet 
Also, 
And, 



Gaelic. 

Ged, ged a, giodh 
Gidheadh, fathast, fòs 
Cuideachd, fòs, agus 
Agus, is, 'us, 'sa, as 's 



192 



FTYMOLOOY 


FOfT A PTT À TÌT-T 


As, 


Mar 


As well as, 


Cho math ri, 


Because, since 


Chionn, o'n, ona 


But, until, 


Ach, mur, gus 


Both, 


Araon, cuideachd 


Either, or, 


An dara cuid, no, dheagh 


For, 


Air, chionn 


However, 


Coma, gidheadh, co dhiubh 


If, if not, 


Ma, na, mur 


Lest, 


Mu, mur, mu 'n, air eagal gu 


Neither, nor, 


Cha, cha mo, ni mò, no, neo 


Nevertheless, 


Gidheadh, ged, 


Notwithstanding, 


Air son sin, gidheadh 


Or, 


Oir 


That, 


Gu, gu'm, gu'n, gur, cburn 


Than,* 


Na 


Unless, 


Mur, saor o 


Whereas, 


A chionn gu, air a mheud 's gu 



Obs Gu'm, gu'n, mu'n, na'm, na'n, are often written gum, 

gun, mun, nam, nan, or gu-m, gu-n, &c. 



Natsgearan Gaelig Measgta. Compound Gaelic Conjunctions. 

Gaelic. English. 
A bharrachd, Besides 
Ach am, an, Until, to see 

A chionn gu, Because that 

Ach co dhiù, ach coma, ach coma dhiu, However, notwithstanding - 



In order that, that 
Either, or 

Therefore (for that cause) 
For that, by reason of that, because 
So that, in such a manner that 
Or else, otherwise 
For fear that, lest 
Though not 

Nevertheless, though it is 
Gun fhios am, an, nach, In case that, notwithstanding, (not knowing) 
lonnus gu, Insomuch, so that 

Mar sin, mar so, Likewise, also, thus, in that way, in this way 
Ma 'se, ma 'seadh, If so, then 



A chum gu, 
An dara cuid, aon cuid, 
Air an aobhar sin, 
Air son sin, do bhrigh, 
Air chor 's, 
Air dheadh, air neo, 
Air eagal gu, d'eagal gu, 
Ged nach, 
Ged tha, ge ta, 



• Than was of old a preposition, and is so still when joined with the relative 
who ; as, " Alt'red, than whom. a better king never reigned but we cannot say 
than him ; we must say, than he. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 193 



Ma ta, 
Mar gu, 
Mar nach, 
Mar b'e, 
Nara, neo nach, 
Sol mu'n, 

Tuille eile, a thuille, 
Uime sin, 



Well then, if it is 
As if, like as if 
As if not 
Were it not 
Or not 
Ere, before 

Moreover, furthermore 
Therefore (about that) 



INTERJECTIONS. CLISGEARAN. 

Au Interjection is a word Is e Clisgear focal a 
which expresses a quick nochdas mothachadh gèur, 
feeling, ora sudden emotion no gluasad grad na h-innt- 
of the mind; as, Oh ! me. inn ; mar, Oh ! mise. 

Interjections or phrases which give vent to sensations 
of the mind are numerous in Gaelic, but the followiug 
are such as are most commonly used. 

English. Gaelic. 



Adieu ! 


Slan leat ! Dia leat ! 


Alas ! 


Och ! oh ! obh ! 


Alack ! 


Mo thruaighe ! 


Ah ! aha ! 


A hath ! 


Away ! \ 
Begone ! j 


Bi falbh ! Thoir as ! 


Behold ! 


Seall ! seull ! faic ! fèuch 


Ha! 


He ! ho ! 


Hail ! 


Failte ! slainte 


Hark ! hush ! 


Cuist ! uist ! ist ! tosd ! 


Halloo ! hoy ! 


Ho ! haoi ! 


Hum ! 


Um ! hum ! 


Hut! 


Ud ! hud ! tud ! phud ! 


Hurra ! hurra ! 


Holo ! horo ! 


Hist! 


Uist ! cuist ! 


Hey-day ! 


H-eia ! obh ! 


! Oh ! me ! 


mise ! ciod è so ! 


Och! 


Oich ! 


strange ! 


nach neònach ! 


brave ! 


Gu trèun ! gasda ! 


Pshaw ! 


Pugh ! puth ! fich ! 


See ! 


Faic ! sin agad ! 


Well-a-day ! 


Mo chreach ! mo sgarradh 


Yes yes ! 


Seadh seadh! 



N 



194 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH, 



CLISGEARAN GAELIG. 

Gaelic. 

Ab ab ! 
Ad ad ! 
Eudail ! 
Faire ! Faire ! 
Fuigh ! futh ! fich ! 



Ibh ibh 
Ubh! ubhl 
Ud ud ! 



*P *P 



GAELIC INTERJECTIONS. 
English. 
No no ! shame ! fy ! 
Whatwhat! no no ! 
Dear ! dear ! 
Ay ay ! what ! 
Pshaw ! hut ! hut ! 
Fy fy ! nasty ! 
AlaSj alas ! mercy on us ! 
Pity pity ! fy ! 



Several other phrases are frequently used ; such as, 
Ochoin ! Och nan ochan ! Och is ochan nan och èire ! Mo 
chreach ! Mo lèir chreach ! Mo leòn ! Mo thruaighe lèir ! Alas ! 
Pity me ! Woe is (to) me ! Mo nàire ! Mo naire shaoghalta ! 
Mo mhasladh ! (My) shame, disgrace! fy ! A mhic cridhe ! Son 
ofmy heart ! O dear ! H-ugad ! at thee ! H-ugaibh, at you ! take 
care ! A shaoghail bhreugaich, bu tu 'n carraiche ! O deceitful 
world, ihou art a cheat ! 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ENG- 
LISH PARTS OF SPEECH. 

Some words are some- 
times used as one part of 
speech, and sometimes as 
another. 



BEACHDACHADH AIR NA PAIRT- 
EAN CAINNT BETJRLA. 

Gnàthaichear cuid a dh- 
fhocaìl, air uairibh, mar 
aon phàirt cainnt, agus air 
uairibh, mar phàirt cainnt 
èile. 

kind are, — as, but, either, 



The chief words of this 
neither, enough, for, much, more, most, since, that ; thus — 

As is used both as a relative* pronoun and as an ad- 
verb. As is a relative when preceded by the indeflnite 
pronoun such, and an adverb when expressive of com- 
parison or equality ; thus — The master gives such ad- 
vices as delight me ; i.e. advices ivhich delight me. He 
is as bold as a lion ; i.e. equally bold. 

Some think that as, in such phrases as As bold as, As great as, 
Slc. is a conjunction ; but when it is considered that as expresses 
a degree of equality in these and in similar instances, there is no 
ground for entertaining such a notion, because the office of a con- 

* See p. 99, Obs. 2. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 195 



junction is to connect words, and not to express degree of the 
quality denoted by them. 

But is used as a conjunction when ìt connects words, 
as an adverb when it implies only, and as a preposition 
when it denotes except. Thus, John reads, but Peter 
writes. We are but of yesterdaj. Nothing but true 
piety can give you true peace. 

Either and neither, without their correlatives or and 
nor, are used as distributive pronouns, but, coupled with 
or and nor, as conjunctions ; thus, I will take either of 
these two apples. Neither of my friends was there. 
Either go or stay. Some can neither read nor write. 

Enough, when denoting a sufficiency, is an independent 
noun, but when joined to an adjective, it is an adverb ; 
thus, We have enough of rain. This rope is long enough ; 
or to another adverb ; as, well enough. 

For, when it signifies because, or on account of, is a 
conjunction, and a preposition when it signifìes to or in 
favour of ; thus, I yielded, for it was vain to resist. A 
pen for me. 

Much, more, and most are adjectives when they qualify 
nouns, but in every other case they are adverbs ; thus, 
In most Highland districts much wool is reared annually, 
but more would be acceptable to the farmer, who has 
often a heavy rent to pay. I was most certainly much 
delighted with the present you sent me, the more so, as 
I did not expect it. 

The noun is often suppressed after much an adjective ; 
thus, To whom much is given, of him much shall be re- 
quired, i.e. much favour and much gratitude. 

Since, when it signifies because, is a conjunction ; when 
it signifìes from, a preposition ; and when it signifies ago, 
an adverb ; thus, Since youhave come, I may go. Since 
that day. We have been acquainted with each other 
long since. 

That is used as a demonstrative, a relative pronoun, and 
a conjunction ; thus, Give me that book, the book that h 
iii your hand, that I may read it. 



196 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



As it is often difficult for the young learner to dis- 
tinguish whether that is a demonstrative, a relative, or a. 
conjunction, in many cases, the following simple direc- 
tions are given to assist him. 

That is a demonstrative when it stands directly before 
a noun, or when a noun is pointed out by it ; as, That 
pen is mine ; speak to that man. 

That is a relative when it refers to a noun or pronoun, 
or a clause going before it, or when it can be turned into 
■ivho or which without destroying the sense ; as, The days 
that or which are past will never return. 

That is a conjunction when it marks a consequence, 
an end, or cause ; as, I read, that I may learn. My 
wish is that you may he happy. 



DlFFERENCE BETWEEN SHALL 
AND WILL EXPLAINED. 

Shall, in the first person of 
both numbers, only foretells or 
denotes future action ; as, 

I or we shall write to-mor- 
row. 

Shall, in the second and third 
person of both numbers, denotes 
duty, or obligation, or what one 
ought to do ; as, 

Thou shaìt love thy neigh- 
bour. 



Ye shall keep my statutes. 

He or they shall do justice. 

Will, in the first person, de- 
notes volition or intention, or 



EADAR-DHEALACHADH SHALL 
AGUS WILL MINICHTE. 

Tha shall 'sa cheud phearsa 
de 'n dà àireimh a roimh-inns- 
eadh no 'nochdadh gniomha gu 
teac ; mar, 

Sgriobhai'c?/* mi, no sinn am 
màireach. 

Tha shall anns an dara, agus 
anns an treas pearsa a ciallach- 
adh dleasannais, no ceangail, no 
na's còirdo neach a dheanamh ; 
mar, 

Gràdhaichidh tu do choimh- 
earsnaeh, i.e. Is còir dhut do- 
choimhearsnach a ghràdhach- 
adh. 

Gleidhidh sibh mo reachdan, 
i.e. Is còir dhuibh mo reachdan 
a ghleidheadh. 

Niesan, no iadsan ceartas, i.e. 
Is còir dha-san, no dhoibh-san 
ceartas a dheanamh. 

Tha Will 'sa cheud phearsa 
a ciallachadh tcile, no ràin, no 



ETYMOLOGY. 

what one resolves to do, of his 
ewn accord ; as, 

I w'dl take a drink. 

We will sell the horse. 

Wiìl, in the second and third 
person, commonly foretells or 
denotes future action ; as, 

You will write to-morrow. 

From the foregoing explana- 
tion, the following arrangement 
of shall and will is deduced. 

To express future action or 
event : — 

I shall write, sgriobhaidh mi, 
Thou wilt write, sgriobhaidh tu, 
He will write, sgriobhaidh e, 

To express volition or duty, 



FOCLACHADH. 197 

na tha neach a' rùnachadh a 
dheanamh le thoil fèin ; mar, 

Gabhaidh mi deòch, i.e. Is 
àill leam deòch a ghabhail. 

Reicidh sinn an t-each, ì.e. 
Is àìll leinn an t-each a rèic. 
Tha Will anns an dara, agus 
■ anns an treas pearsa gu cumanta 
'roimh-innseadh, no a ciallachadh 
gniomha gu teac ; mar, 

Sgnobhaidh tu, no sibh am 
màireach. 

O 'n mhineachadh roimh so, 
; cuirear shall agus will anns an 
t-suidheachadh a leanas. 

A nochdadh gniomha gu 
teac : — 

We shall write, sgriobhaidh sinn 
You will write, sgriobhaidh sibh 
They will write, sgriobhaidh iad 

A nochdadh rùin, no dleasannais, 
&;ce. 



I will write, 
Thou shalt write, 
He shall write, 
We will write, 
You shall write, 
They shall write, 

The import of shall and will, 
as explained above, is reversed 
when the sentence is interro- 
gative ; as, 

Shall I write ? that is, Wìll 
yon allow me to write ? 

Will Peter come to-morrow ? 
i e. Is it Peter's intention to 
come ? 

The same explanation applies 
to shall and will in their past 
tenses, where tbey are generally 



Is àill leam sgriobhadh 
Is còir dhut sgriobhadh 
Is còir dha sgriobhadh 
Is àill leinn sgriobhadh 
Is còir dhuibh sgriobhadh 
Is còir dhoibh sgriobhadh. 

Cul-athairraichear seadh shall 
agus willo^u mhìneachadh roimh 
so, ann a ciallairt ceisteach ; 
mar, 

An sgriobh mi ? is e sin, 
An leig thu dhomh sgriobhadh. 

An tig Peadar am màireach ? 
i.e. An e rùn Pheadair tighinn ? 

Gabhaidh shall agus wilì am 
mineachadh cèudna 'nan timean 
seachadail far am bheil iad gu 



108 ETYMOLOGY. 

dependent upon some circum- 
stance. 

Were I in London, I should 
soon see the Tower. 

Thou shouldst love thy neìgh- 
bour. 

I would take a drink. 
Had I time, I would write. 



FOCLACHADH. 

cumanta co-chrochte ri cùis 
àraid. 

Na'n robh mi 'an Lunuinn, 
clùthinn an Tàr gu luath. 

Bu chòir dhut do choimhear- 
snach a ghràdhachadh. 

Ghabhainn deòch, i.e. Bha 
rùn orm deòch a ghabhail. 

Na'n robh tim agam sgriobb- 
ainn. 



Should is often used instead of ought, to denote duty or obliga- 
tion ; as, " We should remember the poor." We ought to obey 
God rather than men." 

It is to be observed, that will, and its past would, are frequently 
found in explicative sentences, to denote volition or intention in 
the second and third person, equally strong as they do in the first 
person : — Thus, " Ye ivillnot cometo me that ye may have life." 
a He says he will bring ten apples for me to-morrow." " And he 
was angry and would not go in." 



EXERCISES ON THE IN- 
FLECTION OF WORDS. 

THE NOUN. 
Number. — What numher is 
each of the following Nouns 
in? 

Ant, ark, arclies, boar, 
birds, bull, cat, candle, desk, 
companies, duke, ducks, 
dogs, ear, ferry, giii, iron, 
inch, hens, kid, ladder, 
raaids, men, nests, oar, 
onions, paw, stream, pence, 
people, question, regent, 
tojs, unit, visage, vagrants, 
wives. 



CLEACHDADH AIR TEAR- 
NADH FHOCALAN. 

AN T-AINMEAR. 
Aireamh. — Co an àireamh 
anns am beil gach ainmear a 
leanas. 

Seangan, àirc, boghan,* 
torc, eòin, tàrbh, cat, coinn- 
eal, crinlean, cuideachdan, 
diuc, tunnagan, coin, cluas, 
aiseag, nighean, iarunn, 
òirleach, cearcan, meann, 
fàradh, òighean, daoine, nid, 
ràmh, uinneanan, màg, 
sruth, sgillinnean, pobull, 
cèist, tainistear, àilleagan- 
an, aon, aghaidh, baigearan, 
mnàthan. 



* Or boghachan. See page 72, under Pluruls. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 199 



Write, tell, or spell, the plural 
of-— 

Age*, ass, armj, arrow, 
boy, brush, candle, child, 
chair, city, cow, dolt, daisy, 
elbow, fly, fox, fish, goose, 
goat, grandee, hare, horse, 
hero, idol, inch, jelly,kettle, 
knife, lord, mule, monarch, 
nail, negro, (black man,) 
oar, pool, pass,penny, queen, 
rostrum, scarf, stratum, 
volcano, watch, whiff. 



Point out which of the following 
nouns admit of a plural num- 
òer. 

Awl, Babel,body, Charles, 
church, elm, hank, Holland, 
ìsland, Ireland, kingdom, 
mass, Moses, Nile, Scot- 
land, town. 

IIow do you form the Plural 
of- 

Chief, child, die or dye, 
dwarf, elf, fife, folio, gas, 
genus, genius, grotto, hoof, 
index, joy, magus, mouse, 
memorandum, nebula, ox, 
pea, radius, stimulus, se- 
raph, tooth, tyro, vortex. 



Sgriobh, innis, no càb àireamh 
iomadh : — 

Aois, asal, àrmailt, saigh- 
ead, balachan, bruis, coinn- 
eal, leanabh, cathair, baile, 
bò, burraidh, neònan, uile- 
ann, cuileag, sionnach, iasg, 
geadh, gobhar, flath, maigh- 
each, eàch, gaisgeach, iodh- 
al, òirleach, slàoaan, coire, 
sgian, tighearn, muilead, 
righ, ionga, dubh-dhuine, 
(nìgear,) ràmh, pòll, slighe, 
sgillinn, bàn-righ, gob, fall- 
uinn, breath, beann-theine, 
freiceadan, toth. 

Comharraich a-mach co de na 
h-ainmearan a leanas, a 
ghabhas, an air. iomadh. 

Minidh, Babel, corp, 
Tearlach, eaglais, leamhan, 
iarna, an Olaind, eilean, 
Erinn, rioghachd, dùn, 
Maois, Nìlus, Alba, baile. 

Cia mar a chumas tu aireamh 
lomadh. — 

Ceann-feadhna, leanabh, 
disne, luspardan, sithiche, 
feadan, shite-mhor, ceò, 
gnè, spiorad, uamh, ladhar, 
clàr-innsidh, aoibhneas, 
oir-dhruìdh, luch, cuimhne- 
achan, neul, damh, peasair, 
ròth, prodadh, aingeal, fiac- 
ail, sgoilear, cuairteag. 



• The pupil should write the plural of nouns, the degrees of adjectives, and 
the different tenses of verbs on his slate, or on paper. 



200 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Correct the errors in the fol- 
lowing expressions : — 

Sturdj oxes, six gooses, 
joung calfs, eight inchs, 
an animal of four foots is 
called a quadrupead, he 
has three childs, clever 
boies, fine ladjs, old wifes, 
three dwarves, drj potatos. 



Ceartaich na mearachdan anm 
na briathran a leanas : — 

Damhan ghramail, sea 
geadhan, laoghan oga, ochd 
oirleachan, theirear ceithir- 
chasach ri beathach chei- 
thir chasanan, tha triur 
phaistich aige, balachanich 
ealanta, bain-tighearnich 
fìnealta, seann, bheanan, 
tri luspardaneich, buntatas 
tioram. 



GeNder — What is the Gender Gin. — Ciod e Gin agus 
and Gaelic of — Gaelig — 

Man, pen, king, table, father, fork, tree, girl, grass, 
book, parent, spawner, stone, dog, wife, drake, candle, 
horse, chair, hen, knife, stag, woman, friar, pot, ewe, 
cask, lion, boj, milk, cow, turnip, sun, moon ? 

What is the Feminine and the Ciod i Boireanta agus Gaelig, 
Gaelic, in both genders, of — 'san dà ghin, aig — 

Author, actor, beau, boar, boj, benefactor, bridegroom, 
colt, count, chanter, cock-sparrow, czar, drake, duke, 
director, earl, executor, father, gander, giant, hart, heir, 
husband, milter, monk, lad, nephew, peer, poet, shepherd, 
tiger, testator, viscount ? 

Tell the Gender and English of — Airis Gin agus Beurla air — 
Aba, adhar, àllt, bean, baile, bò, buitseach, bòrd, 
boirionnach, capull, caile, cearc, ciabhag, crinlean, 
damh, dorus, dòrn, dealg, each, earb, èisempleir, eun, 
èud, fàmhair, fraoch, fear, fiadh, focal, gille, gleann, 
innis, iris, isbean, làmh, là, lasadh, mac, muc, mealg, 
nighean, neònan, òsag, peann, righ, rèult, smaladair, tè, 
tigh, uinneag, uiseag, ubh. 

Correct — Ceartaich — 

John is a good girl. Is math a' chaileag Iain. 
Peter is a bride. This is Tha Peadar 'na bhean- 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 20! 



Jane, my brother. Charles 
the Secondwasa bad queen. 

Case. — What case is each qf 
the following Nouns in ? 

Father, bird's nest, bee, 
raother's afFection, stone, 
sow's mouth, cat's ear, 
foot's, deer's horn, table, 
knife's sheath, man's head, 
friend, dogs, James' 
shoes, goat's skin, woman's 
gown, hen's egg, to win- 
dows, shoe's latchet. 



bainnse. Is i so Sine, mo 
bhràthair. Bu droch bhàn- 
righ Tearlach an Dara. 

Car. — Ciod an car anns am beil 
gach aon Ainmear a leanas f 

Athair, nead eòin, seill- 
ean, giàdh mathar, clach, 
beul muic, cluas cait, coise, 
cròc fèidh, bòrd, truaill 
sgine, ceann fir, a charaid, 
còin,brògan Shèumais, bian 
goibhre, gùn mnà, ubh, 
circe, uinneagaibh, iall 
broige. 



Article Point out the Engìish and Gaelic Articles in the 

following expressions, and tell the Number, Gender, and Case of 
the Gaelic Article, and also of the Nouns in both languages : — 



The river's brink. A 
piece of bread. The town 
of David. The nipple. 
Paul's epistle. The pens' 
point. The virgin's hand. 
Saul's father. The eagle's 
nest (aerie.) A dog's snout. 

The kingdom of heaven. 
The middle of the desert. 
Side of the sea. The chair's 
foot. The burn's side. The 
price of fish. The widow's 
house. Head of the coun- 
trv. The dawn of day. 
The purpose of the people. 
End of the house. 

Water of the well. The 
Church of Scotland. The 
Saviour's love. The foot 



Bruach na h-aibhne. 
Mìr arain. Baile Dhaibh- 
idh. Ceann na cìche. Litir 
Phòil. Ruinn a' phinn. 
Làmh na h-òigh. Athair 
Shauil. Nead na h-iolaire. 
Bus coin. 

Rioghachdneimh. Meadh- 
on na fàsaich. Taobh na 
mara. Cas na cathrach. 
Taobh an ùillt. Pris an 
èisg. Tigh na bantraich. 
Bràigh na dùcha. Camhan- 
aich an là. Rùn an t-sloigh. 
Ceann an tighe. 

Uisg an fhuarain. Eag- 
lais na h-Alba. Gaol an 
t-Slànuigheir. Bun a 



202 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLA CHADH. 



of the glen. The sons of 
strangers. The land of 
hills. Vanity of vanities. 

Under the sun. To the 
light. On the table. 
poet. On the stack. In 
the night. At the windows. 
In the cleft of the rock. 

His eyes are as the eyes 
of doves by the rivers of 
waters. 



ghlinne. Siol nan gàll. 
Tìr nam beann. Diomh- 
anas nan diomhanas. 

Fo n ghrèin. Ris an 
t-solus. Air a'bhòrd. A 
bhàird. Air a' chruaicli. 
Anns an oiche. Aig na 
h-uinneagaibh. Ann an 
sgoltadh na creige. 

Tha a shuilean mar 
shuilibh choluman laimh ri 
sruthaibh uisgeachan. 



Decline these nouns orally, and Teàrnna h-Ainmearan solefocal 
in writing, giving the Gaelic beòil, agus 'an sgriobhadh, a 
for each of them : — toirt Gaelig air gach aon dià: 

Father, author, gun, lady, Peter, valley, parent, king, 
hill, boy, city, glass, man, cork, apple, woman, hen. 

Decline these in the same man- Teàrn iad so air an dòigh 
ner, giving the English for cheudna, a cur BeurV air 
each : — gach aon : — 

Abstol, abhainn, àllt, àth, adag, balg, bean, bùrn, bò, 
bian, buachaill, cearc, cù, coinneal, damh, deòch, dias, 
dòrn, dinneir, druim, dubhan, duine, eag, eagal, ealach, 
eòlas, eun, fàng, fear, fannachadh, fasgadan, firean, 
focal, galar, gasag, gaoth, gob, gèinn, iasgair, im, innis, 
iteag, laoch, leac, long, Màrg, minead, min, naomh, neul, 
òrd, òglach, paipeir, preas, pian, piob, ràmh, rànn, rùn, 
saoghal, sgoil, sgian, sgèul,Sèumas,tonn, trudair, cuilean, 
ursainn, ubh. 



PARSING OF ARTICLES AND 
NOUNS. 

Parse the following sentences, 
first pointing out the Articles 
and NouriSj then telling the 
Number, Gender, and Case of 



PAIRTEACHADH PHUNGAIREAN 
AGUS AINMEARAN. 

Pàirtich na ciallairteana leanas, 
air tàs a comharrachadh a 
mach nam Pungaran 's nan 
Ainmearan, an sin innis 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 203 



English Nouns, and of hoih 
the Article and Nouns in 
Gaelic : — 

John struck tlie desk. 
Peter took John's pen. 

I left Ann's book on the 
table. 

My father's house stands 
at the foot of the glen. 

There is no snaoke in the 
lark's house. 

James gave his brother 
an orange for a pear. 

The shoemaker's son 
bought a pair of shoes for 
the carpenter's daughter. 

Many men and women 
fromthe Highlands of Scot- 
land go to the South for 
employment in the time of 
harvest. 

A good man obtaineth 
favour of the Lord ; but a 
man of wicked devices will 
be condemned. 

The shepherd drove the 
sheep and the oxen towards 
the city, when he saw the 
wolves coming. 

THE ABJECTIVE. 
Tell and spell the Comparatives 
artd Superlatives of the fol- 
ìowing English and Gaelic 
Adjectives ; — 
Eng. Gael. 

Able, comasach 
Ample, farsuing 



Aireamh, Gin, agus Car nan 
Ainmearan Beurla, agus nam 
Pungaran 'snan Ainmearan 

Gaelig le chèile :— 

Bhuail Iain an crinlean. 

Ghabh Peadar peann 
Iain. 

Dh'-fhàg mileabhar Anna 
air a' bhòrd. 

Tha tigh m' athar 'na 
sheasamhaigbun a'ghlinne. 

Cha n-'eil ceò 'an tigh na 
h-uiseige. 

Thug Sèumas oraisd d'a 
bhràthair airson pèura. 

Cheannaich mac a' ghreus- 
aiche paidhir phrògdo nigh- 
inn an t-saoir. 

Tha mòran dhaoine agus 
bhan o Ghaeltachd na hr- 
Alba 'dol gu Deas airson 
oibre aig àm an fhoghair. 

Gheibh duine maith 
deadh-ghean o'n Tighearn ; 
ach ditear fear nan droch 
innleachd. 

Ghreas an cìbear na 
caoraich agus na daimh 
thun a bhaile,'nuair a chun- 
naic e na faolan a tighinn. 

AM BUADHAR. 

Innis agus cùb Coìmeasaich 
agus Anardaich nam buadh- 
aran Beurla 's Gaelig a 
leanas : — 

Eng. Gael. 

Assiduous, dichiollach 
Bad, olc 



204 ETYMOLOGY. 



Eng. 

Beautiful, 

Big, 

Cruel, 

Coy, 

Cold, 

Ductile, 

Evil, 

Good, 

Happy, 

Hot, 

Keen, 

Little, 



Gael. 

boidheaoh 

mòr 

borb 

nàrach 

fuar 

s ùbailte 

aingidh 

math 

sòlasach 

teth 

dian 

beag 



FOCLACHADH. 

Eng. Gael. 

Noble, uasal 
Numerous, lionmhor 
Old, sean 
Pretty, grinn 
Pure, glan 
Pungent, gèur 
Rash, bràs 
Sensible, mothachail 
Tight, teann 
Tenacious, righinn 
White, geal 
Worthy, toillteannach 

Co an cèum Coimeasachaidh 
anns am beil, agus ciod i 
Gaelig — 



In what degree of Comparison 
is, and what is the Gaelic 
of- 

Arable, better, coldest, dutiful, best, prettiest, warm, 
more faithful, sound, most useful, worse, most, low, next, 
colder, more mountainous, wet, near, blackest, tall, in- 
ferior, supreme, superior, older, universal, uttermost ? 

What is the degree and Ciod e cèum agus Beurla — 
English of'- — 

Aluinn, gile, fearr, bàn, duibhe, trom, cinntiche, mòr, 
donad, deirge lugha, sunndaiche, mò, teòtha, dunail, 
cruinne, truimead, òg, cuinge moid, beag, miosa, mais- 
iche, milse, bigead, dorra, buidhre, fearaile, ro mhath, 
gle bheag, treasa. 



Correct — 

Wisdom is preciouser 
than gold. 

An elephant is power- 
fuler and mightyer than a 
horse. 

Though John is littler, he 
is a gooder scholar, and a 
attentiver boy than James. 



Ceartaich — 
maithe 



gliocas na'n 



L 

t-òr. 

Is e elephant a's laidire, 
agus a's cumhachdache 
na each. 

Ged is e Iain a's beage 
'se scoilear, a's maithe agus 
balachan, a's curamache 
na Sèumas. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 205 



A pound of feathers is 
of greater bulk, but not 
heavyer than a pound of 
lead. 

The eye is the prettyest 
and the usefulest niember 
of the body. 



Is e pùnnd itean a's rnora 
tomad ach cha n-'eil e ni's 
troma na pùnnd luaidhe. 

Is i 'n t-sùil bàll a's 
boidheache agus a's lèum- 
aila de'n chorp. 



THE PROXOUN. 

What kind of Pronoun is, and 
what is the Gaelic of, 



AN PJOCHDAR. 

Ciod e'n Seorsa' riochdair de'm 
beil, agus c' ainm Gaelig air, 



He, who, thou, thy, we, this, you, their, yon, our, 
any, they, what, she, his, whether, self, whoever, every, 
which, all, each, it, that, I ? 



Tell the person, number, gen- 
der, and case of each of the 
following pronouns. 



Innis pearsa, àireamh, gin, 
agus car gach aon de na 
riochdaran a leanas. 



Me, I, them, us, you, she, its, ours, thine, hers, him, 
he, ye, yours, it, mine, her, thee, we, these, whom, those, 
this, whose, himself, that, themselves. 



First tell what ìcind of pronoun 
is each ofthe following. Then 
tell the person, number, and 
gender of such of them as are 
declinable — giving the English 
for each. 



Air tus infiis ciod an seorsa 
riochdair a ta anns gach aon 
a leanas. An sin ainmich 
pearsa, àireamh, agus gin a 
mheud dhiu y sa tha teàrnach 
— a cur BeurV air gach aon. 



Tu, iad, mi, sinn, i, sibh, e, iadsan, mise — a, na, nach 
— ar, bhur, a, am, a, mo, do, an — so, sin, sid, ud — fèin, 
èile, co, ciod, cia — a h-uile — mi-fèin — agam, aige, aice, 
air, innte, ann, leam, leatha, ris, rithe, orm, orra, uime, 
umpa, leò, leis, leinn, dhomh, as, asainn, dòibh. 
PXrsing. — Point out the articles, nonns, adjectives, and pronouns 

in thefollowing sentences ; tell the number, gender, and case of 

nouns and pronouns, — the degrees of adjectives, and the person 

of pronouns. 

I love the boy who loves Is toigh leam am balachan 
his lesson. a ghiàdhaicheas a leasan. 



20G ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



We are sorrj for these 
idle bojs. 

The girl who gained the 
third prize last jear is dux 
dailj, this jear; she merits 
the highest praise. 

Beware of pleasure, 
which is a deadlj poison to 
men. 

Manj men, whose lot is 
poor in this world, are, in 
point of mental qualitj, 
superior to some persons 
that (who) are verj rich. 

Things which are scarcest 
are often the best ; and 
things that are next us are 
sometimes of less value in 
ourejes, thanthose (things) 
that are far from us. 



Tha sinn duilich airson 
nam balachanan diomhan- 
ach so. 

_ Tha 'chaileaga bhuann- 
aich an treas duais, an uir- 
idh, 'na ceannard gach la 
am bhliadhna ; is airidh i 
air a' chliù a's airde. 

Cuitich sògh a ta 'na 
nimh bàsmhor do dhaoin- 
ìbh. 

Tha mòran dhaoine aig 
am beil crannchur bhochd 
'san t-saoghal so, a thaobh 
buaidh inntinneil os ceann 
cuid, a tha gle stòrasach. 

Is iad nithe a's gainne 
gu tric a's fearr, agus tha 
nithe a's faisge dhuinn, air 
uairibh de luach a's lugha 
ann ar suilibh na iad sin 
a ta fada uainn. 



THE VERB. AN GNIOMHAR. 

Regular Verbs — to be conju- Gniomharan Rialtach — gulld 
gated like the verb u Tofold." sgèadaichie mar tha an gniomh- 

ar "To Jold." 

Appoint, attend, believe, bestow, command, conduct, 
defend, divide, emploj, flnish, gain, laugh, mourn, notice, 
open, prove, request, walk. 

Irregular Verbs — to be conjugatcd like the verb " To •wring" or 
" To do," in Engl'tsh, giving the Gaelic for each. 

Arise, blow, buj, cleave, come, crow, draw, eat, feel, 
get, give, hold, keep, lend, meet, put, see, show, slaj, 
strike, teach, tell, weep, write, win, bring, cut. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 207 



GAELTC VERBS 

To be conjugated in their respec- 
tive conjugations. 



GNIOMHARAN GAELIG 

Gu Ihi geasdaichte, gach aon y na 
sgeadachadh fein. 



Gael. 


Eng. 

unite 


Gael 










Fàs, 


grow 


Màsr. 


creep 


A rflflìrli 


exalt 


Feòraicb, 


inquire 


Mill, 


spoil 


Bàist, 


baptise 


Fosgail, 


open 


Mèudaicb, 


increase 


Bris, 


break 


Gabb, 


take 


Mòl, 


praise 


Cum, 


form 


Glac, 


catcb 


Pòs, 


marry 


Dit, 


condemn 


Glòiricb, 


glorify 


Pàigh, 


pay 


Diricb, 


straighten 


Innis, 


tell 


Rèub, 


tear 


Diùlt, 


refuse 


Iomair, 


row 


Rèitich, 


reconcile 


Eisd, 


listen 


Lèugb, 


read 


Saodaich, 


drive 


Earb, 


trust 


Lean, 


follow 


Sgaol, 


scatter 


Stàmp, 


trample 


' Taom, 


spill 


i Uraich, 


renew 



What part of the Verb is — Co an lùb de'n Ghniomhar, anns 

am beil — 

Attending, believed, to defend, being commanded, 
fìnished, feel, struck, to have gained, about to speak, 
kept, come and see, bought, having proved, told, eaten, 
having been, sworn, uniting, opened, to catch, been, be, 
to be? 

SIMPLE TENSES. TIMEAN SINGILT. 

Tell thc Person, Number^ Tense, Innis Pearsa, Aireamh, Tim f 
and Mood of- — agus Modh — 

I am, he is, we are, thou art, he was, you were, thou 
wast, I were, thou wert, ye were, he breaks, they fold, 
she sang, you spoke, thou hearest, we write, they hove, 
we fled, they wept, I had, come thou, we will, to be, 
they rose, we divided, he prayeth, be ye, he cuts, to 
stand, girls sing, boys play, the house fell. 



COMPOUND TENSES. TIMEAN MEASGTA. 

Tell the Person, Number, fyc. Innis um Pearsa, an Aireamh, 
of— $ce. aig-. 

I have been, we had been, he has been, we shall be, 
they would be, thou shouldst be, ye would have been, 
we may be, he could be, they can have been, we might 
have been, to have been, having been. 



208 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



I have folded,* he had loved, you will read, I shall 
write, we should pray,f you would have sold, he may go, 
thou canst spell, they might finish, thou mayest have 
spoken, we could have walked, to have loved, having re- 
quested. The post has arrived. 

Passive form. — I am ordered, he is struck, thou art 
loved, we are informed, it is finished, he was requested, 
we were prepared, thou wast beaten, he hath been told, 
you have been sent, we had been taken, thou hadst been 
taught, it will be sold, we shall be raised, I should be 
taken, you would be exalted, thou wilt have been heard, 
we should have been helped, he shall have been seen, 
we may be held, they can be paid, thou couldst be found, 
they might be felt, I may have been known, we might 
have been united, to be sent, being loved, to have been 
written, been chosen, about to eat, having been told, be 
thou served, be advised. The knife is sharpened. 

In what Forni, Voìce, Person, §c. are the following parts of the 
Verb ?— 

I am teaching. Thou dost learn. They are playing. 
Tliou dost write. We do walk. Thou arfc siuging. They 
did tell. I was building. We did sew. They were 
reading. You did hear. He has been sleeping. I had 
been asking. They will be talking. He should have 
been reading. I can be speaking. Being loving. Be 
working. To be weaving. I was being folded. The 
house is being built. 



• The pupil should parse compound tenses in two ways, thus ; — lhave is the 
first person singular of the present tense of the indicative active of the irregular 
verb have, had, having, had ; and folded is the perfect participle of the regular 
verb fold, folded, folding, folded. Or / have folded is the present perfect of th« 
compound verb, formed by combining the help have with the specifìc verb fold. 

•f We should is the first person plural, past tense of the indicative of the irregu- 
lar verb shall, should; a.nàpray ìs the present iufinitive active of the regular verb 
pray, prayed, praying, pruyed. Or, we should pray, is the first nerson plurat, 
past future of the indicutive of the compound yerb, &c. 



ETYMOLOCfY. 



FOCLACHADH. 209 



Point out the Adverbs, Prepo- 
sitions, and Conjunctions, in the 
folloioing sentences : — 

We often hear men with- 
out knowledgespeakboldlv. 
In the East, people gener- 
ally wore sandals. 

From that day even to 
this hour. 

John is now an old man, 
there is a long time since 
I became acquainted vrith 
him. She speaks fluently, 
and sings sweetly ; but I 
do not like her capers. 
Come again, and remain 
longer. The boat sailed 
from this port three days 
ago. 

We should neyer speak 
or think ill of any person. 

The oftener we see a 
thing, the less we care for 
it. 

Let them go over. but 
stav ye here. 



Comharraich a-mach na Co- 
ghniomharan, na Roimhearan, 
agus na Nuisgearan, anns na 
ciallairtibh a lcanas : — 

Is tric a chluinneas sinn 
daoine gun eòlas a' labhairt 
gu dana. Anns an Ear 
chaith sluagh gu cumanta' 
cuaranan. 

'n la sin eadhon gus 
an uair so. 

Tha Iain a nis 'na (ann 
a) sheann duine, is f had o'n 
chuir nii eòlas air. Labh- 
raidh i gu silteach, agus 
seinnidh i gu binn ; ach cha 
toighleamasurdagan. Thig 
a-rist, agus fan na 's faide. 
Sheòl am bata o'n chala so, 
o chionn tri laithean. 

Cha chòir dhuinn idir 
labhairt, no smuanachadh 
gu h-olc mu neach sam bith. 

Mar is trice chi sinn ni 
's ann is lugha oirnn e. 

Rachadh iadsan a null, 
ach fanaibh-se an so. 



FIRST COXJTGATIO^" OF GAELIC 
VERBS. 
SIMPLE TERSES. 

Tell the Tensc and Mood, also 
the Personal Terminations of— 



CEUD SGEADACHADH GHNIOMH- 
AIiAN GAELIG. 
TIMEAX SI>-GILT. 

Innis Tim agus Modh, fòs na 
h-Jcean Pearsantail aig — 



Bha, bitheam, tha, bithidh, biodh, bitheamaid, bith- 
eadh, bhithinn, bithibh, a bhi, am beil ì cha n-'eil, an 
robh, cha robh, cha bhi, nach robh ? am bi \ 

o 



210 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Phaisg, brisidh, paisgeam, brisibh, phaisginn, pasgadh, 
briste, an do phaisg, cha do bhris, am paisg, cha phris, 
phaisgeas. 

Phaisgeadh, brisear, phaisgteadh, bristear, nach 
paisgear, cha do bhriseadh. 



SECOND CONJUGATTON 0F DARA SGEADACHADH GHNIOMH- 
GAELIC VERBS. ARAN GAELIG. 

SIMPLE TENSES. TIMEAN SINGILT. 

Dh'-aom, fìlleadh, aomaidh, dh'-fhill, òrduicheam, 
fillidh, aomadh, fillibh, òrduich, fìllte, dh'-aomainn, 
filleamaid, aomta no aoimte, an d' aom ? cha d' fhill, 
am fìll? dha n-aom, dh'-aomadh, fillear, òrduichtear, 
dh'-fhillteadh, aomar, am fìllear, cha n-aomar, cha d' 
òrduichteadh. 

Tell the Person, Number, Tense, Mood, and Conjugation of 
each of the following parts of the Gaelic Verb, repeating 
whether the Tense is Simple or Compound, and giving the 
corresponding English — 

Tha e ; bha sinn ; tha thu iar bhith ; bha iad iar 
bhith ; bithidh sibh ; bithidh sinn iar bhith ; bhitheadh 
e iar bhith, faodaidh mi 'bhith ; Is urrainn sinn a bhith; 
dh'-f haodadh e 'bhith ; b'urrainn i 'bhith, is urrainn thu 
'bhith iar bhith ; dh'-fhaodadh iad a bhi iar bhith ; 
bitheam ; bitheadh e ; bitheamaid, gu bhith ; dol a 
bliith ; iar bhith ; Am beil e ? cha n-'eil sinn ; an robh 
sibh ? cha robh iad ; nach bi thu ? cha bhi ; ma bhitheas. 

Tha mi 'pasgadh ; dhearbh 'e ; bha sinn 'a briseadh ; 
tha iad iar dearbhadh ; bha sinn iar milleadh ; taomaidh 
tu ; bhrisinn ; bithidh i iar posadh ; faodaidh sinn 
briseadh ; is urrainn sibh taomadh ; dh'-fhaodainn 
milleadh ; faodaidh mi bhi iar cumadh ; b'urrainn sibb. 
a bhi iar pasgadh ; togamaid ; togaibh ; dol a bhualadh ; 
ma thaomas e ; am beil mi briseadh ? cha robh sinn a' 
milleadh ; cha thaom iad ; ni-m bris sibh ; cha n-fhaod 
c labhairt ; cha b' urrainn mi sin a dhearbhadh. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 211 



Tha e millte ; dhearbhadh sinne ; tha iad iar am 
briseadh ; bha mi iar mo bhaisteadh ; millear thu ; 
bithidh i posda ;* bhitheamaid iar ar milleadh ; faodaidh 
sibh a bhi paisgte ; b'urrainn iad a bhi briste ; faodar a 
thaomadh ; b'urrainnear a milieadh ; dh'-fhaodteadh mo 
dhearbhadh ; mhillteadh sinn ; bristear e ; bhi dearbhta ; 
millte ; nach do thaomadh e ? Cha robh i briste ; cha 
n-'eil e pòsda.* 

Tha mi 'g aomadh ; dh-f hàs e ; tha sibh iar èiridh 5 
bha sinn iar àrdachadh ; fàsaidh iad ; dh'-òrduicheadh 
mi ; b'urrainn sinn filleadh ; dh'-fhaodadh e aomadh • 
is urrairm i 'bhi iar òradh ; ma dh'-òrduicheas sinn ; 
a dh'-f hilleadh ; am beil sinn ag aomadh ? Cha d' òr e. 
cha robh e ag òl. 

Tha sinn àrdaichte ; dh'-òrduicheadh e ; tha mi iar 
m' àrdachadh ; bha iad iar am filleadh ; aomar sibh ; 
bithidh tu iar d' àrdachadh ; bhitheadh iad iar am 
fàsgadh ; fèumar 'aomadh ; faodar a h-àrduchadh ; 
b'urrainnear 'fhàsgadh, dh'-fhaodteadh a filleadh ; faod- 
aidh iad a bhi iar an aomadh ; aomta ; am beil an t- 
aran fuinnte ? 

The pupil having previously committed the fìrst sections of the 
indeclinable parts of speech accurately to memory, and being well 
exercised upon their definitions and use, along with other words, 
should now parse every woid in a sentence, inflectively. 

EXAMPLE PARSED. 

Heaven gives us friends, to bless the present scene "; 
Resumes them, to prepare us for the next. 

Heaven is a noun, singular number, nominative case. 

Gives a verb, third person singular, present simple tense of 

the indicative of the irregular active verb, give, gave, 

giving, given. 

Us first personal pronoun, plural number, objective case, 

governed by to understood. 
Friends a noun plural, objective case, governed by the active 

verb, gives. 



* For posta or pòste — d for t. 



212 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

To bless is the present of tbe infinitive active of the regular 

active verb, bless, blessed, blessing, blessed. 
The the definite article prefixed to scene. 
Present an adjective positive degree qualifying the noun, 
scene. 

Scene a noun singular, objective case, governed by the active 
verb, bless. 

Resumes a verb present, simple tense of the Ind. of the regular 

active verb, resume, §c. 
Them third personal pronoun, plural number, objective case, 
governed by the active verb, resumes, and referring 
to the r\o\xx\,friends. 
To prepare present of the infinitive active of the verb, prepare, 
prepared, preparing, prepared. 

first personal pronoun, plural number, obj. case., 
governed by the active verb, to prepare. 
a preposition. 

definite article prefixed to scene understood. 
an adjective superlative degree, from near, nearer^ 
nearest, or next. 



Us 

For 
The 
Next 



SAMPLAIR PAIRTICHTE. 

Gheibh sinn o neamh càirdean, 
'Bheannachadh an là so, 
Bheirear uainn iad do na h-airdibh, 
A chumail bàis, ann ar sealleadh. 

Gheibh gniomhar, a' ehèud phearsa 'san aireimh iomadh, 'an tim 
lathaireil an Taisbeanaich de 'n ghniomhar asdolach 
neo-rialtach, faigh, fhuair, faotainn. 

Sinn riochdar pearsantaii 'san aireimh iomadh, a' chèud 
phearsa. 

O roimhear, a spreigeadh an ainmeir, neamh. 

Neamh ainmear 'san doirteach spreigte leis an roimhear o, agus 

de 'n ghin fhearanta. 
Cairdean ainmear 'san iomadh, o càirid. 

' Bheannachadh — gniomhar asdolach, rialtach ann an tim làth. an 
Fheartaich, agus bho beannaich, bh- beannaichte, 
beannachadh. 

Àn pungaraonar fr. a comharrachadh a-mach an ain. la, agus 

spreigte anns a ghinteach leis an fheartach, a bheann- 
achadh (faic Co-rian. Gael. JR. 32.) 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 213 



Là ainmear aonar fr. spreigte maille ri an, anns a' ghinteach. 

So riochdar dearbhach. 

Bheirear an treas pearsa 'san iomadh agus anns a ghuth Fhulan- 

gach de 'n ghn. Tabhair, thug, toirt, §ce. 
Uahin (o sinn) — riochdar measgta anns a' chèud phears' 
iomadh. 

Iad riochdar pearsantail, an treas pears' iomadh. 

Do roimhear. 

Aa pungar 'san iomadh agus a cordadh ri h-airdibh, anns an 

doirteach iomadh. 
H-airdibh ainmear de 'n treas Teàrnadh anns an aireimh iomadh 

agus iar a chur ann, no spreigte anns an doirt. leis an 

roimhear do, bho airde. 
A Comhar an Fheartaich an so. 

Chumail tim lathair an Fheartaich o 'n ghniomhar, cum, ch-, 
cumta, cumail. 

Bàis ainmear aonar fr. 'sa ghinteach, o bàs, spreigte le 

chumail. 
Ann roimhear. 

Ar riochdar seilbheach, co-naisgte ri sealladh. 

Sealladh ainmear fr. aonar, anns a char doirt. spreigte leis an 
roimhear ann. 



Parsing Exercises on aìl the 

parts of speeck. 

Time and tide wait for 
no man. 

The busy bee teaches the 
indolent man a useful les- 
son. 

A father's care, or a 
mother's tenderness, is sel- 
dom repaid. 

Youth is the season of 
action, and old age of re- 
pose. 

Of all characters, that of 
the martyr is the noblest 
and most magnincent. 

A talkative fellow apply- 



Pairteachadh. — Cleachdadh 
air na pàirtibh cainnt uile. 

Cha stad tim agus aimsir 
air son duin' air bith. 

Tha an seillein gniomh- 
ach a'teagasgleasainfhèum- 
ail do 'n duine lunndach. 

Is tearc tha cùram a 
thar, no gràdh màthar ath- 
phaighte. 

Is i 'n òige la na h-oibre, 
agus seann aois là na foise. 

De gach uile chliù, is e 
cliù a mhartaraich a's ro 
urramaiche, agus a's ro 
òirdheirce. 

Iar cur do fhear bruidh- 



214 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



neach ri Isocrates airson 
teagaisg, dh'-iarr an t-òraid- 
ear, dùbladh na prise cum- 
ant' air — " Do bhrigh," ars* 
esan " gu'm fèum mi a 
theagasg araon gu labhairt, 
agus gu'theanga achumail. 



ing to Isocrates for instruc- 
tion, the orator asked him 
double his usual price — 
"Because," said he, "I 
must both teach him to 
speak and to hold his 
tongue." 

TsTature ! great Parent, whose unceasing hand 
Rolls round the seasons of the changeful year, 
How mighty — how majestic — are thy works, 
With what a pleasing dread they swell the soul ! 

A Nàduir ! a Phàraint mhoir, aig am beil do làmh 
gun tàmh, a' stiùradh mu 'n cuairt aimsirean na 
bliadhna mùthtaich ; cia cumhachdach ? cia àrd tha d* 
oibrean ? cia taitneach am fiamh leis an lion iad an 
inntinn ! 

To me be Nature's volume broad display'd 

And to peruse its all-instructing page. — Thomson. 

Dhomh-sa biodh leabhar mhòr Nàduir fosgailte, agus lèugham 
a duilleag ùile-theagasgaeh. 



Agood man easily forgets 
injuries, but always remem- 
bers a good turn. A wicked 
man readily sees the faults 
of others, and forgets his 
own ; but atlength with sor- 
row shall he remember his 
villanies. 

He that rises early, im- 
proves his health as well as 
his time, but he who lies 
long in the morning must 
be in a bustle all day, and 
will scarcely overtake his 
business at night. 



Di-chuimhnichidh duine 
math lochdan gu furas, ach 
cuimhnichidh e'ghnàdeagh 
ghniomh. Chi droch dhuine 
guh-ealamhciontan muinn- 
tir èile, agus cha chuimhnich 
e 'chuid fèin, ach fa dheòigh 
le bròn fuiligidh e airson a 
lochdan. 

Leasaichidh esan a dh'- 
eireas moch a shlainte cho 
math ri 'thim,ach fèumaidh 
esan a luidheas fada 'sa 
mhaduinn a' bhi ann a' cabh- 
aig rè an là, agus is gann 
a bheireas e air aghnothacU 
'san o'iche. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 215 



In preparing ourselves for another world we must 
not neglect the duties of this life. We should subject 
our fancies to the government of reason. Affluence 
may give us respect in the eyes of the vulgar, but 
it will not recommend us to the wise and good. peace ! 
how desirable thou art. Behold ! how pleasant it is for 
brethren to dwell together in unity. 

Ann ar n-ullachadh fèin airson saoghail èile, cha u- 
fhaod sinn dleasannasan na beatha so a dhearmad. Bu 
chòir dhuinn ar smuaintean a chur fo riaghladh rèusain. 
Faodaidh beartas urram a thoirt dhuinn ann an suilibh 
a' chumanta, ach cha n-àrdaich e sinn 'an sealladh 
dhaoine giic agus math. A shìth ! cia ciatach a ta thu. 
Fèuch! cia taitneach an ni do bhràithribh comhnuidh 
a ghabhail cuideachd ann an aonachd. 



After Alexander had dis- 
missed his soldiers, being 
now near his death, he ask- 
ed his friends, standing 
around him, whether they 
thought that they could 
find another king like him ? 
They held their tongue. 



'Nuair a bha Alecsander 
iar cur a shaighdearan air- 
falbh agus e nis dlùth d' a 
bhàs, dh'-fhiosraich e de 
chàirdibh, a' seasamh mu 'n 
cuairt da, co dhiubh shaoil 
iad gu 'm faigheadh iad 
righ èile coltach ris ? Dh'- 
fhan iadsa 'nan tòsd. 



A ghrian na h-òg mhaidne 'g èirigh 

Air slèibhte soir le d' chiabhan òr-bhuidh 

'S ait cèuma do theachd air ar n-aonach 

'S gach caochan 'sa ghleann ri gàire. — Ossian. 

sun of early morning, rising on eastern hills with 
thy golden locks ; delightful are the steps of thy approach 
upon our heights, while every stream in the vale resounds 
with gladness, or is rejoicing. 



216 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



VERBS CHIEFLY IN THE IMPE- GNIOMHARAN GU MOR SAN 
RATIVE. 

Abstain from evil, and 
treat others as you would 
wish to be treated by them. 

Take fast hold of in- 
struction, let her not go ; 
keep her, for she is thy 
life. Enter not into the 
path of the wicked, and go 
not in the waj of evil men. 

Cut (ye) down these 
trees, but let this one stand 
alone. Be ye diligent and 
let him be negligent. 



AINEACH. 

Seachain an t-olc agus 
gràthaichmuinntir èile mar 
b' aill leat a' bhignàthaichte 
leò. 

Dean greim daingean air 
teagasg, na leig as e, coim- 
hid e, oir is e do beatha 
e. Na gabh a steach do 
rathad nan aingidh agus 
na imich ann an slighe 
dhroch dhaoine. 

Geàrraibh sios na craobh- 
an sin, ach seasadh an tè 
so 'nah-aonar. Bithibh-se 
dichiollach, agus esan dear- 
madach. 



Come, evening, once again, season of peace ; 
Return, sweet ev'ning, and continue long ! 
Thig 'fheasgair, aon uair fathast, a thim na 
Pill 'fheasgair chaoimh agus mair fada. 



sìth. 



Call not chuck to the 
chick till it come out of 
the egg. Despise neither 
a ragged boy (son), nor a 
shaggy colt. 



JS T a abair diùg ris an eun 
gus an tig e as an ùbh. 
Na dean tàìr air mac luid- 
eagach, no air lòth pheal- 
agaich. 



Know then thyself, presume not Cod to scan ; 
The proper study of mankind is man.* — Pope. 



To be angry about trifles 
is mean and childish. To 
rage and be furious is mad- 
ness ; and to maintain per- 
petual wrath is akin to the 
temper of devils : but to 



Is suarach agus is neòn- 
ach . a bhi feargach mu 
fhaoineasaibh. Is caoch a 
bhi gàrg, agus tòrb, is col- 
tach ri grè dheamhnan a 
bhi cumail fèirge sior, ach 



* Some paasages are piven in one laoguage only, in order to exercise the 
learner in translating into the other. Such passages have the * to the last line ; 



ETYMOLOGY. 

prevent and repress rising 
resentment is manlj and 
divine. 



FOCLACHADH. 217 

tha 'blii casgadh agus a 
smaladh beò-chorruiche, 
dùineil, agus neamhaidh. 

AIR STAID FHULANGAICH a' 
GHNIOMHAIR. 

Tha ar scoil iar a deadh- 
ghlèusadh le leabhraichean 
agus dealbhan, tha i fòs iar 
a riaghladh le maighstear 
dileas a tha teagasg dhuinn 
gu h-èifeachdach, cha n-e 
'mhàin alt lèughaidh agus 
cùbaidh, ach seadh nam 
focal agus brigh na lèughar 
leinn. 

Tha na h-achaidhean gu 
cumanta treabhta anns a 
gheamhradh ; agus an siol 
cuirte annta 'san earrach. 
Tha 'm bàrr cruinnichte gu 
saibhlibh 'san fhoghar, gu 
bhi roinnte rè na bliadhna. 

Cesar was endowed with everj great and noble qualitj 
that could exalt human nature, and give a man the as- 
cendant in society ; he was formed to excel in peace, as 
well as in war ; provident in counsel, fearless in action, 
and executing what he had resolved withanamazing cele- 
ritj ; his orations were celebrated for two qualities which 
are seldom found together, viz. strength and elegance. 

Bhuilicheadh air Cesar gach uile bhuaidh, mòr agus 
urramach, a b'urrainn nàdur saoghalta àrdachadh ; agus 
cumhachd a thoirt do dhuine am measg chlann daoine, 
dhealbhadh e gu buadhachadh ann an sith, 'san aisith, 
tuigseach ann an comhaiiie, neo-ghealtach 'an gniomh, 
a' deanamh na bha iar a ìùnachadh leis le luathas iong- 
antach, mholadh 'òraidean airson dà bhuaidh a tha tearc 
ri 'm faotainn cuideachd, eadhon, neart agus maise. 



ON THE PASSIVE FORM OF THE 
VERB. 

Our school is well sup- 
plied with books and maps ; 
it is also superintended bj 
a faithful master, bj whom 
we are efficientlj taught, 
not onlj the art of reading 
and spelling, but the mean- 
ing of words, and the sub- 
stance of what is read bj 
us. 

The fields are generallj 
ploughed in winter, and the 
seed is sown in them in 
spring. The crop is ga- 
thered into barns in harvest 
to be consumed throughout 
the jear. 



21S ETYMOLOGY. 

The neighbours have been 
led to form a high opinion 
of that youth, for his exer- 
tions to educate himself, 
without any other means 
than what he has been 
enabled to acquire by his 
own industry. 

Before the power of steam 
had been fully developed 
and reduced to practice, 
many branches of business 
had been tediously con- 
ducted, but since the happy 
invention of the steam en- 
gine, wonderful improve- 
ments have been intro- 
duced. Our alfairs are 
now pushed forward with 
amazing celerity ; intelli- 
gence, goods, and passen- 
gers may be wafted from 
one place to another in a 
trice ; and various other 
operations, which under the 
former system would have 
occupied several days, can 
at present be accomplished 
in a few hours. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Thugadh na coimhear- 
snaich gu deadh bharail a 
ghabhail de 'n òigear ud, 
airson oirpe gu e-fèin ionns- 
achadh, gun taic air bith 
eile, ach na bha e iar 'bhi 
comasach a bhuannachd 
le 'dhichioll fèin. 

Mu 'n robh neart toite 
iar a lan-fhoillseachadh 
agus iar a chur gu cleachd- 
adh, bha roinnean mora de 
ghnothachaibh iar an stiùr- 
adh gu mall, ach o innle- 
achd shona na bearta-tèine 
thugadh a-stigh ion-oibrich- 
ean miorbhuileach. Tha ar 
gnothachan a-nis 'gangreas- 
adh air aghaidh le luathas 
uamhasach, faodar fìos, 
bathar, agus luchd-turuis 
a ghiùlan o aite gu aite 
ann an tiota ; agus is urr- 
ainnear mòran ghniomhran 
èile a ghabhadhfo 'nt-seann 
dòigh iomadh la, a cholion- 
adh ann am beagan uair- 
ean, an diùgh. 



1. The mind should be stored with knowledge, and 
cultivated with care. 2. That friend whose friendship 
is chiefly distinguished in adversity is to be highly 
esteemed and respected at all times. 3. Whatever in- 
jures others, deserves not to be called a pleasure. 4. 
Whoever is not content with his lot would likely not be 
so in higher circumstances. 5. Choose what is most fit. 

1. Bu chòir an inntinn a bhi iar a lionadh le h-eòlas, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 219 



agus iar a h-àiteachadh le cùrani. 2. Tha 'n cairid sin 
aig am beil a chairdeas comharraichte gu h-araidh ann 
an tèinn, gu bhi fo mhor mheas, agus urram a ghnà. 
3. Cha n-'eil ni chiùrras muinntir eile airidh air toil- 
inntinn a ghairm dheth. 4. Co air bith nach 'eil toil- 
ichte le 'staid, is coltach nach bitheadh e mar sin ann 
an staidibh ni's àirde. 5. Roghnaich na tha fir-fhreag- 
arrach. 



ON NEUTER VERBS. 

Every daj we rise, the glorious sun shines over our 
heads ; but, alas ! too many forget to be grateful for the 
cordial heat that comes from him to the inhabitants of 
this earth on which we stand. Some live here as if thej 
were never to die : were such persons wise, they would 
not sleep any longer in such a perilous state, but speedily 
awake to a due sense of the gratitude they owe to boun- 
tiful Heaven for the many mercies wherewith their lot 
abounds. 

Gach la tha sinn ag èirigh, tha a 'ghrian ghlormhor a' 
dearrsadh thairis air ar cinn, ach mo chreach ! tha tuille 
'sa chòir a' di-chuimhnachadh a bhi taingeil airson a' 
bhlais chairdeil a ta teachd uaipe, do luchd-aiteachaidh 
na talmhuinn so ; air am beil sinn 'nar (ann ar) seas- 
amh. Tha cuid beò an so mar nach bitheadh iad gu 
bàsachadh gu bràch ; na'n robh a leithid a chrèutairean 
glic, cha chodaileadh iad na's faide ann a leithid a staid 
chunnartaich, ach ghrad-dhùisgeadh iad gu ceart mhoth- 
achadh air an taingealachd a bhuineas do Dhia gras- 
mhor airson nam mor shochairean leis am bheil an 
crannchur iar a lionadh. 

Obs. 1. — Do and have are used belovv as Auxiliary Verbs, be- 
cause they are joined with other veibs. 



We do not know how 
soon we may be called to 
go hence. 



Chan-'eilfìos againn, cia 
luath dh'-fhaodar ar gairm 
gu dol à so. 



220 ETYMOLOGY. 

My happiness does not 
flow from earthly pleasures, 
but from piety and virtue. 

Do jou consider that 
your time is uncertain ? 

I have seen ten stags in 
the forest to day. 

John has written his 
copy, but I do not think 
his penmanship will satisfy 
the master, for it has been 
executed too rapidly. 

Many who had received 
a liberal education have 
made a bad use of it. 

Obs. 2 Do and have are used 

sentences, because they are not 
such as become holps to them. 

He who does good has 
delight. 

Do whatever you can to 
alleviate the afflictions of 
others. 

I have no ill will to any 
one. 

Do your utmost to pro- 
mote the prosperity of 
others, and you shall have 
more of your own. 

We have many blessings 
in our lot, and are ready to 
do a kind turn to those 
who are not so fortunate. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Cha n-'eil mo shonas a* 
(deanamh) sruthadh o thait- 
neas saoghalta, ach o 
dhiadhachd agus o bhèus. 

Am beil sibh a cuimhn- 
achadh, gu 'm beil 'ur tim 
neo-chinnteach ? 

Tha mi iar deich fèidh 
fhaicinn anns an fhridh an 
diùgh. 

Tha lain iar sgriobhadh 
achòpi,ach cha chreid mise 
gun toilich a pheannarachd 
am maighstear do blirigh 
gu'n robh e iar a dheanamh 
ro ghrad. 

Tha iomadh a bha iar 
foghlum mòr thaotamn iar 
deanamh droch fhèumdeth. 
as Speciftc Verbs in the following 
joined with other ones, except 

Aige-san a tha 'deanamh 
maith tha oìas. 

Dean ciod air bith is 
urrainn thu, gu trioblaidean 
muinntirèile 'lughdachadh. 

Chan-'eildroch rùn agam 
do neach. 

Dean d'uile dliichioll gu 
sonas muinntir èile 'mhèud- 
achadh, agus bithidh ni's 
mò agad fèin. 

Tha mòr shochairean 
againn 'nar (ann ar) crann- 
chuir, agus tha sinn ealamh 
gu car baigheil a dheanamh 
riù-san nach 'eil cho fortun- 
ach. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 221 



My friend did his duty, 
and I had always reason to 
believe that he would do so. 

Had I wealth, I would 
do good to the indigent 
and deserving. 

The pious man may have 
his trials in this life, but 
he shall have an exceeding 
great reward for enduring 
them. 



Rinn mo charaid a dhlea- 
sannas, agus bha aobhar 
agam a chreidsinn a ghnà 
gun deanadh e sin. 

Na'n robh beartas agam 
dheanainn math do 'n 
bhochd agus do'n toilltean- 
ach. 

Faodaidh a dhèuchainn- 
ean a bhi aig an duine 
chòir 'sa (anns a) bheatha 
so, ach bithidh duais ro- 
mhòr aige airson an giùlan. 



PROGRESSIVE F< 

I am seeing the sun, and 
admiring the beauty of all 
nature aroimd us. 

While I am reading, you 
should be listening atten- 
tively. 

He was sowing, and I 
was harrowing. 

He has been writing on 
botany this week ; we had 
been conversing with him. 

He may be working ; we 
might have been studying 
our lessons. 

To be reading is a plea- 
sant task for him who is 
thirsting for knowledge. 

Peter might have been 
doing that while his father 
was rising. 

We should be preparing 



tM OF THE VERB. 

Tha mi 'faicmn na grèine 
agus a' moladh maise nàduir 
uile mu 'n cuairt duinn. 

Am feadh tha mi 'lèugh- 
adh bu chòir dhùibh-se 'bhi 
ag èisdeachd gu furachail. 

Bha e 'cur agus bha mise 
'cliathadh. 

Tha esan iar a bhi sgriobh- 
adh mu lus-eòlas air an 
t-seachduin so ; bha sinn 
iar a bhi co-labhairt ris. 

Faodaidh e 'bhi ag oib-- 
reachadh ; dh'-fhaodamaid 
a bhi ag ionnsachadh ar 
leasanan. 

Is taitneach an obair a 
bhi 'lèughadh leis-san air 
am bheil tart airson eòlais. 

Dh'-fhaodadh Peadar a 
bhi 'deanamh sin, 'nuair a 
bha 'athair ag èirigh. 

Bu chòir dhuinn a bhi 



222 ETYMOLOGY. 
our land ; for our neigh 



FOCLACHADH. 

ag ullachadh ar n-ùir ; oir 
bithidh ar coimhearsnaich 
a' suidheachadh am màir- 
each. 

Obs. 3. — A personal or a relative pronoun, with some part of the 
verb to be, is frequently understood before the Perfsct Participle. 



bours will be plantmg to- 
morrow. 



Embrace the doctrines* 
contained in the oracles of 
Heaven. 

A lesson, well explained, 
cannot fail to benefit the 
pupil more than one simplj 
repeated. 

Precepts have little in- 
fluence when not enforced 
bj example. 

A work done hurriedly, 
seldom stands the test as 
well as that performed with 
due time and care. 

I find my task more 
pleasant and sweeter when 
encouraged and extolled by 
mj instructor. 



Gabh ris na teagasgan 
(a ta) foillsichte ann an 
oraculaibh neimh. 

Cha n-'eil teagamh nach 
dean leasan sàr-mhinichte, 
na 's mò bhuannachd do 'n 
scoilear, na aon iar airis 
a-mhàin. 

Isbeagcumhachd c reachd- 
an neò-dhearbhta le eis- 
empleir. 

Is tearc a sheasas obair 
deanta le cabhaig dearbh- 
adh, cho math 'us sin (a tlia) 
coimhlionta le ùin agus 
cùram iomchuidh. 

Gheibh mi mo thasg ni 
's taitniche, agus ni 's milse, 
'nuair (tha mi) misnichte 
agus àrdaichte le m' fhear- 
teagaisg. 

On earth, join all, ye creatures, to extol 

Himfirst — Himlast — Himmidst, and Himwithout end.* 

Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,) 

Virtue alone is happiness below.* 

Look round our v^orld, behold the chain of love 
Combining all below and all above. 
See plastic nature, working to this end, 
The single atoms each to other tend, — 
Attract, attracted to, the next in place, 
Form'd and impell'd, its neighbour to embrace. 



• That are, or which are, is understood here. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 223 



See matter next, with various life endued, 

Press to one centre still, the general good.* — Pope. 

1 Now swarms tlie village o'er tlie jovial mead: 
The rustic youth, brown with meridian toil, 
Healthful and strong ; full as the summer rose 

4 Blown by prevailing suns, the ruddy maid, 
Half naked, swelling on the sight, and all 
Her kindled graces, burning o'er her cheek; 
Ev'n stooping age is here ; and infant hands 

8 Trail the long rake, or, with the fragrant load 
O'ercharg'd, amid the kind oppression roll. 
Wide flies the tedded grain ; all in a row 
Advancing broad, or wheeling round the field, 
12 They spread their breathing harvest to the sun, 
That throws refreshful round a rural smell ; 
Or, as thej rake the green-appearing ground, 
And drive the dusky wave along the mead, 
16 The russet hay-cock rises, thick behind, 

In order gay. While, heard from clale to dale, 
Waking the breeze, resounds the blended voice 
Of happy labour, love, and social glee. — Tkomson. 

1 Nis taomaiclh am bàile a-mach gu h-ait air na 
cluaintibh ; òige na dùcha, buiclh le obair, fo theas 
na h-àrd-ghrèine ; slainteil agus calm ; làn mar ròs 
an t-sàmhraidh iar a shèideadh le neart nan grian ; 

4 a' ghruagach ruiteach, leth-rùisd a' lionadh leis an 
t-sealladh, agus a beò-ghrinneas gu lèir a' lasadh air 
a gruaiclh. An so tha 'n aois chròm 'sa (agus a) 
chlann bheaga a slaodadh an laic fhaid ; no am 

8 measg na h-oibre taitneich a' càradh leis an luchd 
chùbhraidh gle làn. Am fèur srèudach a' lèum thall 
'sabhos, a' dol air aghaidh ann ansreathaibh farsuinn, 
no a' cuartachach an achaidh. Sgaoilear (sgaoilidh 
12 iad) an geuban cùbhraidh ris a' ghrèin a' sèideadh 
mu 'n cuairt bolaidh ùrail, tireil. No mar a ràcas 
iad an talamh glas-neulach, agus a dh'-iomaineas iad 
an tonn glas air aghaidh an f hùirm, tha na rùcànàn 



224 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



16 donna feòir ag èirigh gu dlù 'nan dèigh 'an òrdugh 
glan. Rè na h-uine, cluinnear fuaim aghmhor oibre, 
gaoile, 'us ait-mhire, a' sèlnn feadh a chèile, agus a' 
dùsgadh tlàth-ghaoith o ghleann gu gleann. 

'Nuair thig òg-mhios 'chèitein chiùin oirnn, 
Bi'dh a' bhliadhna 'an tùs a maise : 
'S flathail, caoineil, soillse grèine, 
Mios geal cèutach, spèur-ghorm, feartach, 
Flùrach, ciùrach, bliochdach, maoineach, 
Uanach, caorach, laoghach, martach, 
Gruthach, ùachdrach, càiseach, sùghmhor, 
Mealach, cùbhraidh, drùchdach, dosrach.* 

M'Lachlarìs Spring. 

'S taitneach leam focail nam fonn 

Thuirt Cuchullin, an sonn deas, 

'S taitneach sgèul air àm a dh'-fhalbh, 

Caoin mar bhàlbh-dhrùchd maduinn shèimh 

Air dosan 'us tuim nan ruadhag, 

'Nuair a dh'-èireas a' ghrian gu màll 

Air slios sàmhach nan liath-bheann, 

Loch gun bhruaillein fàda thàll 

Caoin is gòrm air ùrlar ghleann. — Ossian. 

Pleasant to me are the words of the song, said Cuchullin, the 
expert hero. Lovely is the tale of time past ; rmld, like the calm 
dew of gentle morn on the bush and hills of roes, when the sun 
beams slowly over the gray mountains' silent side, and the distant 
lake is unruffied and blue in the vale. 



CUMADH NEO-RIALTACH AN 
FHEARTAICH, NO PAIRTEIR 
NEO-CHOL. GHNIOMHARAN 
GAELIG. 

1. Tilgidh Gniomharan 
a dunadh le ich, i na h-ich 
roimh adh ; mar, 
Deasaich, prepare, deasachadh. 



IRREGULAR FORMATION OF THE 
INFINITIVE, OR IMPERFECT 
PARTICIPLE OF GAELIC 
YERBS. 

1. Verbs ending in ich, 
drop i of ich before adh; as, 



ETYMOLOGrY. 



FOCLACHADH. 225 



2. Many Verbs have the 
infiiiitive like the root ; as, 



2. Tha am Feartach aig 
iomadh gniomhar ionann 
ris an stèigh ; mar, 
Fàs, grow, fas. 



3. Some contract their 
final syllable before adh ; 
as. 



3. Tha cuid a' giorrach- 
adh na smid deireannaich 
roimh adh ; mar, 



Diobair, forsahe, diobradh.* 



4. Some change or drop 
a final small vowel, but do 
not add adh ; and others 
reject it when thej do add 
adh ; as, 

Iomain, drive, ioman. 

5. A few add achd in- 
stead of adh ; as, 



4. Mùthaidh, no tilgidh 
cuid fuaimrag chaol dheir- 
eannach, ach cha ghabh iad 
adh ; agus tilgidh cuid eil' 
ì 'nuair a ghabhas iad adh ; 
mar, 

Dùisg, awake, dùsgadh. 

5. Gabhaidh beagan achd 
an ait adh ; mar, 



Eisd, hear, èisdeachd. 



6. Verbs of two syllables 
in air, add t to the root ; 
as. 



6. Cuiridh Gniomharan 
dhà-smid 'an air, t, ris an 
stèigh ; mar, 
Freagair, answer, freagairt. 



7. Several other Verbs 
form the infinitive irregu- 
larly, and some have a 
variety of infinitives ; as, 



7. Tha iomad Gniomhar 
èile a' deanamh an fheart- 
aich gu neo-rialtach, agus 
tha caochla feartach aig 
cuid ; mar, 

Lean, follow ; leantainn, leantail, leanailt, leanmhainn. 

Obs. — The following List of Verbs forming their infinitive ir- 
regularly, being arranged in the alphabetical order, the learner 
will find it more convenient to look up any of them in the course 
of his lesson, than if each of the preceding rules had its own por- 
tion of them subjoined to it. 

' Verbs contracted in their infinitives are also contracted in the imperative, and 
the parts formed from it; as, diobram, diobradh e, diobramaid, diobraibh, diob- 
radh iad, fyc. 



226 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Imper. Ain. Infin. Feart. 

Abair, say, ràdh, ràite, ràdhainn 

Acain, complain, acain 

Agair, claim, agairt 

Airis,* tell, airis 

Aireamh, number, àireamh 

Aisig, restore, aiseag 

Amhairc, look, amharc 

Amais, eirmis, find, amas, eirmeas 

Anacail, save, anacladh 

At, swell, at 

Ardaich, exalt, àrdachadh 

Bagair, threaten, bagairt 

. ( beantainn, beantail, 

Bean, touch, -j beanailt 

Beannaich, bless, beannachadh 

Beir, bear, beirsinn, beireilt, breith 

Bèuc, roar, bèucaich, bèucail 

Bid, big. chirp, bidil, bigil 

Blais, taste, blasad 

Bleith, grind, bleith 

Bleoghain, milk, bloghan 

Bruich, R boil, bruich 

Brùchd, belch, brùchdail 

Buin, deal with, buntuinn 

Buail, strike, bualadh 

Buain, teap, buain 

Buanaich, R gain, buanachd 

Buachaillich, herd, buachailleachd 

Bùir, bellow, bùirich 

Bùirich, dig, ' bùrach 

Càill, lose, càll 

Cagainn, chew, cagnadh 

Caidil, sleep, cadal 

Caith, wear, caitheamh 

Caisd, listen, caisdeachd 

Can, say, sing, cantainn 

Caochail, change, caochladh 

Casgair, vanquish, casgairt 

Caraich, move, carachadh 

Caoidh, lament, caoidh 

Càraich, build, càramh, caradh 

Ceangail, tie, ceangal 

C eil conceal, ceiltinn, ceilteadh, cleith 

Cinn, grow, cinntinn 



* Commonly spelt aithris. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 227 



Imper. Ain. 




Infin. Feart. 


Clàist, 


hearken, 


clàistinn, claisdeachd 


Cleasaich, 


sport, 
help, 


cleasachd 


Cobhair, 


cobhair, cobhradh, 


Coimhead, 


see, 


coimhead 


Coisich, 


walk, 


coiseachd 


Coisinn, 


earn, 


cosnadh 


Cosd, cosg, 


expend, 


cosd, cosg 


Cràgair, 


handle awkwardly,cragairt 


Creach, R 


rob, 


creach 


Creid, 


believe, 


creidsinn 


Cum, 


keep, 


cumaill 


Cluinn, 


hear, 

put, place, 


cluinntinn 


Cuir, 


cur 


Dean, 


do, 


deanamh, deanadh 


Deoghail, 


suck, 


deoghal 


Diobair, 
Diogail, 


desert, 


diobradh 


tickle, 


diogladh 


Diol, R 


pav. 


diol 


Diobhair, 


vomit, 


diobhairt 


Dion, 


protect, 


dion 


Dòirt, 


spill, 


dòrtadh 


Dùin, 


sbut, 


dùnadh 


Dùisg, 


awake, 


dùsgadh 


Dùraig, 


desire, 


dùrachdainn 


Earb, 
Eignich, 


trust, 
compel, 


earbsadh 


èigneachadh 


Eirich, 


rise, 


èirigh 


Eisd, 
Eug, 


hear, 


èisdeachd 


die, 


èug 
fàgail 


Fàg, 


leave, 


Faic, 


see, 


faicinn, faicsinn 


Faigh, 


receive, 


faighinn, faigheil, faotainn 


Falbh, 


go, 


falbh 


Fairich, 


feel, 


faireachadh 


Falaich, 


hide, 


falach 


x an, 


wait, 


fantainn, fantail, fanailt, 
fanachd,-ainn 


Fàs, 


grow, 


fàs 


Fèuch, 


look, 


fèuchainn 


Fògair, 


banish, 


fògradh 


Foghain, 


suffice, 


foghnadh 


Figh, R. 


weave, 


fighe 


Fòir, 
Freagair, 


assist, 


fòirinn 


answer, 


freagairt 


Fosgail, 


open, 


fosgladh 



m ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH, 



Imper. Ain. 
Fuagair, 
Fuasgail, 
Fuaigh, 
Fuilig, fuiling, 
Fuirich, 
Gabh, 
Gàir, 

Gairm, R. 
Geall, R. 
Gearain, 
Gèill, R. 
Gèum, 

Gin, gion, 

Glaodh, 

Gluais, 

Goir, 

Gog, 

Greas, 

Guidh, 

Guil, 

lar, 

Imich, 

Imlich, 

lobair, 

Iomraidh, 

Iomain, 

lomair, 

Iomair, 

Ionnail, 

Inndrig, 

Innis, 

lonndrain, 

Labhair, 

Laidh, 

Leighis,, 

Leag, 

Leig, 

Lean, 

Lèum, 

Liubhair, 
Lomair, 



proclaim, 

untie, 

sew, 

sufFer, 

stay, 

take, 

laugh, 

call, 

promise, 
complain, 
yield, 
low, 

beget, produce, 

ery aloud, 

move, 

crow, 

cackle, 

hasten, 

pray, 

weep, 

ask, 

go, walk, 

lick, 

sacrifice, 

mention, 

drive, 

row, 

wield, 

wash, 

enter, 

tell, 
miss, 
speak, 
lie down, 
cure, 



Infin. Feart. 
fuagradh 
fuasgladh 
fuaigheal, fuaghal 
fulang 
fuireach 
gabhail 
gàireachdaich 
gairm 
gealtuinn 
gearan 
gèilltinn 

gèumraich, gèumnaich 
gintinn, giontuinn, gin- 

mhuinn 
glaodhaich,-ach 
gluasad 
goirsinn 



fell, throw down,leagail 



greasad 

guidhe 

gul, gal 

iarraidh 

imeachd 

imlich 

iobradh 

iomradh 

ioman 

iomradh 

iomairt 

ionnlad 

inndriginn, inndrinn, inn- 

dreachdainn 
innseadh 

ionndrain, ionndran 

labhairt 

laidhe 

leigheas 



permit, 
follow, 



deliver, 
clip, shear, 



leigeil 

leantainn, leanailt, leanmh 
uinn 

lèum, lèumraich, leumart 

aich 
liubhairt 
lomairt 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 229 



Imper. Ain. 



Mair, 


last, 


Marcaich, 


ride, 


Meal, 
Mosgail, 


enjoy, 


awake, 


Naisg, 


bind, join 


Nigh, 


wash, 


01, 


drink, 


Pill, R. 
Plosg, 


return, 


pant, 


Ràn, 
Ruig, 


roar, 


reach, 


Ruith,, 


run, 

trample, 


Saltair 


Saoil, 


think, 


Seachain, 


avoid, 


Seall, 


see, look, 


Seas, 


stand, 


Sèinn, 
Sgal, 


sing, 


scream, 


Sgar, R. 


separate, 


Sgath, R. 


lop, 


Sgoilt, 


split, 


Sgrios, 


destroy, 


Sguir, 


desist, 


Sian, 


shriek, yell, 


Siolaidh, 


strain, filter, 


Siubhail, 


travel, 


Smùch, 


sneeze, 


Smut, R. 


snifF, 


Snàmh, 


swim, 


Sniomh, 


spin, 


Srànn, 


snore, 


Streap, R. 


climb, 


Suidh, 


sit, 


Tabhair, 


give, 


Tachrais, 


wind, 


Tachair, 


meet, 
plead, 


Tagair, 


jl agnaii, 


visit, 


Taisg, R, 


lay up, 


Tàlaidh, 


caress, tame, 


Tairg, 


offer, 


Tàr, 


go, get time, 


Tarruing, 


draw, 



Infin. Feari. 
mairsinn 
marcachd 
mealtuinn 
mosgladh 
nasgadh 
nighe 
òl 

pilltinn 

plosgartaich 

rànaich 

ruigsinn, ruigheachd 

ruith 

saltairt 

saoilsinn 

seachnadh 

sealltuinn 

seasamh 

sèinn 

sgalartaich 

sgarachdainn j 

sgath 

sgoltadh 

sgrios 

sgur 

sianail 

sioladh 

siubhal 

smuchail 

smutail 

snàmh \ 

sniomh 

srannail 

streap, streapail 

suidhe 

tabhairt 

tachras 

tachairt 

tagairt 

taghal 

tasgaidh 

tàladh 

tairgseadh 

tàrsainn 

tarruing 



230 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



hnper. Ain. 




IhJìyi. FeciTt. 


Teasd, 
Teasairg, 


die, fail, 




save, 




Teanndaidh, 






Tionndaidh, 


> turn, 


teanndadh, tionndadh 


Teanail, tionail, gather, 


lcallal, iiundi 


Tearuinn, 


save, 


tèarnadh 


Tèirinn, 


descend, 


tèarnadh 


Teirig, 
Tpàrn Tì 
ng, tnig, 


wear out, 


teirgsinn, teireachdainn 
teàrnadh 


flpf*li np 

U.CL1X1XC, 


come, 


rìcrrnnn tpflrhrl tìcrVipnf hr? 

^lglllllilj L^tl^HUj Llgll^tt'vli l.- 


Tilg, R. 


throw, 


tilgeil 


Tionnsgail, } 
Tionnsgain, j 


hegin, contrive, 


tionn sgnciclli y 
tionnsgladh. 


Tog, 


lift, 


togciil 


Togair, 


ineline, 


togairt, togradh 

lUìilUaS 


Tomhais 


measure, 


Trèig, 


forsake, 


trèigsinn 


Trod, 


scold, 


trod 


Tuirling, 


descend, 


tuirling 
tùrsadh 


Tuir, R. 


lament, 


Tuit, 


fall, 


tuiteam 



DERIVATION. 

Derwation is that part 
of Etymology which treats 
of the origin and primary 
signincation of words. 

The words of a language 
are either Primitwe or De- 
rwatwe. 

A Primitwe word is not 
derived from any simpler 
word than itself in the lan- 
guage ; as, man, just. 

A Derwatwe word is de- 
rived or formed from some 
word simpler than itself ; 
as, manhood, unjust. 



FREUMHACHADH. 

Is e Freumhachadli an 
earran sin a dh-Fhoclach- 
adh a ta 'teagasg mu stoc 
agus mu phriomh-sheadh 
fhocalan. 

Tha focailcainnt, an dara 
cuid Priomhach no Freumh- 
ach. 

Cha f hreumhaichear focal 
Priomhach o fhocal sam 
bith a 's lugha na e-fèin 'sa 
chainnt ; mar, duine, ceart. 

Freumhaichear, no bheir- 
ear focal Freumhach bho 
f hocal àraid èile, a's lugha 
na e-fèin ; mar, duinealas, 
mi-cheart. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 231 



Primitive words are materi- 
ally changed, both in their struc- 
ture and signitìcation, by being 
united with, certain particles, 
called Prefixes and Affixes. 

A Prefix is a particle 
placed before a word or 
root, to vary its sense ; as, 
rebuild, sitòscribe. 

An Affix is a particle 
added to a root to vary its 
meaning ; as, man^. 



Atharraichear focail Phriomh - 
ach gu mòr araon 'nan cumadh, 
agus 'nan seadh, le bhi iar an 
aonadh ri lidean àraid ris an 
canar, Tùsicean agus Risicean. 

Is i Tùsic lid a chuirear 
roimh fhocal, no freumh 
a mhùth a sheadh ; mar, 
atk-th.og, /o-sgriobh. 

Is i Risìc lid a chuirear 
ri freumh amhùtha sheadh; 
mar, àmneil. 



PEEFIXES TUSICEAN 
OF ENGLISH OR SAXON ORIGIN. DE STOC BEURLA NO SASUNACH. 

A, air ; be, mu ; en, ann, dean (ich) ; for, neo ; fore, roimh ; mis, 
droch, mi ; out, thair, seach ; over, os-cionn, thar, ro ; un, neo, 
mi, eu, an, ana ; under, fò ; up, 'naird, suas ; with, o, d, ri, an 
aghaidh. 

The importof the Saxon Pre- Tha seadhnan Tusicean, Sas- 
fixes is exemplified by their unach, minichte le 'n aonadh 
union with English roots ; thus : ri freumhan Beurla : mar so : — 

A signifies on or in ; as, a-foot, that is, on foot ; a-bed, in bed. 
Be — *about ; as, òesprinkle, to sprinkle about ; also, for or before, 

as, òespeak, to speak for or before. 
En — in or on ; as, erccircle, to circle in. Also make ; as, ewfeeble, 

to make feeble. En is changed into em before b or p ; as, 

embark, ewipower. 
For — not ; as, forbid, not to bid. 
Fore — before ; as, foresee, to see before hand. 
Mis denotes error or defect ; as, misdeed, a wrong or evil deed ; 

mistake, to take wrong. 
Out — excess or getting before ; as, ow^run, to run before, or sur- 

pass in running. 
Over — height or excess ; as, ouercharge, to charge too much. 
Un, prefixed, to an adjective or adverb, signifies not ; as, wnkind, 

not kind. Un, prefixed to a verb, signitìes the undoing of the 

verbal act ; as, wrcfetter, to pull ofF the fetters. 
Under implies below ; as, underv&lue, to value below the real 

worth. 



* The dash ( — ) is put for siguifìes. 



232 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Up implies motion upwards ; as, wplift, to raise aloft : also, turrt- 

ing upside down ; as, upset, to overturn. 
With signifies from or against ; as, withdvaw, to draw from ; 

withstamì, to stand against. 

Prefixes of Latin origin, andtheir | Tùsicean de stoc Laidinn, agus 
import exemplified ; thus, j an seadh minichte ; mar so, 
A, ab, abs, d, a; ad, aig, do, ri ; am, mu'n cuairt ; ante, roimh ; 
circum, mu 'n cuairt, timchioll, uime ; cis, tar, taobh, so ; con, co, 
comh, cuideachd; contra, an aghaidh ; de, a bhàn, sios / dis, as a 
chèile, neo, mi; e, ex, d, as, mach; extra, os-cionn, thaìl, thar ; 
'm, ann, neo; inter, eadar ; intro, a-steach, stigh ; ]uxta, fagus do ; 
ne, neo, mi ; ob, an aghaidh, bac, thall, fo chomhar ; per, troimh, 
tre ; post, an dèigh ; pre, roimh ; preter, os-cionn, seach ; re, ath, 
ais, ris ; retro, gu chùl, air ais ; se, a thaobh, a leth taobh ; as an 
t-slighe ; sine, dh-easbhuidh, gun ; sub, subter, fo ; super, supra, 
thairis, os-cionn ; trans, ultra, thall, thar. 

A, ab, abs, signify from or away ; as, avert, to turn from ; ab- 
solve, to loose from ; a&stain, to hold from. 

Ad — to or at ; as arfhere, to stick to. Ad takes the various forms 
of a, ac, af ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, according to the initial 
letter of the root with which it is united ; as, aspire, to aim at ; 
«ccede, to agree to ; ff/fix, to fix to ; a^gravate, to give weight 
to ; aZleviate, to give ease to ; annex, to join to ; appeal, to call 
to; arrogate, to lay claim to : assimilate, to make like to; at- 
tract, to draw to. 

Am — round ; as, aw/putate, to cut round. Am, for euphony's 
sake, takes b before a vowel ; as, ambient, going round. 

Ante — before ; as, arcfecedent, going before. Ante, in one in- 
stance, becomes anti ; as, awft'cipate, to take beforehand. 

Circum — round or about ; as, circumnavigate, to sail round ; cir- 
cwmjacent, lying near. 

Cis — on this side ; as, c*'salpine, on this side the Alps. 

Con — together; as, convoke, to call together. Con takes also 
the various forms of co, cog, col, com, cor ; as, eo-operate, to 
work together ; co^nate, born together ; colìect, to gather to- 
gether ; compose, to put together ; correct, to put right together. 

Contba — against ; as, contraòìct, to speak against. Contra some- 
times takes the form of counter ; as, counteract, to act against. 

De — down or from ; as, ofeject, to cast down ; efetain, to keep 
from. 

Dis — asunder ; as, ofi'stract, to draw asunder : also, negation or 
undoing ; as, aVsbelieve, not to believe ; disaxm, to take arms 
from. Dis has also the forms of di and dif; as, dYverge, difiuse. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 233 



E, ex — out, from ; as, egress, going out ; crclude, to shut out. 

E, ex, take the forms of ec, ef ; as, eccentric, from the centre ; 

effìux, a flowing out. 
Extra — beyond ; as, exfraordinary, beyond order ; extravagant, 

going beyond bounds. 
In, put before an adjective, signifies not ; as, zrcactive, not active. 

In, before a verb, signifies in, into, or on ; as, mject, to throw 

in or into. In has also the various forms of ig, il, im, ir ; as, 

ignoble, z'/luminate, import, zrregular. 
Inter — between; as, intervene, to come between. Inter has the 

form of intel ; as, intellìgent. 
Intro — wiiìiin ; as, introduce, to lead within. 
Juxta — nigh to ; as, juxtanosition, position nigh to (a thing.) 
Ne — not; as, nefarious, not to be spoken of, bad. 
Ob — in the way of or over against ; as, oòstacle, something stand- 

ing in the way. Ob has also the various forms of oc, of o, op ; 

as, occur, o/fend, omit, oppose. 
Per — through or thoroughly ; as, perforate, to bore through ; per- 

fect, thoroughly done. Per has the forms of pel and pol; as, 

pe/lucid, clear through ; />o/lute, to taint thoroughly. 
Post — after ; as, />os£script, written after. 
Pre or prae — before ; as, predict, to tell before. 
Preter or praeter — past or beyond ; as, />reternatural, past or 

beyond the course of nature. 
Pro — for,forth, or forward ; as, pronoun, for a noun ; provoke, 

to call forth ; joroceed, to go forward. Pro has also the French 

form of pur ; as, purvey, to look for. 
Re — back or again ; as, retract, to draw back ; rebuild, to build 

again. Re, for euphony's sake, takes d before a vowel ; as, 

reoJeem. 

Retro — backwards ; as, refrospect, a looking backwards. 

Se — aside or apart ; as, secede, to go aside or apart. Se, for 

euphony's sake, takes d before a vowel ; as, serfition, going 

aside, a tumult. 

Sine — without ; as, s/necure, without care or labour. Sìne has 

also the form of sim and sin; as, simple, (without a fold); sin- 

cere, (without mixture.) 
Sub — under or after ; as, sM&scribe, to write under. Sub hasalso 

the forms of sue, suf sug, sup, sus, or su ; as, succeed, suffer, 

suggest, suppress, s?/spend, swspect. 
Subter — under or beneath ; as, sMÒ^erfuere, a fleeing under^ a 

shift. 

Super — over or above ; as, superQaous, flowing over or above. 



234 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Super has also the French. form of sur ; as, swrmount, to 
mount above, surn&me, the name over and above the Christian 
name. 

Supra — above or before ; as, sz/:perlapsary, above or before the 
fall. 

Trans — over, beyond ; as, transport, to carry over. Trans has 

also the forms of tran and tra ; as, ^ranscribe, fraverse. 
Ultra — beyond ; as, tt/iramundane, beyond the world. 



Prefixes of Greek Origin, and Tùsicean de Stoc Greugach, 
their import exemplified ; agus an seadh minichte ; mar 
thusj— so, — 

A or an, dh-easbhaidh, gun ; amphi, araon, dà; ana, troimh, 
'naird y anti, an aghaidh, ana ; apo, as, o ; cata, a-bhàn, sios ; 
dia, troìmh ; epi, air ; hyper, àrd, ro, thairis ; meta, wùth ; 
para, faisg, taobh ri taobh ; peri, mu'n cuairt ; syn, co, comhla. 

A or An signifies without or want ; as, apathy, without feeling, 

araonymous, without a name. 
Amphi — both or the two ; as, amphibious, having both lives, or 

capable of living both upon land and in water. Amphi is 

sometimes contracted into amph ; as, amphora, a jug with two 

ears. 

Ana — through or up ; as, anatomy, cutting through or up, dis- 
section. 

Anti, Ant — against ; as, àw^'christ, opposed to Christ ; antarc- 

tic (antarktik) opposite to the arctic or north. 
Apo, Ap—from or away ; as, apostacy, standing or departure 

from ; aphelion, away from the sun. 
Cata, Cat — down, and also against ; as, catarrh, a flovving down, 

a slight cold ; ca^abaptist, one opposed to baptism ; caioptron, 

an opposite image. 
Dia, di — through ; as, c?«ameter, a line passing through the centre 

of a circle ; oYorama, a sight through. 
Epi, Ep — upon; as, ep«taph, an inscription on a tombstone ; 

ephemeral, lasting on or during a day. 
Hyper — over and above ; as, hypercvitical, over or too critical. 
Hypo, Hyp — under ; as, hypothcsis, a placing under, a supposi- 

tion ; hyphen, a joining of two or more words under one. 
Meta, met — change ; as, wictamorphosis, a change of form. 
Para, par — near to or side by side ; asif forthe purpose of com- 

parison, and hence sometimes similarity and sometimes con- 

trariety ; as ; parable, a likening of spiritual to temporal things, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 235 



a similitude ; paraàox, an opinion contrary to the general 

opinion ; parhelion, near the sun, a mock sun. 
Pebi — round about ; as, joen'phrasis, a round about mode of 

speaking; a circumlocution. 
Syn, sy, syl, sym — together ; as, sz/rcthesis, a placing together ; 

-system, syllogism, sympathy. 



AFFIXES. 

Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, 
and Adverbs, are formed 
from radical words bj 
means of Affixes. 

1. JVouns denoting the agent 
or doer of a thing are formed 
from Nouns and Verbs by add- 
ing the affixes an, ant, ard, ar, 
ary, eer, &c. thus, — 
Comedy, n. an comedian 
Assist, v. ant assistant 
Drunken ard drunkard 
School ar scholar 
Statue ary statuary 
Chariot eer charioteer 
Cannon ier cannonier 
Adhere ent adherent 
Build er builder 
Psalm ist psalmist 
Operate ive operative 
Company ion companion 
Govern or governor 

2. Nouns denoting the female 
agent or doer are formed by 
adding ess, ine, or ix, in English, 
and by prefixing ban* in Gaelic ; 
thus, — 

Shepherd ess shepherdess 
Hero ine heroine 

Testator ix testatrix 

3. JVouns denoting the per- 
son acted upon, are formed in 
English by adding ate, &c. 



RISICEAN. 

Cumar Ainmearan, Bu~ 
adharan, Gniomharan, agus 
Co-ghniomharanbho fhocail 
stocail tre chomlmadh His- 
icean. 

I. Cumar Ainmearan a ciall- 
achadh gniomhaiehe no deanad- 
air cùise o Ainmearan, agus o 
Ghniomharan le cur nan risicean 
iche, ear, no air, &ce. mar so, — 
Cleas icbe cleasaiche 

Cobhair — cobbaraiche 
Misgeach ear misgear 
Sgoil — sgoilear 

Dealbh air dealbhair 
Carbad — carbadair 
Gunna — gunnair 
Stic ear sticear 

Clach air clachair 

Sàlm — sàlmadair 

Oibrich e oibriche 
Comunn ach companacb 
Stiùr air stiùradair 

2. Cumar Ainmearan a cialU 
achadh gniomhaiche no dean- 
adair boireanta, le cur ess, ine, 
no ix'sa. Bheurla, agus le roi-ice- 
adh han 'sa Ghaelig ; mar so, — 
Cibear bana-cbìbear 
Laoch ban-laocb 
Tiomnadair ban-tiomnadair 

3. Cumar Ainmearan a ciall- 
achadh an neach a gheibh an 
gniomh, le cur ate, &ce. 'sa 
Bheurla. n. 



See page 57, — ban. 



236 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Potent 


ate 


potentate 


Trust 


ee 


trustee 


Favour 


ite 


favourite 


4. Nouns denoting being or 


a state of beìng, 


are formed hy 


adding acy, age, &c. 


Conspire 


acv 


conspiracy 


Bond 


age 


bondage 


Deny 


al 


denial 


Vigilant 


ance 


vigilance 


Free 


dom 


freedom 


Brilliant 


cy 


brilliancy 


Innocent 


ence 


innocence 


Man 


hood 


manhood 


Just 


ice 


justice 


Exhaust 


ion 


exhaustion 


Compare 


son 


comparison 


Critic 


ism 


criticism 


Commence 


ment commencement 


Acrid 


mony acrimony 


Acute 


ness 


acuteness 


Brave 


ry 


bravery 


Partner 


ship 


partnership 


Warm 


th 


warmth 


Apt 


tude 


aptitude 


Novel 


ty 


novelty 


Moist 


ture 


moisture 



5. JVouns denoting legal au- 
thority, office, or dignity of a 
person, are formed by adding 
cy, dom, &c. 
Regent 
King 

Bishop ric bishopric 
Apostle ship apostleship 



cy regency 
dom kinffdom 



DIMINTJTIVES. 

6. Diminutive JVouns or 
nouns denoting little persons and 



Cumhachdach* fear-cumhachd 
Earbsa fear-earbsa 
Fàbhar fear-fàbhair 

4. Cumar Ainmearan a ciall- 

achadh bith no staid bith, le 

cur adh, sa, &ce. 

Co-rùnaich adh co-rììnachadh 

Daor sa daorsa 

Diùlt adh diùltadh 

Faiceallach d faiceallachd 

Saor sa saorsa 

Dearsach d dearsachd 
Neo-chiontach as neo-chiontas 

Duine achd daonnachd 

Ceart as ceartas 

Tràgh adh tràghadh 

Sàmhlaich — sàmhladh 

Tiolpadair achd tiolpadarachd 

Toisich adh toiseachadh 

Searbh as searbhas 
Gèur (gèire) ad gèiread 

Fearail as fearalas 

Còmpanach — còmpanas 

Blàth — blàthas, blàs 

Deas achd deasachd 

Ur — ùrachd 
Bog (buige) e buige 

5. Cumar Ainmearan a ciall- 
ach ughdarais, oifig, no inbhe 
laghail pearsa, le cur achd. 

Tainistear achd tainistearachd 

Righ — rioghachd 

Easbuig — easbuigeachd 

Abstol — abstolachd 

CRINEANAN. 

6. Cumar Ainmearan Crion- 
ail no ainmearan a ciallachadh 



• The Gaelic, having no corresponding affix here, generally prefixes fear, 
bean, or neach for the singular, and luchd or fir for the plural ; asfear-eolais, an 
acquaintance, luchd-eolais, acquaintances, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

things, are formed by adding 
cule, cle, &c. 



Animal 

Part 

Globe 

Eagle 

Stream 

Lamb 

Seed 

Hill 

William 



cule animalcule 



cle 

ule 

let 

let 

kin 

ling 

lock 



particle 

globule 

eaglet 

streamlet 

lambkin 

seedling 

hillock 



ie or y Willie or Willy 

ADJECTIVES. 

1. Adjectìves denoting of, or 
belongvig to a thing, are formed 
from the thìng described, by add- 
ing ac, al, &c. 



Elegy 

Autumn 

Europe 

Triumph 

Circle 

Moment 

Earth 

Apostle 

Fume 

Infant 

Consolation 
Spain 



2. Adjectives denoting abun- 
dance, are formed from the 
names of their property, by add- 
ing ate, ful, &c. 



ac 


elegiac 


Marbhrann 


al 


autumnal 


Foghar 


an 


European 


Eòrp 


ant 


triumphant 


Buaidh 


ar 


circular 


Cuairt 


ary 


momentary 


Plath 


en 


earthen 


Talamh 


ic 


apostolic, or 


Abstol 


ical 


apostolical 


id 


fumid 


Smùd 


ile 


infantile 


Leanaban 


ine 


infantine 


ory 


consolatory 


Sòlas 


ish 


Spanish 


Spàinn 



FOCLACHADH. 237 

phearsdn agus nithe beaga, le 
cur an, ag. 



Crèutair an 



Earran 

Cearsal 

Iolaire 

Sruth 

Uan 

Siol 

Cnoc 

Uilleam 



ag 



creutairean 

meanbh-bhith 

earranag 

cearsalag 

iolaireag 

sruthan 

uanan 

siolan 

cnocan 

Uilleachan 



BUADIIARA^. 

1. Cumar Buadharan a ciall- 
achadh mu rudj no gnè ruid, o 'n 
rud ainmichte, le cur ach, ail, 
&c. 



ach 
ail 
ach 



ail 
aidh 



marbhTannach 
fogharail 
Eòrpach 
buadhach 
cuairteach 
plathail 
talmhaidh 

ach abstolach 

smùdach 
leanabaidh 
leanabail 
sòlasach 
Spàinneach 



]ai 



idh 
1 

ach 



Affection 

Beauty 

Verb 

Hazard 

Toil 



ate affectionate 
ful beautiful 
ose verbose 
ous hazardous 
some toilsome 



2. Cumar Buadharan a 
ciallachadh pailteis, o ainmibh 
am buadhan. le cur, ach &ce. 



Gràdh 

Maise 

Focal 

Cunnard 

Saothair 



ach gradhach 

— maiseach 

— focalach 
ach cunnardach 
eil saotkaireil 



238 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



3. Adjectives denoting like- 
ness, are formed from nouns, 
by adding — 

Brule ish brutish 

Man like manlike 

World ly worldly 

4. Adjectives denoting capa- 
city in an active sense, are form- 
ed from nouns or verbs, by add- 
ing ive, — 

Sport ive sportive 

Elect — elective 

5. Adjectives denoting capa- 
city in a passive sense, are 
formed from nouns or verbs, 
by adding able, ible, in En- 
lish, and by prefixing so in 
Gaelic. 

Cure able curable 

Credit ible credible 

Dissolve uble dissoluble 

6. Adjectives denoting want 
or privation, are formed from 
the name of the thing wanting, 
by adding less in English, and 
by prefìxing ain, eu, mi, neo, 
&c. in Gaelic. 

Art less artless 

Shame — shameless 

For Gaelic adjectives of this 

VERBS. . 
I. Verbs conveying the idea 
of to make, as a part of their 
signification, are formed from 
nouns and adjectives, by adding 
ate, en, &c. 

Person ate personate 

Hard en harden 



3. Cumar Buadharan a 
ciallachadh coltais, le cur— 



Brùid eil brùideil 

Duine _ duineil 

Saoghal ta saoghalta 

4. Cumar Buadharan a 
ciallachadh comais ann an seadh 
spreigeach, o ainmearan no bho 
ghniomharan, le cur, 

Spòrs ail spòrsail 

Tagh ach taghach 

5. Cumar Buadharan a 
ciallachadh comais, ann an 
seadh fulangach, o ainmearan 
no bho ghniomharan, le cur, 
dble, ible, 'sa Bheurla, agus le 
roimh-iceadh so 'sa Ghaelig. 

Leigheas so-leigheas 
Creid so-chreidsinn, creideasach 
Leagh so-leaghadh, leaghach 

6. Cumar Buadharan a 
ciallachadh dith, no easbhaidh, 
o ainm an ni a ta gann, le cur 
less 'sa Bheurla, agus le roimh- 
iceadh ain, eu, mi, neo, &ce. 
'sa Ghaelig. 

Eòlas aineòlach 
Nàire mi-nàrach 

description, see next page. 

GHNIOMARAN. 
1. Cumar Gniohmharan 
anns am beil nadar a bhi dean- 
amh fillte, mar phàirt de 'n 
seadh, o ainmearan agus o 
bhuadharan, le cur ich, n, &ce. 

Riochd ich riochdaich 

Teann — teannaich 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Saint fy sanctify 

Languid ish languish 
Epitome ise, or ize epitomise 



FOCLACHADH. 



239 



GAELIC PREFIXES. 

Words denoting error, 
defect, or ivant, or the sense 
of not, un, less,in English, are 
formed by prefixing — 



Naomh — naomhaich 

Fann — fannaich 

Giorrachadh — giorraich 



TUSICEAN GAELIGr. 

Cumar focail a ciallacli- 
adh mearachd, dith no, easbh- 
aidh, no seadh not, un, less, 
'sa Bheurla le roimh-iceadh 



An, ana, ain, ao, as, ea, eas, eu, di } do, mi, neo. 



Abuich, 


ripe, 


an-abuich, 


unripe 


Measarra, 


temperate, 


ana-measarra, 


intemperate 


Eòlach, 


acquainted, 


1 ain-eòlach, 


unacquainted 


Dionach, 


tighè, 


ao-dionach, 


untight, leaky 


Caoin, 


kind, 


as-caoin, 


unkind, haish 


Slan, 


whole, healthy, 


ea-slan, 


unhealthy, sick 


Onoir, 


respect, 
heavy, 


eas-onoir, 


disrespect 


Trom, 


eu-trom, 


light 


Meas, 


honour, 


di-meas, 
2 do-leaghas, 


dishonour 


Leigheas, 


cure, 


incurable 


Ceart, 


just, 


mi-cheart, 


unjust 


Sona, 


happy, 


neo-shona, 


unhappy. 



1. Ain signilies also excess ; as, ainteas, excessive heat, inflammation. 

2. Do, the opposite ot' so, signifies also hard to do, uneasy, ill ; as, do-dhean- 
amh, impracticable; do-theagasg, indocile; do-bheart, a bad deed, vice. 

Ath signifìes again, next ; I Tha ath a ciallachadh ris,faisge; 
as, I mar, 

Leasaich, improve, ath-leasaich, improve again, reform ; tog, 
lift, ath-thog, lift again, rebuild ; uair, hour, time, ath-uair, 
next time. 

Bith, Sior — ever, aìways ; as, buan, lasting, Z>i^A-bhuan, ever- 

lasting; ruith, running, sior-ruith, ever-running, eternal. 
Co, com, comh, coin — together ; as, cuir, put, co-chuir, put to- 

gether, apply ; ith, eat, com-ith, (comaidh) eating together ; 

radh, saying, comhradh, saying together, speech, dialogue ; 

coi'nneamh, (for com-fheitheamh) waiting together, a meeting. 
Iol, Toma — many ; as, io/-chosach, many-footed, zo/wa-chearnach, 

having many corners, multangular. Iol is written il in the 

Irish Gaelic. 



* These and like particles are called inseparable prepositions or Prefixes, be- 
cause they express no meaning when standing alone, or unconnected vvith other 
words. 



240 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Iom — about, around, entire ; as, wwi-dhùin, shut in or about, en- 

close, /om-ghaoth, a wind blowing around, a whirlwind, iom-lan, 

full about, entire, quite complete. 
Ion— fit, like, worthy ; as, zon-mholta, worthy of being praised, 

ionann, (ion-aon) like one, alike, same. 
So — easy, apt, good; as, so-dheanamh, easily done, possible, so- 

char, a good turn. So takes the form of soi ; as, soisgèul, 

good news, gospel, soilèur, clear, visible. 



GAELIC AFFIXES. 

Nouns denoting the agent 
or doer of a thing are form- 
ed from nouns or verbs by 
adding ach, air, ear, or iclie. 



Marc, 

Sealg, 

Sùist, 

Mìll, 

Sgèul, 



horse, 
hunting, 
thresh, 
destroy, 
a narrative, 



Ceannaich, buy, 

Some add adair. — 

Snàmh, swim, 

Smeur, smear, 

Uair, time, 

Roinn, divide, 

Nouns, chiefly of an abstract 
quality, are formed from adjec- 
tives, by adding achd, as, &c. 

Ciùin, calm, 
Naomh, holy, 
Geal, white, 



RISICEAN GAELIG. 

Cumar Ainmearan a ciall- 
achadh gniomhaiche, no 
deanadair cùise, o ainmear- 
an, no bho gniomharan, le 
cur ach, air, ear* no iche. 

marcach, a horseman 

sealgair, a huntsman 

sùistear, a thresher 

mìlltear, destroyer 

sgèulaiche, a narrator 

ceannaiche,+ a merchant. 

Cuiridh cuid adair. — 

snàmhadair, swimmer 

smeuradair, smearer 

uaireadair, time-keeper 

roinneadair, divider. 

Cumar Ainmearan a ta gu 
mòr de bhuaidh sgarta o bhuadh- 
aran le cur achd, as, &ce. 



Cruaidh, 

Ceart, 

Lag, 



hard, 
just, 
weak, 



ciùineachd, 
naomhachd, 
gilead, 
cruadhas, 
ceartas, 
laigse, 



calmness 

holiness 

whiteness 

hardness 

justice 

weakness 



*„Ear is a contracted form of fear orfhear : it is written air and sometimesozV 
to put, " Leathan ri leathan." Observance of this rule requires a broad before an 
affix beginning with a small, when the final vowel of the radical word is a broad. 

t When the radical word en<ìs in ich, it takes e only to i'orm the derivative 
noun. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 241 



Cumar Crineanan, o ainmear- 
an èile le cur an ris an fhear- 
anta, agus ag ris a' bhoireanta. 



Diminutives are formed from 
other nouns by adding an for 
the masculine, and ag for the 
feminine. 

Balg, a budget, balgan, a little budget 
Balach, a lad, balachan, a little lad (boy) 

Bean, a wife, beanag, a little wife 
Sùil, an eye, sùileag, a little eye 
Collective Nouns are formed Cumar Ainmearan Lòdach o 
from nouns and adjectives by ainmearaibh agus o bhuadhar- 
adding ridh. aibh le cur ridh. 

Ceòl, music, ceòlraidh, the muses 

Càs, foot, casraidh, foot-soldiers, infantry 

Og, young, òigridh, youth, young people 

Each, a horse, eachraidh, horse-soldiers, cavajry 

Cumar Ainmearan Tireil 
agus Fineachail le cur ach ris na 
ainmibh ceart ; mar, 
Albannach, a Scotchman 
Eirineach, an Irishman 
Sasunach, an Englishman 
a Scotchvvoman, &c. 
Frisealach, a man of the name of Fraser 
Stiuardach, a man of tbe name of Stewart 



Gentiles and Patronymics are 
formed by adding ach to tìie 
proper names ; as, 

Albainn, Scotland, 
Eirinn, Ireland, 
Sasun, England, 
Ban-Albanach 
Fraser, 
Stewart, 



Friseal, 
Stiùard, 
Dònull, 



Dònald, Dònullach, Grànnd, Grant, Grànndach, &c. 



ADJECTIVES. 

M&nyadjectives are form- 
ed from nouns and verbs, 
by adding ach, ail* eil, da, 
idh, mhor, ra, or rra. 



BUADHARAN. 

Cumar mòran bhuadh- 
aran o ainmearan agus o 
ghniomharan, le cur, ach, 
ail* eil, da, idh, mhor, ra, 
no rra. 



Sunnd, 


joy, 


sunndach, 


joyful 


Cosd, 


cost, 


cosdail, 


costly 


Pris, 


value, 


priseil, 


valuable 


Aois, 


age, 


aosda, 


aged, old 


Fial, 


bounty, 


iìalaidh, 


bountiful 


Neart, 


power, 


neartmhor, 


powerful 


Fasan, 


fashion, 


fasanta, 


fashionable 


Corp, 


body, 


coiporra, 


bodily 



• The affix ail or eil is a contraction of amhuil, like; thus, for fearamhuil, 
duinamhuil, we say feara?7, dmneil, like a man, manly. Amhuil is generally 
written at full length in the Irish ; as, baiiarnhuil, like à female, modest. From 
the Celtic affix, amhuil, uil, or eil, is derived the Latin alis ; as in fatalis, mort- 
alis, and the English al and ly, &c; aB in ftnal, m&nly. 



242 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



VERBS. 

Many verhs dendting to 
mahe, are formedfromnouns 
and adjectives, by adding 
ich ; as, 

Neart, strength, neartaicA 
Min, plain, soft, mmich, 

DOUBLE OR COMPOCND WORDS. 

A double word is composed 
of two other words, either in- 
corporated into one, or linked 
together with a hyphen ; as, 



GNIOMHARAN. 

Cumar mòran ghniomh- 
aran a ciallachadh gu dean- 
amh, o ainmearan agus o 
bhuadharan le cur ich; mar, 

make strong, strengthen. 
make plain, explain. 

FOCAIL DHUBHAILT NO MHEASGTA. 

Tha focal dubailt deanta o 
dhà fhocal, èile an dara cuid aon- 
aichte, no naisgte ri 'cheile lè 
tàthan ; mar, 



Banarach (ban àrach), a dairymaid ; òigear (òg fear), a youth ; 
fear-ciùiL, a musician ; gèur-fhocal, a gibe. 



1 . Double nouns whose parts 
are linked together with a hy- 
phen, and having an adjective 
or an inseparable prefìx for their 
fìrst term, are declined in both 
numbers as in their single state, 
but their first terms remain un- 
changed ; as, 

!Som. S. 

Dubh-fhocal, a riddle, 



1. Teàrnar focail dhùbhaik 
aig am beil an lùban iar an nasg- 
adb. ri 'chèile le tàthan, agus 
buadhar no roi-ic neo-sgarach 
aca 'nan ceud lùb 'san dà àireimh 
mar 'nan staid shingilt, ach fan- 
aidh a' cheud lùb gun mhùth ; 
mar, 

Gen S. • No>n. P. 

dubh-fhocail dubh-fhocalan 



Mi-bhuil, abuse, mi-bhuile mi-bhuilean 

Ard-bhuachaill, great shepherd, àrd-bhuachaille àrd-bhuachaillean 



2. A double noun whose first 
term governs the second in the 
genitive, has the fìrst term de- 
clined in both numbers accord- 
ing to its own declension ; but 
the second keeps the genitive 
form in every case, and is treated 
like an adjective agreeing with 
the first ; thus, 

Nom,. S. 

Cearc-thomain, b. a partridge, 
Clach-chinn, fr. a copestone, 
Fear-cuairt, fr. a sojourner, 
Muc-mhara, b. a whale, 



2, Tèàrnar 'san dà àireimh a 
rèir a' theàrnaidh fèin, ceud lùb 
focail dhubailt aig am beil a 
cheud lùb a' spreigeadh na dara 
lùib 'sa ghinteach, ach cumaidh 
an dara lùb, an staid ghinteach 
anns gach car, agus gabhar i 
mar bhuadhar a' còrdadh ris a' 
cheud lùib ; mar so, 

Gen S. 



circe-tomam 
cloiche-cinn 
fir-chuaiit 
muice-mara 



Nom. P. 

cearcan-tomain 
clachan-cinn 
fir-chuairt 
mucan-mara 



Obs. — The initial consonant of the second term of a double 
word of class fìrst is commonly aspirated in every case ; but in class 
second, only where an adjective qualifying the prepositive term 
should be aspìrated. 



SYNTAX. 
PART III. 
S Y N T A X. 

Syntax is that part of 
Grammar which treats of 
the construction ancl ar- 
rangement of words in a 
sentence. 

A Sentence is a series of 
words, so arranged as to 
make complete sense ; as, 
Jolm is happy. 

Sentences are either Sim- 
ple or Complex. 

A Simple sentence ex- 
presses only a simple pro- 
position, or contains but 
one verb, either simple or 
compound ; as, Virtue exalts 
a man. 

A Complex sentence con- 
sists of two or more simple 
sentences connected by one 
or more conjunctions, to 
express a complete proposi- 
tion; as, Virtue exalts aman, 
but vice debases him. 

In every sentence there must 
be a Subject, or thing spoken 
of and a Predicate, or what is 
affirmed of the subject. 



RIALTACHADH. 243 
EARRAN III. 
RIALTACIIADIL 

Is e Rialtaciiadh an 
earran sin de Ghràmar a ta 
teagasg mu cho-ria nachadh, 
agus suidheachadh fhocal- 
an ann a' ciallairt. 

Is e Ciallairt sreath fhoc- 
alan, suidhichte air achd 
is gu'n dean iad ciall làn ; 
mar, iha Iain sona. 

Tha ciallairtean Singilt 
no Fillteach. 

Airisidh ciallairt Singilt 
aon smuanoirt singilt, no 
cha ghabh e ach a-mhàin 
aon ghniomhar singilt no 
measgta ; mar, Ardaichidh 
subhailc duine. 

Gabhaidh ciallairt Fillt- 
each dà chiallairt singilt no 
ni's mò na dhà, co-naisgte le 
h-aon no iomadh naisgear 
gusmuanoirtlàn airis; mar, 
Ardaichidh subhailc duine, 
ach ìslichidh dubhailc e. 

Fèumaidh Cùisear, no ni mu 
'n labhrar, agus Feart ( abairt), 
no na theirear uime, a bhi anns 
gach ciallairt. 



The Subject or Nominative of a verb is always, either one or 
more nouns, one or more pronouns, a sentence, or part of a sen- 
tence ; as, i" write. He and she were married. John w T rites, 
Peter, James, and Charles write. Minister, elders, and people 
agree. Hearing him read well is pleasant. 

The Predicate is always a verb, and a sentence must uniformly 
contain at least one verb, but it may contain more than one, be- 
sides other parts of speech ; as, John reads books. John reads 
good books, and writes sensible letters. 



244 SYNTAX. 



MALTACHADH. 



The name of the person or 
thing upon which a transitive 
verb acts in a sentence is the 
object of the verb ; as, John 
loves James. James struck the 
desk. 



Is e ainm a' pheara, no 'ni 
air am heil gniomhar asdolach 
a' gniomhachadh ann a ciallairt, 
cuspair a' ghniomhair; mar, Tha 
Iain a' gràdhachadh Shèumais. 
Bhuail Sèumas an dasg. 



Here observe, James is the object of the verb loves, and desk 
is the object of the verb struck. 

From what has been explained, let the student notice carefully 
that a sentence consists of three principal parts, viz. the subject or 
nominative, the predicate or verb, and the object or person or 
thing affected by the verbal action. 

The Subject is known by putting the interrogative Who ? be- 
fore the verb ; as, I read. Who reads ? Answer I. 

The Predicate is known by asking what the nominative does 
with the interrogative what and the verb do ? thus, John writes. 
What does John do ? Ans. writes. 

The Object is known by annexing the interrogative what or 
whom to the verb ; as, I cut pens. Cut what ? Ans. pens. He 
loves me. Loves whom ? Ans. me. 



Syntax is divided into two 
parts, viz. Concord and Govern- 
ment. 

Concord is the agreeing or 
corresponding of one word with 
another in number, gender, case, 
or person. 

Government is the power 
which one part of speech has 
over a certain case or form of 
another, to determine the idea 
which the words are intended 
to express. 

RULES OF SYNTAX. 

The Bules of Syntax 
treat either of the construc- 
tion or the arrangement of 
words in sentences. 

Construction is the form 
which words assume in order 



Tha Rialtachadh roinnte gu 
dà phàirt, eadh. Còrdadh agus 
Spreigeadh. 

Is e Còrdadh co-aonadh, no 
co-fhreagairt aoin fhocail ri 
focal èile 'an àireimh, 'an gin, 
'an car, no ann am pearsa. 

Is e Spreigeadh an ceannas 
a ta aig aon fhocal thairis air 
car, no staid àraid aoin èile, gu 
suidheachadh na beachd a dh- 
iarrar airis leis na focail. 



RIALTAN RIALTACHAIDH. 

Tha Rialtan Rialtachaidh 
a' teagasg mu cho-rian- 
achadh, no suidheachadh 
fhocal ann a ciallairtibh. 

Is e Go-rianachadh an 
staid anns an cuirear focail 



SYNTAX. 



RIALTACHADH. 245 



to combine grammatically 
withotherwordsinthe same 
sentence. 

Arrangementis the order 
or position in which words 
stand in a sentence. 

A Phrase is a few words 
used to express some relation 
between ideas, but no entire 
proposition ; as, " In short," 
i( To be sure." 

A Clause is a part of a sen- 
tence. 



gu co-nasgadh gu gràmar- 
ail ri focail èile 'san aon 
chiallairt. 

Is e Suidheachadh an 
t-òrdugh no an seasamh 
anns am beil focail ann a 
ciaìlairt. 

Is e Seollairt beagan fhoeal a 
ghnàthaichear gu seòrsa dàimh 
eadar beachdan a nochdadh, ach 
cha nochd e smuanoirt làn; mar, 
''Gugearr," "Gubhi cinnteach." 

Is e Ball, no earran pàirt, de 
chiallairt. 



ft^* All the Rules and Exercises of English Syntax are in 
English only, designed to be converted into the other Language 
as good exercises for the Gaelic Student. All the terms of the 
rules are already anticipated, and for the Gaelic of such words as 
the text does not furnish, he is to ply his Dictionary. 

ARTICLE AND N0UN. 

Rule I.* — A or an is used before a Noun Singular 
only ; as, a pen, an egg. 

The is used before Nouns in both Numbers ; as, the 
king, the lords. 

1. A is used before words beginning with a consonant, the long 
sound of u, and before vowels sounding like w. An is used be- 
fore a vowel or a silent h, and before h sounded but accented on 
the second syllable ; as, 

A book. A unit. Such a one. 
An owl. An hour. An heròic action. 

2. A is used before the numeral adjectives/ew and many ; as, 

A few pence. A great many people. 

3. When two or more nouns or adjectives are used to describe 
the same object, the article is prefixed only to the first of them ; 

• If the Pupil is not very young, the corresponding rule of Arrangement should 
be taught along with each rule of Construction. — See lst Rule of Arrangement, 
page 260. 



246 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



but if different objects are described, it is prefìxed to each separ- 
ately ; as, 

I bougbt a black and white cow wbich cost £6. 

I bought a black and a white cow which cost each £6. 

4. The article is omitted in English before the names of per- 
sons, places, virtues, vices, metals, arts, and sciences, &c. and 
before a word that stands for a whole species. 

EXERCISES. 

Correct — A apple. A otter. A orderly house. An 
union. A historical account. An European settle- 
ment. An ewe. The John reads well. An Scotland 
is my native country. The fire, the air, the earth, and 
the water, are four elements of the philosophers. The 
patience and diligence overcome all the difìiculties. 
The reason was given to man to control his passions. 
The arithmetic has led to many important discoveries. 
The goid is corrupting. A man is the noblest work of 
creation. The virtues like his are not easily acquired. 
The profligate man is seldom or never found to be the 
good husband, the good father, or the benefìcent 
neighbour. 

ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. 

Rule II. — Every Adjective belongs to a Noun, ex- 
pressed or understood ; as, a vigorous man ; the young 
should obey the old, i.e. the young people, &c. 

1. The Comparative degree of adjectives requires than after it, 
and the Superlative requires of ; as, 

James is taller than John. 
Solomon vvas the wisest of all men. 

Rule III.' — It is improper to use double comparatives 
and superlatives ; thus, 

Mine is a more better pen than yours, but John's is the most best; 
should òe, Mine is a better pen than yours, but John's is the best. 

1. The Adjectives chief perfect, true, universal, right, &c. 
imply the superlative degree without est or most. Superior and 
inferior imply comparison, and take to after them. 



CONSTRTJCTION OF WORDS. 



247 



2. Whèn two objectsare compared, the comparative is generally 
used ; as, Peter is the wiser of the two. But when more than 
two, the superlative ; as, Jane is the prettiest of the three, or of 
them all. 

This rule is not strictly followed ; the superlative is often used 
instead of the comparative, by respectable speakers and writers ; 
as, this is the weakest of the two, or the weaker of the two. 

EXERCISES. 

Correct — He sings better nor I. James is wiser nor 
John. Wisdom is more precious nor gold. Nothing is 
sweeter nor the light of truth. Samson was stronger 
besides any other man. To obey our superiors is no 
greater duty but the law of nature requires. He gained 
no further merit by his eloquence but a little popular 
applause. A worser conduct. The most straitest sect. 
A more kinder friend. Tray is the most swiftest dog. 
Peter is more older than John. Absalom was the most 
beautifullest man. The most sweetest voice. 

He is the chiefest among ten thousands. Virtue 
confers the supremest dignity on man, He gave most 
universal satisfaction. Wisdom is more superior than 
wealth. 

James is the wisest of the two. He is the weakest of 
the two. This day is hottest than yesterday. Eliza is 
the prettier of the three, but not the elder. 



N0UNS AND PR0N0UNS. 

Rule IV. — When two nouns, or a noun and a pronoun 
are used to denotethe possessor, and the thing possessed, 
the name of the owner is put in the possessive case ; as, 

In my father^s house. On eagle's wings. 

Thine is the kingdom. The man whose heart is glad. 

1. When several nouns denoting possession follow each other, 
the last mentioned only receives the sign of tbe possessive ; as, 
John and Eliza's books. But when any words intervene, the sign 
of the possessive should be annexed to each ; as, He got his 
faiher^s as well as his mother's permission. 



248 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



2. When the name of the thing possessed is obvious, it is often 
omitted ; as, I was at St George's, i.e. at St George's Church. 
I am going to the minister's, i.e. the minister's house. 

3. The preposition of, oftenbecomes the sign of the possessive 
in English ; as, The revvard of virtue, or virtue's reward. The 
wisdom of Socrates, rather than Socrates* wisdom. 

4. When the word put in the possessive ends in s, ss, or ce, in 
order to avoid too much of a hissing sound, the possessive is often 
formed by simply annexing the apostrophe (') without the letter s 
to the nominative ; as, for righteousness' sake, for conscience' 
sake. 

Rule V. — Nouns signifying the same person, place, 
or thing, agree in case ; as, 

Cicero the orator. The city Edinburgh. 
EXERCISES. 

Correct — A ladys fan. The mans hat. Thy fathers 
virtue is not thine. A mans manner's frequently in- 
fluence his fortune. Moses rod was turned into a ser- 
pent. Asa his heart was perfect with the Lord. Helen 
her beauty was the cause of Troy its destruction. A 
mothers tenderness and a fathers care are natures gift 
for man his advantage. 

1. It was the men's, women's, and children's lot to suf- 
fer much affliction. 

Peter's, John's, and Andrew's occupation was that of 
fìshermen. 

I called at the bookseller. I was at St Peter. 
For Herodias's sake. Jesus'sfeet. For conscience's 
sake. (5.) The river of Nile. 

Rule VI. — Pronouns agree with their correlatives, or 
the nouns for which they stand, in number, gender, and 
person; as, 

Every tree is known by its fruit. 

The lady who has lost her fan. 

The boys are learning their lesson. 

The post has arrived, but ke has brought me no letters. 



Rule VII. — In expressing the existence of a person 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



249 



or thing, the pronoun it as the nominative to a verb, is 
often used indefinitely, and in that case applied to per- 
sons as well as to things in both numbers ; as, 

It is the duke. It is time to go. 

It is I, be not afraid. It was you tbat told me. 

It is tbese fetters tbat vex me. It was he wbo broke it. 

Rule VIII. — The Demonstrative Pronouns, this, that, 
and numerals, agree in number with the nouns which 
thej describe ; as, This book, that pen, these books, those 
pens, one horse, tvco pounds, six feet. 

1. Tbe distributives each, every, either, neitker, Jigree with 
verbs and pronouns in tbe singular number ; as, 

Each of your companions is doing well. 
Every man is accountable for himself. 
Either of them is fit to walk two miles an bour. 
Neither of tbese girls is able to speak for herself. 

2. Wben a pronoun refers to two or more nouns or pronouns 
of different persons coupled witb and, it takes the first person 
plural rather than the second, and tbe second rather tban the third ; 
as, 

John a:id I sbared it between us. 

You and John are here now, I am glad to see you both. 
He and you and / have our tasks well. 

3. All, when it refers toquantity, is joined to a singular noun,, 
and to a plural when it refers to number ; as, 

Six days shalt thou labour and do all tby work. 
All men are mortal. 
Whole is joined to collective nouns in the plural ; as, 
" Whole cities were swallowed up by the earthquake." 

4. The word conveying the answer to a question must be in 
the same case with the interrogative word ; as, 

Who said that ? he (said it) Whose knife is this ? Petefs 
(knife) 

Whom did he strike ? me ; that is, he struck me. 

5. A relative pronoun is always of the same number, gender, 
and person, with the word to which it refers, but not always of 
the same case ; as, Thou who readest. He who writes. I, whom 
the master has praised, am happy. 



250 



•ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



EXERCISES. 

Correct — The queen put on his royal apparel. John 
is here, she came an hour ago. The book whom I read. 
He smokes his pipe, but she does not draw well. The 
mind of man cannot be long without food to nourish 
the activity of his thoughts. Can a woman forget his 
sucking child, that he should not have compassion on 
the son of her womb ? yea, they may forget ; yet I will 
not forget thee. The trees have lost its foliage. Take 
handfulls of the ashes of the furnace, and let Moses 
sprinkle it toward heaven in the sight of Pharaoh, and 
it shall become small dust. This boys reads well. That 
men work hard. These kind of people sticks at nothing. 
Those sort of favours did real injury. Give me them 
books. Them are fine maps. I have not seen him this 
ten days. I have no interests but that of truth and 
virtue. The well is six foot deep and two foot broad. . 

Each of them paid their share. Every imagination 
of the thoughts of the heart of man are evil continually. 
Are either of these men your friend ? 

Thou and he shared it between them. You and John 
have lost their pens. You and I must attend to your 
duty. 

Who wrote this letter? me. Whose knife is this? 
mine's. 

SUBJECT AND VERB. 

Rule IX. — A verb must be always of the same num- 
ber and person with its subject or nominative ; as, 
I love. Thou provest. John writ.es letters. 
I am. He is. Boys are here. 

1. Singular nouns or pronouns coupled with and require a 
verb or pronoun in the plural ; as, 

Socrates and Plato were wise. 

He and she are happy, for they are good. 

2. Singular nouns or pronouns separated by ob or nob re- 
quire a verb or pronoun in the singular number ; as, 

James or John is dux. 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



251 



3. A Collective noun conveying an idea of plurality, requires a 
verb and pronoun in the plural ; as, 

My people do not consider, they have not knovvn me. 
A noun or pronoun is alwaysthe subject to a verb, and a noun 
is always of the third person, except when it is used to name the 
person addressed, in which case it is of the second ; as, 
tf Our Father who ait in heaven." 

4. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is often a nomin- 
ative to a verb, and always of the third person ; as> 

To be afraìd to do evil is true courage. 
His being absent was the cause of his loss. 

5. It is improper to use both a noun and its pronoun as a 
nominative to the same verb ; as, 

The king he is just ; should be, The king is just. 
Many words they darken speech ; should be, Many words darken 
speech. 

EXERCISES. 

Correct — I loves. I hatest. Thou desires. He 
covet. We abhors. You rejects. "We sings. They 
calls. I goes. They was. He have. We has. You 
reads well. Men judges partially. We was from 
home. 

Many men is deceived by false appearances. The 
days of man is but as grass. Great pains ha,s been taken 
to reconcile the parties. There is in fact no servants in 
the house. A variety of charming objects please the 
eye. Not one of those whom thou sees clothed in purple 
are happy. The support of so many of his relations 
were a heavy tax upon his industry, but thou knows he 
paid it cheerfully. The variety of the productions of 
genius, like that of the operations of nature, are without 
limits. Disappointments sinks the heart of men, but 
the renewal of hope give consolation. 

In vain our fiocks and fields increase our store, 
When our abundance make us wish for more. 

1. Your book and pen is on the desk. Newton and 
Locke was learned men. James and I has been very 
busy. The rich and the poor meets together. Time 



252 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



and tide waits for no man. Wisdom, virtue, and hap- 
piness dwells with the golden mediocrity. Out of the 
same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. 

2. Peter or his brother are to go. Either the boy or 
the girl were present. There are in many minds neither 
knowledge nor understanding. Neither John nor KAchard 
have come. The modest virgin, the prudent wife, or 
the careful matron, are much more serviceable in life 
than petticoated philosophers. It must be confessed 
that a lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery 
or murder. Man is not such a machine as a clock or 
a watch, which move merely as they are moved. 

3. The council were not unanimous. The committee 
has agreed upon that. The Parliament are composed 
of king or queen, lords, and commons. The multitude 
eagerly pursues pleasures as its chief good. Some 
people is busy, and yet does very little. When the 
nation complain, the rulers should listen to their voice. 

4. To be carnally minded are death, but to be spirit- 
ually minded are life and peace. To do unto others as 
we would they should do unto us, constitute the principle 
of virtue. To be temperate in eating and drinking, to 
use exercise in the open air, and to preserve the mind 
from tumultuous emotions, is the best preservative of 
health. 

That it is our duty to promote the purity of our minds 
and bodies, to be just and kind to our fellow creatures, 
and to be pious and faithful to Him who made us, admit 
not of any doubt in a rational and well informed mind. 

VERB AND ITS OBJECT. 

Rule X. — A transitive verb governs its object in the 
objectwe case ; as, 

We love them. They hate us. John struck the desk. 
Neuter or Intransitive verbs govern a word of like signification 
with themselves in the objective ; as, 

I live a pleasant life. You run a race. 
Correct — I admire she. He taught I. Vice ruins 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



253 



they who obey its commands. Wlio did they entertain 
so freely ? Whosoever the court favours, they will I 
espouse. He and they we know, but who art thou? 
These are the persons who we ought to respect. She 
that is idle and mischievous reprove sharply, We 
should fear and obey the Author of our being, even He 
who hath power to reward or punish we for ever. He 
who committed the offence thou shouldest correct, not I 
who am innocent. They who opulence has made rich, 
and who luxury has corrupted, are not happy. 



VERB AND TWO OBJECTS. 

Rule XI. — Some transitive verbs, such as bring, give, 
tell, send, promise, allow, <&c. admit two objective cases 
after them, — the one case denoting the object, and the 
other the person ; as, 

He gave it me* He sent us a present. 

Such verbs as admit two objective cases in the active voice, re- 
tain one in the passive, especially in colloquial discourses ; as, 

I was allowed great liberty. She was offered them by her 
mother. 

Rule XII. — The verb to be has the same case after 
it as before it ; as, 

It is be not afraid. It was he. I took it to be him. 

Rule XIII. — One verb governs another in the Infini- 
tive mood ; as, Strive to learn. 

To, the sign of the Infinitive, is not used after the 
verbs bid, dare, feel, hear, let, need, make, see, or the 
auxiliary verbs may, can, must, shall, and will. 

1. The Infinitive mood is often governed by nouns and adjec 
tives ; as, 

A desire to speak. Keen to learn. 
For before this mood is very vulgar. 

The Infinitive is often an independent clause of a sentence ; as, 
To proceed. To confess the truth, I was in fault. 



' The prepositioa to orfor is uuderstood before the persou ; as, he gave it to me. 



254 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



2. To is generally used after the first class of tbese verbs in 
the passive form, except let ; as, 

He was heard to speak. He was let go. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Rule XIV. — Participles retaining the sense of a verb, 
govern the same case or mood as the verbs to which they 
belong ; as, 

Loving me. Having seen them. 
Rule XV. — When the Imperfect Participle is used 
as a noun, it is often preceded by an article, and followed 
by of; as, 

By the observing of the truth, thou wilt command esteem. 
Rule XVI. — When the Imperfect Participle is used 
as a noun, or part of a complex noun, it is frequently 
preceded by a noun or pronoun in the possessive case. 
Much depends on the pupil's composing frequently. 
II is attending school regularly enables him to be dux. 

1. A noun or pronoun joined with the Irnperfect or Perfect 
participle, not depending upon any other word in the sentence, is 
put in the nominative case ; as, 

We being exceedingly tossed, they lighted the ship. 
They having finished their work, departed. 
This construction is commonly called the nominative absolute. 

2. The Perfect Participle is always joined to the verb be in 
compound tenses Passive,* and to the verb have when used as a 
help ; as, 

He is smitten. Books are lent. 
I have written. They had chosen. 
EXERCISES. 

Oorrect — He gave I a penny. Ye gave I meat. 
Son, give I thine heart. Tell we your news. Fetch I 
a candle. Get he a pen. OfFer they meat. He taught 
I grammar. The master promìsed we a holiday. I will 
send ye money. Who gave thou this authority ? Did 
they tell he his fault ? If thy brother trespass against 
thee, go and tell he his fault between thee and he alone. 
He denied I the favour. I was first refused apples, then 
promised they, and at last I was offered they. 



* See t'ormation ol the Passive Voice,—page 129, ^c. 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



255 



12. It was me. It was her. It was me that brought 
these tidings. Was it them that told you ? It was him 
who got the first prize. I would not do it again if I 
were him, Who do they represent I to be ? Search the 
Scriptures, for in them ye have eternal life, and thej 
are them which testify of me. I believe it to have been 
they. I am certain it was not him. Let him be whom 
he may. I saw a person whom I took to be she. It 
was not us. It might have been him. It was either 
her or her sister that told me. 

13. Learn do well. Strive improve. He ordered 
me go home. Christians ought love one another. It 
is better live on a little than outlive a great deal. I 
did not wish obtrude my opinions upon others. He 
cannot be said have intruded himself on the parish. 

I bade him to come. I dare not to do it. Let 
him to do his duty. I need not to solicit him to do a 
kind office. I feel his pulse to beat. Hear Ann to 
read her lesson. Let reason and religion to guide you. 
We heard the thunder to roll. It is the difference of 
their conduct which makes us to approve the one and 
to reject the other. It is a great support to virtue when 
we see a good mind to maintain its patience and tran- 
quillity under injuries and afflictions, and to cordially 
forgive its oppressors. 

14. Trying speak. Wishing learn. Endeavouring 
persuade. Esteeming theirselves wise they became 
fools. The master is teaching we read distinctly. He 
was advising they avoid evil company. Our uncle, after 
having paid we a visit of three days, departed. Having 
exposed hisself too much to the inclemency of the 
weather, he contracted a severe cold. 

15. The learning languages requires a close and per- 
severing application. Learning of any subject requires 
great attention. 1 have heard of thee by the hearing 
the ear. The sum of the moral law consists in the 
obeying God, and loving of our neighbours as ourselves. 
This was a betraying the trust reposed in him. You 



256 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



are favourably situated for the gaining wisdom. By 
reading of good books we are sure to improve both our 
mind and our morals. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Rule XVII. — Prepositions govern their objects in the 
objective case ; as, 

Before me, behind us, between you and me, on a table. 

The preposition To is often omitted after the adverbs nigh, 
near, like, and before a personal pronoun, after a verb of giving, 
&c. ; as, 

He came near the city, i-e. near to the city. 
He sent me a newspaper, i.e. to me. 

Rule XVIII. — The Prepositions at, in, to, are used 
before names of places ; thus, 

At, is used after the verb to be ; as, I was at Edinburgh. 

At, is used also before the names of villages, towns, and foreign 
eities ; as, he resides at Beauly, at York, at Rome. 

In, is used before names of streets, of countries, and large cities ; 
as, he stays in George Street. I live in Scotland, in London. 

To, is used after a verb of motion ; as, he went to Paris. 

Correci- — I was with he. To who did you give my 
pen. Give each of they a penny. Send the frock to 
she. Great friendship subsists between he and I. For 
who do you work. The master often spoke to we upon 
that subject. He laid the suspicion upon somebody, I 
know not who, in the company. 

* Who do you speak to. Who did she sing with. 
Who did you stand before. I hope it is not I you are 
displeased with. It is not I thou art engaged with. 
Who didst thou receive that intelligence from ? Does 
that boy know who he speaks to ? What concord can 
subsist between those who commit crimes and they who 
abhor them. Associate not with those who none speak 
well of. 



• The Preposition commonly precedes the relative which it governs ; as, To 
whoun do you speak. (See Eng. Ar. R. Ì4.J 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



257 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

Rule XIX. — Gonjunctions connect nouns and pro- 
nouns in the same case, and verbs in the same mood 
and tense ; as, 

Peter and John are good boys. You and / were at school. 
The sailor struck him, and not me. You are older than /. 
She loved him more than me. You can sing as well as I. 
Watch and pray. He reads and writes well. 

Rule XX. — Some Conjunctions are used as correlatives 
to each other ; thus, 

Either requires or after it ; as, I will either come or send. 



JVeither " nor ; as, neither he nor his brother was there. 
Though ) ' c yet ; as, though he was rich, yet for our sakes he 
Although j became poor. 

As u as, in expressing comparison of equality ; as, she 

is as amiable as her sister. 



1 . Some Conjunctions, Adverbs, and Pronouns go in couples ; 



thus, 




Both couples 


with and ; as, both you and 1 are well. 


As " 


so, expressive of comparison of equality ; as, 




as the stars, so shall thy seed be. 


So « 


as, expressive of comparison ; as, he is not so 




wise as his brother. 


So " 


that, expressive of consequence ; as, I am so 




weak that I cannot move. 


Whether " 


or ; as, whether he will do it or not. 


Such 


as ; as, such as do well. 


Other « 


than ; as, no other than he. 



Such, when denoting so great, requires ihat ; as, 
Her conduct was such, that I ordered her to leave the room. 
Such is the influence of money, that few can resist it. 



EXERCISES. 

Correct — The master taught him and I to write. 
John is as tall as me. He retains his learning better 
than her. You and me enjoy many privileges. Pro- 
fessing regard and to act diiTerently mark a base mind. 
If he understands the subject and attend to it, he can 
scarcely fail of success. If a man have a hundred sheep, 
and one of them go astray, does he not leave the ninety 

R 



258 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



and nine, and goeth* into the mountains and seeketh* 
that which is gone astray ? 

It is neither high or low. Though he slay me, so 
will I trust in him. He must go himself, or send his 
servant. Neither despise or oppose what thou dost not 
understand. Neither despise the poor or envy the rich, 
for the one dieth £0 the other. I gained a son, and such 
a son as all men hailed me happy. I must, however, 
be so candid as to own as I have been mistaken. As 
far as I am able to judge, the book is well written. His 
raiment was so white as now. I must be so plain that 
to tell you that you have misapprehended it altogether. 
This is no other but the gate of heaven. Such men 
that act treacherously ought to be avoided. 

Rtjle XXI. — The auxiliary verbs Shall and Will, and 
their past, should and voould, are often omitted before 
specific verbs when preceded by the conjunctions if 
though, lest, unless, &c. ; as, 

<f If thy presence go not with us, carry us not up hence;" i.e. 
if thy presence will not go with us, &c. 

" Though he slay me ;" i.e. though lie should slay me. f 

EXERCISES. 

Supply each oftke following Sentences •wìth the Auxiliary that is 
understood : — 

If he do but touch the hills they shall smoke. Though 
he fall he shall not be utterly cast down. If thou be 
afflicted repine not. Let him that thinketh he standeth 
take heed lest he fall. If he act prudently he can un- 

• Continue the Emphatic Form of the Verb here. 
f " In such phraseologies as ' he slay,' ' thy presence go,' some grammarians 
see what they call a Subjunctive Mood of the Verb, — that is, a form of the verb 
peculiar to clauses which are subjoined to others by means of the conjunctions 
if though, fyc. ; but it is plain that these conjunctions exercise no influence over 
the verb. The reason of the peculiar l'orm is, that the idea of contingency is 
present to the mind of the speaker or writer, and is meant to be expressed, — 
(the same reason, iudeed,that gives riseto the use of the conjunctions themselves 
in these cases.) Accordingly, the form of the verb is the same when contingency 
is expressed, whether the conjunctions be used or not. ' Be you present or be 
you absent, I will speak,' is as grammatical as, ' Whether you be present or ab- 
sent.' Besides, it is to be observed that, when certainty and not contingency ia 
expressed, the verb does not take this elliptical form, though preceded by if, 
thovgh, <J-c."~ Dr M'Culloch. 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 259 

doubtedly be trusted. Take care that you communicate 
not the secret to any person. 

Rule XXII. — Interjections are joined to the objective 
case of the first personal pronoun, and to the nomina- 
tive of the second ; as, Ah me ! thou ! * 

EXERCISES. 

Correct — Ah ! unhappy thee, who art indinerent 
about thine eternal peace. ! you hypocrites. Oh ! 
I, for I am a man of sorrow. Woe's I, for I am a man 
of unclean lips. 



ii. 

rules of arrangement. 

The words of a sentence 
may be arranged either in 
Conventional or Rhetorical 
order. 

The Conventional order 
is the arrangement in which 
the words of a sentence are 
usually placed in speaking 
and writing. 

The Bhetorical order is 
that arrangement of the 
words in which the empha- 
tical word or part of a sen- 
tence is placed fìrst. 



ii. 

rialtan suidheachaidh. 

Faodar focail ciallairte a 
shuidheachadh andaracuid 
'an òrdugh Còrdail, no Or- 
chainnteach. 

Is e 'n t-òrdugh Còrdail 
an suidheachadh anns an 
cuirear focail ciallairte gu 
cumanta ann a labhairt 
agus ann a sgriobhadh. 

Is e 'n t-òrdugh Or- 
chainnteach suidheachadh 
sin nam focal, anns an 
cuirear am focal, no an 
earran neartail de chiallairt 
air toiseach. 



Tlie Conventional or grammatical arrangement seems clriefly 
adapted to simple explanation and narration. 



• Interjections, owing to the rapidity of feeling, simply express the emotions 
of the mind, without waiting to state the circumstances which produced such 
emotions ; therefore the phrases in which they occur are usually elliptical ; for 
instance, Ah me ! Here, me is governed by befallen, or come upon, undersfood ; 
thus filled up, — Ah, what misfortune has befallen me, or come upon me ! Woes 
me ! i e. Woe is to me. 

! is used to express the emotion of desire, exclamatìon, or direct address. 

Oh ! is used to express pain, sorrow, surprise, or admiration. 



260 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



The Rhetorical or emphatical arrangement is chiefly used in 
poetry and pathetic prose.* 

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 

Rule I. — The article is always placed before the noun 
whose signification it limits ; as, A pen, an eye, ihe 
Bible. 

1. When the noun limited by the article is qualified by an ad- 
jective, the article is placed before the adjective; as, A cold day, 
an amiable woman, the holy Bible. 

2. A is placed between the noun and the adjectives many and 
such, and also between the noun and all adjectives preceded by 
as, so, too, and how ; as, 

Many a flower is born to blush unseen. 
Such a system is sure to work well. 
As fine a lady as one can see. 
So fair a maid was never seen. 

3. The is placed between the noun and the word all ; as, All 
the judges assembled. 

4. The is placed before the comparative degree of adverbs ; as, 
the older he grows the wiser he gets ; the sooner the better. 

A nice distinction is sometimes made by the use or omission of 
the indefinite article. Thus, if I say, the farmer showed me a 
little kindness, I commend him ; but if I say, he showed me little 
kindness, I commend him not. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

EXERCISES. 

Place the article right in the following sentences — 
Lofty a tree is more exposed to the violence of high the winds 
than low a one. 

A many poor creature suffers under screwing poverty, while 
others abound in wealth to a such high degree as excludes every 
thought of want. 

A so able and pious man we seldom meet. The all men that 
wear a fair outside are not sound within. 

A so bold breach of order called for little severity in punishing 
the offender. He has been much censured for paying a little at- 
tention to his business. 



* The Rhetorical seems to be the more natural ot'thetwo kinds of arrangement 
described above, as it is more calculated to operate on the mind of the speaker 
and fix the attention of the hearer, and also more lively and attractive in ani- 
mated speech. It is the same in all languages, whereas the conventional mode 
of arrangement is different in different languages. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



261 



The principal laws of arrangement and position of words in a 
sentence, both conventional and rhetoricah, are exemplified under 
the following rules : — 

POSITION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Rule II. — In sentences conventionally arranged, the 
adjective is placed immediately before the noun which 
it qualifies ; as, 

A beautiful tree. A rapid stream. 

There are four cases in which this order is inverted. 

1. When the adjective is used as a title, it is placed after its 
noun with the before it ; as, 

Alexander the Great. 

2. When there are two or more adjectives combined with the 
same noun, they are generally placed after it ; as, 

A man wise, just, and good. 

3. When the adjective is itself qualified by some other word or 
words, and forming a complex adjective therewith, it is placed 
after the noun ; as. 

A servant/rò/i/w/ to his master. 
Here the adjective qualifying the noun servant is not faithful 
alone, but the complex adjective, " faithful-to-his-master." 

4. An adjective denoting extent is put after the word which 
expresses the measure of extent ; as, 

A pillar sixty feet high. 
An adjective qualifying the action of a verb is separated from 
its noun, and forms along with the verb the predicate of the 
noun ; as, Silenus drinks deep t It looks strange- 

Rule III. — In sentences rhetorically arranged, the 
adjective, when emphatic, begins the sentence, and is 
often far distant from its noun ; as, 
Great is the Lord. 

Glorious on earth will be the day of his coming. 

EXERCISES ON ARRANGEMENT. 
Point out which of the following sentences are Conventionally ar- 
ranged, and •which Rhetorically — applying the Rules at the same 
time — 

The spacious firmament is studded with brilliant stars. Sweet 
is the time of spring. Lorenzo the magnificent was kind to the 
poor. The verdant bank is covered with beautiful flowers. Cesar 
was magnanimous, eloquent, and brave. A son dutiful to his 
parents shall prosper. Auspicious to our country is the birth of 
a prince. Noah's ark was three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits 
broad, and thirty cubits high. 



262 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



POSITION OF PRONOUNS. 

Rule IV. — The relative pronouns should, to prevent 
ambiguity, be placed as close as possible to their cor- 
relatives. 

Thus, The master dismissed his servant, whom none believed 
to be capable of doing an unjust act ; should be, The master, whom 
none believed to be capable of doing an unjust act, dismissed his 
servant. 

Here, the justness of the master's character, and not the ser- 
vant's, is intended to be expressed ; therefore, the fìrst order of 
the above sentence is incorrect. 

1. The Compound Relatives, whichsoever and whatsoever, are 
often separated by the interposition of a noun ; as, On which side 
soever the king cast his eyes, instead of, On whichsoever side the 
king cast his eyes. The latter mode is certainly more beautiful 
and proper. 

This and That. Former and Latter. 

Rule V. — When two objects follow each other in 
contrast, that refers to the first mentioned, and this to 
the last ; as, Virtue and vice are as opposite to each 
other as light and darkness ; that ennobles the mind, this 
debases it. 

1. Former and Latter are often used instead of this and that. 
The former \two~] are applied to persons and things indiscrimi- 
nately, the latter [two~\ are seldom applied to persons. In most 
cases, however, the repetition of the noun is preferable to either. 

EXERCISES. 

Arrange the following sentences right, by putting the Pronouns 
and Clauses in their proper places — 

The teacher reproved the boy who is ever faithful in discharg- 
ing his duty, for his negligence. The king dismissed his minister 
without any inquiry, who had never before committed so unjust 
an action. 

Religion raises men above themselves, irreligion sinks them 
beneath the brutes ; that binds them down to a poor pitiable 
speck of earth, this exalts them to the skies. Body and souì 
must part ; the former wings its way to its Almighty source, the 
latter drops into the dark and noisome grave. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



263 



SuBJECT AND VERB. 

Rule VI. — In conventional sentences, the subject or 
nominative always precedes the verb ; as, 

The clouds gather. To obey is better than sacrifice. 

There are four cases in which the nominative follows the verb, 
or its help, in English. 

1. When the sentence is interrogative ; as, 

Do riches make men happy ? 

2. When the sentence is imperative; as, 

Go thou. Seek ye. 

3. When a supposition is elliptically expressed ; as, 

Had I known it. Were it true. 

4. When the sentence begins with here, there, where, wherein, 
hence, thence, whence, then, therein, herein, neither, nor, so } thm, 
yet, &c. ; as, 

There was a man sent from God. 
Here avefive loaves. 
Hence arise strife and dissensions. 
Obs. — The few deviations from this rule are such phrases as, 
Said I, quoth he, replied they. 

Rule VII. — In rhetorical sentences, the predicate or 
verb is often, for the sake of emphasis and vivacity, 
made to precede its subject ; as, 
Shines forth the cheerful sun. 
Great is Diana of the Ephesians. 
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 

Verb and its Object. 

Rule VIII. — In conventional sentences, a transitive 
verb precedes the ivord which it governs ; as, 

Solomon built the temple. Samson expounded the riddle. 

1 . When the object is expressed by a relative, or preceded by 
a compound relative used as its adjective, the verb follows its 
object ; as, 

Whom do men say that I am. Whatsoever blessing he bestows. 

Rule IX.' — In rhetorical sentences, the object, when 
it is an emphatic word, precedes its verb ; as, 

Silver and gold have I none, but such as I have, give I to thee. 
Me ye have bereaved of my son. 

In poetry, a wide latitude of transposition is often allowed in 
this rule, as in many other respects. 



264 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



EXERCISES. 

Point out, first the Conventional, and then the Rhetorical sen- 
tences in the folloiving Exercises, applying the Rule in each 
case — 

The warblers of the grove sing sweetly. 

Sweetly sing the warblers of the grove. 

Have you seen the queen ? Fallen is thy throne, O Israel. 

Train up a child in the way he should go. 

Happy are the young who obtain sound knowledge. 

Had he asked me, I would have lent him a shilling. 

Agreeable to me is the company of wise and learned men. 

There is no wisdom nor device in the grave. 

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 

Whence came those strangers ? Were I at home, I would have 

entertained them freely. 
She loves me. Him she hates vehemently. 
My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 
Me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged on a tree. 
James invited my brother and me to see his library. 
My excursion to the country I greatly enjoyed. 

POSITION OF THE InFINITIVE. 

Rtjle X. — In Conventional sentences, the Infinitive is 
placed after the verb which governs it, but other words 
often intervene between it and the governing verb ; as, 

I desire to learn. 

Faithful teachers admonish their pupils daily to appreciate the 
advantages of education. 

Rule XI. — In Rhetorical sentences, the Infinitive is 
sometimes used without its sign ( To), and for the sake 
of emphasis stands first in a sentence ; as, 

Go 1 must, whatever may ensue. 

Avoid it he could not by any means. 

POSITION OF ADVERBS. 

Rule XII. — Adverbs are generally placed before ad- 
jectives, and usually after verbs, but in compound verbs 
they are frequently placed between the auxiliary and 
the verb, or participle ; as, 

Eminently pious. Ann sings sweetly. 

I was kindly treated. We have not been heard. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



265 



Obs. 1. — Adverbs shoulrì be placed as close as possible to the 
words wbich they are intended to modify, but whether they should 
precede or follow them, seems to be chiefly regulated by euphony 
or the taste of the ear. 

Obs. 2. — Adverbs, when emphatic, may begin a sentence ; as, 
How sweetly she sings. 
Down goes the weighty stone. 

1. It is improper to use adverbs as adjectives, or adjectives as 
adverbs ; as, 

Often infirmities, instead of frequent infirmities. 
Remarkable kind, instead of remarkably kind. 

2. — From should not be used before the adverbs hence, thence, 
whence ; as, Whence came ye ? and not, From whence came ye ì 
In many instances, however, the omission of from would render 
the expression stiff and disagreeable. 

3. — Hither, thither, and whither, are often used after a verb 
of motion, instead of here, there, and where ; as, 

Come hither, James, instead of, come here- 
4 — Enouyh is always placed after its adjective ; and never, for 
the most part, is placed before a simple verb, except the verb to 
be ; as, 

The house is large enough. 

He never sings. We are never absent. 

5. — Ever and never, though directly opposite in sense, are 
often confounded and misapplied ; thus, If I make my hands never 
so clean, should be, ever so clean. 

6. — Not, when it modifies the imperfect participle, comes be- 
fore it ; as, Not knowing. 

The adverbs yes, and yea, expressing a simple affìrmation, and 
no and nay, expressing a simple negation, are always independent. 
They are generally used in answering a question, and are equiva- 
lent to a sentence ; thus, Will you teach me grammar ? yes ; i.e. 
I will teach you, &c. 

Rule XIII. — A negative sentence in English admits 
but one negative word ; as, 

I cannot wait no longer, should be, I cannot wait any longer. 
I cannot by no means doit, shouìd be, I can by no means do it, or 
I cannot by any means do it. 

1 — Two negatives in English sometimes destroy the negation, 
and render the meaning affirmative; as, " Nor did they not per- 
ceive their evil plight." That is, they did perceive it. 



266 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



EXERCISES. 

Flac.e the adverbs in the fullowing sentences in their proper position. 

That rope is not strong sufficiently. The boy distinctly reads 
and beautifully writes ; he is qualified well for the office of a clerk. 
The heavenly bodies are in motion perpetually. To be ignorant 
totally of the principles of grammar certainly is a great disadvan- 
tage. Great talents are found seldom in a man without great de- 
fects, and the most culpable errors have been often the production 
of the greatest geniuses. Not onìy he found her employed, but 
pleased and tranquil. 

The women contributed all their rings and jewels voluntarily, 
to assist the government. 

1 — They are miserable poor. Peter acted the noblest. I am 
exceeding sorry for the offence. Live agreeable to the dictates of 
reason and religion. The house is near full of people. This day 
is extreme cold. Act conformable to reason and justice, and no- 
body can condemn your conduct. The boy reads very distinct — 
addresses his master fluent, but he does not think very coherent. 
Agreeable to your request I send you the money. Such events 
are of seldom* occurrence. Return him a soon* and decisive 
answer. 

2 and 3. — From whence came ye ? Where are you going ? 
He departed from thence into a desert place. Come here instantly. 
I shall go there again in a fevv days. Whither have they been 
since they left the city ? 

4 — James was enough kind to lend me his penknife. I saw 
never such a flock of sheep. Faithful watchmen never are off 
their guard. 

5 and 6 They could not persuade him, though they were 

never so eloquent. Let some persons' advantages be never so 
favourable, they are too indolent to improve them. Having not 
known, or having not considered the subject, he was unprepared 
to explain it. 

R. 13. — I cannot drink no more. He could not speak neither 
good or bad. We have not done nothing to-day. I have notgot 
no money. There cannot be nothing more insignificant than 
vanity. That young man shall never be no taller. Precept nor 
discipline is not so forcible as example. Covet neither riches nor 
honours, nor no such perishing things. 



* For seldom and soon, use rare and speedy. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



267 



POSITION OF PREPOSITIONS. 

Rule XIV. — Prepositions are generalìy placed before 
the words which they govern ; as, 

With me. To them. Over us. 

Prepositions areoften placedafter the words which they govern, 
and even at a considerable distance frora them. We may either 
say, Whom do you lodge with ? or, With whom do you lodge ? 
( See Cons. Rule 17. ) 

The latter form is more relished by some critics, as being the 
more elegant of the two, but it is not practicable in every in- 
stance ; for example, the relative " that " does not admit of a 
preposition before it, but it admits of one at some distance after 
it; thus, though we cannot say, He is the same man with that you 
are acquainted, we can say, He is the same man that you are ac- 
quainted with. 

POSITION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

Rule XV. — Conjunctionsare placedbetween the words 
and clauses which they connect ; as, 

Come and see. Be cautious, but speak the truth. 

1. — MonosyJlabic conjunctions, with the exception of then, are 
always placed first in the clauses or sentences which they connect ; 
as, Òur journey through this world will be very short, but a 
glorious prospect lies beyond the grave for the good. See, then, 
that you endeavour to be good. 

2 — Conjunctions of morethan one syllable, may be transferred 
to the place in a sentence where they are most agreeable to the 
ear in reading, except whereas, which must always stand first in 
the clause or sentence ; as, A good conscience and a mild temper 
will make a man happy ; whereas, guilty thoughts and a fretful 
mind will produce sorrow and confusion. Let us, therefore, 
cherish the former, while we dread the latter. 

Rule XVI. — The Prepositions at, to, in,for,from, of, 
on, upon, by, under, with, &c. are appropriately used 
after certain words ; such as, 

Accuse of; acquit of; adapted to ; agreeable to ; ] * averse to. 
Bestow upon ; boast or brag of. Call on or for ; change for ; 
confide in ; conformable to ; comply with ; consonant to ; conver- 
sant with, in. Depend upon ; derogate from; die of or by ; differ 



* See Note 1, on next page. 



268 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



from ; difficulty in ; disapprove of : disappointed in or of ; dissent 
from. Eager in ; engaged in ; expert in or at. Fall ander ; free 
from. Glad o/ or at. Independent o/ ; insist upon. Join £o. 

Made of; marry 2o; martyr /or. Need of. Observance of. Pre- 
judice against ; profit 6?/ ; provide with. Reconcile to ; reduce to ; 

regard to or for ; replete with ; resemblance to ; resolve on. 

Svverve from. Taste 2 for or of ; think of or on ; true to. Up- 

wards of. Wait on or for ; worthy 3 of. 

Obs — The above words are followed by these prepositions 
only in particular cases ; they often take other prepositions after 
tbem, and sometimes none at all, in different expressions; thus, 
for example, Fall in, to concur, to comply. Fall out, to bappen. 
Fall upon, to attack. Fall to, to begin, or apply eagerly. Bestow 
thy goods to feed the poor. 

1. The same preposition that follows the adjective orverb, &c. generally follows 
the word which is derived from it ; as, Agreeable to, agreeably to, comply icith, 
compliance with. 

2. Taste for — is a liking for a thing ; and Taste of—ia a due sense of what a 
thing is ; as, He has a taste for music. She has had no real taste of the beauties 
of literature. 

3. JVorthy is used with or without of ; as, worthy of observation, or worthy ob- 
servation. 

Correct the following sentences by Rule \§th. 
He accused the ministers for betraying the Dutch. Agreeable 
with the sacred text. A freeholder is bred with an aversion from 
subjection. It was well adapted for his capacity. He acquitted 
me from any imputation. They boast in their great wealth. He 
has bestowed his favours to the most deserving persons. I called 1 
for our minister. In compliance to your request. Is it consonant 
with our nature ? Conformable with the rules of our society. I 
cannot freely confide on such a wavering person. It is impossible 
to comply to such extravagant measures. He is conversant 2 with 
that science. He has undergone a change to the better. Call at 
Peter to go with us. He is very averse 3 from ever. 

1. Call for, is to demand, to require. Call on, is to pay a short visit ; as, 

While you cal) on him, I will call for a drink. 

2. We say, conversant with men in things. 

3. Averse aud aversion require to after them rather than from, but both are 
sometimes used. 

He was totally dependent of the papal crown. He died of the 
sword. That is no discouragement for the author. I differ en- 
tirely to your opinion. He died by a fever. Your relying on my 
counsel will not derogate in the least to your reputation. He finds 
a difficulty of making the two ends meet. I dissent with that des- 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 269 

cision. I have been sadly disappointed 1 of the pleasure which 
I had expected from his company. He was eagerof pursuingthat 
course. I am engaged with writing. Expert for counting. Such 
circumstances as fell into our observation. He is free out of cen- 
sure. I am very glad 2 at your company. He is quite independ- 
ent on your assistance. We mustinsist for our rights and liberty. 
Join this piece on that. 

She was married on a pensioner. That candlestick is made 
with brass. Stephen died a martyr to the Christian religion. We 
have need for solid wisdom. A strict observance after times and 
manners. Thy prejudice to my method. You can profit very 
little with that. I provided them by money. Is he novv recon- 
ciled with his master ? Reduce one pound in pence. He had a 
great regard after his father's advice. The boy has a striking re- 
semblance with his uncle. That book is replete in errors. He 
is resolved of going to the Persian court. Never swerve out of 
the path of virtue. He seems to have a taste of drawing. I never 
thought for that. I cannot vvait of you. It is worthy for obser- 
vation. 

1. We are disappointed of a thing when we do not get it ; and dÌ3appointed in it 
when we have it, and find that it does not come up to our expectations. 

2. Glad at when something befalls another, is perhaps more propsr, and glad of 
when something which is the cause of gladness, is ohtained. 

Rule XVII. — An ellipsis or omission of some words 
in a sentence is frequently admitted ; thus, 

Instead of saying, He was a learned man, he was a wise man, 
and he was a good man, we say, He wasalearned, wise^ and good 
man. 

Complex sentences are frequently more or less elliptical, and 
it is a profitable exercise for the pupil to supply the words under- 
stood in elliptical expressions in reading, parsing, or construing. 

Rdle XVIII. — An ellipses is not allowable when it 
would obscure the sentence, weaken its force, or be at- 
tended with an impropriety of speech ; for example, 

There is a time to be born, to die, to plant, and to pluck up 
that is planted ; should be, There is a time to be born and a time 
to die, a time to plant and a time to pluck up that which is 
planted. 

1. The auxiliary verbs are frequently omitted and frequently used 
alone in compound tenses ; as, I can read and write ; that is, I can 



270 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



read and I can write. I have dined, but you have not, i.e. you 
have not dined. 

Correct — (17) — A house and a garden. My pen and my ink. 
The light of the sun and the light of the moon. The laws of 
God and the laws of man. These counsels are the dictates of 
virtue and the dictates of true honour. He has an affectionate 
brother and an affectionate sister. Avarice and cunning may 
acquire an estate, but avarice and cunning cannot gain friends. 
His crimes had brought him into extreme distress and extreme 
perplexity. By presumption and by vanity we provoke enmity 
and we incur contempt. Benevolence is strengthened by virtue 
and is confìrmed by principle. The diligent scholar deserves to 
be encouraged, to be assisted, and to be applauded. We often 
commend imprudently as well as censure imprudently. I was 
often in Edinburgh and in Glasgow. 

1. He should come at the proper hour and should meet me at 
the offìce. She tells the truth, but thou dost not tell it. The 
temper of him who is always in the bustle of the world will be 
often ruffled and will be often disturbed. We answered but they 
did not answer. 



SjHP"* The pupil being thus far advanced should be able to parse 
and construe at sight. The following verse is construed by way 
of example, before he proceeds to correct the Promiscuous Exer- 
cises on the»Rules of Syntax. 

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, 
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea, 
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, 
And leaves the world to darkness and to me. — Gray. 
The curfew, - The is used before nouns in both numbers. 
Curfew tolls, - A verb must be always of the same number and 

person with its subject or nominative. 
Tolls knell, - A transitive verb governs its object in the ob- 
jective case. 

The knell, - The is used before nouns in both numbers. 
Of days, - Prepositions govern their object in the obj. case. 
Parting day, - Every adjective belongs to a noun expressed or 
understood. 

The lowing herd, When the noun, limited by the article, is quali- 
fìed by an adjective, the article is placed before 
the adjective. 

Herd wìnds, - A verb must be always of the, &c. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 271 



Winds slowly, Adverbs are generally placed before adjectives, 

and usually after verbs 3 &c. 
Over lea, - Prepositions govern their objects in, &c. 
The ploughman, The is used before nouns in, &c. 
Homeward plods, The adverb is here, as is often the case, placed 

before the verb. 
Ploughman plods, A verb must be always of the, &c. 
Plods way, or A transitive verb governs its, &c. 

on* way, - Prepositions govern their object in the obj., on 

being understood after plods. 
His way, - When two nouns, or a noun and a pronoun, are 

used to denote the possessor and the thing pos- 

sessed, the name of the owner is put in tha 

possessive case. 
Weary way, - Every adjective belongs to a noun, &c. 
Plods and leaves, Conjunctions connect verbs in the same mood 

and tense. 

Leaves world, A transitive verb governs, &c. 
The world, - The is used before nouns in both, &c. 
To darkness, - Prep. govern their object in the, &c. 
Darkness and me, Conjunctions connect nouns and pronouns in 
the same case. 

The possessive pronouns my, thy, his, her, our, fyc. stand for 
nouns in the possessive case, and must be construed as such. 
His is equal to Johns, and her to Ann's, and their to the men's, 
in the following sentences: — Johnlosthis hat; i.e. John lost 
Johns hat. Ann hurt her foot ; i.e. Ann hurt Ann's foot. The 
men bowed their heads; i.e. the men bowed the mens heads. 
The tree is lofty, and its branches are beautiful ; i e. the tree's 
branches. 



PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES ON THE RULES OF SYNTAX. 

The pupil should quote the rule for each correction. 

These bees is very busy. That boy reads admirable, 
The dog knows her master. Thou can write well. 
Will thou not give me an orange ? I saw eight ox in a 
waggon. My father bade me to go home. The word 
Caledoniaf signify nation of the woods. Him and I 

* Takiog plods as a neuter verb, which has commonly a preposition expressed 
or understood after it. 

t Formed from coill, wood, and daoine, men. 



272 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



were too late. Was you at the soireè* last night ? That 
boy is remarkable diligent. Thomas writes better nor 
John. He lived in the most remotest part of the coun- 
try. I found a wren nest ànd eight eggs in her. 
Neither man nor woman were present. Where are you 
going ? From whence come these strangers ? 

That boy he is indolent. The master taught him 
and I to read. It was her that gave me the apple. 
This pear is more sweeter than that one. I rejoice 
hear of your welfare. After leaving me, he went to see 
they. Our committee was unanimous upon that point. 
The shepherds and the nymphs was seen. 

Honour and shame from no eondition rise, 

Act well your part, there all the honour lie. 

Fortune in men have some small difference made, 

One flaunt in rags, one flutter in brocade. 
Who broke the glass ? Me. Whose pen is that ? 
Mine's. Who told you that? Them. This pair of 
snuffers are too large. I saw them persons yesterday. 
The amount of the debt are a million of pounds sterling. 

Every person who instruct others should be properly 
taught themselves. Neither flatter or contemn the rich. 
There is in this seminary many diligent pupils. If you 
would engage more cheerful in your task, you might 
perform it the easier. My knife is so sharp as yours. 
As the stars as thy seed shall be. Was it him that told 
you of the accident ? No, it was her. A prudent wife 
she shall be blessed. This picture of the king's does 
not resemble him much. They that honour me I will 
honour. Modesty seldom resides in a breast not en- 
riched with more nobler virtues. Prudence and moder- 
ation is productive of peace, and confers great comfort 
upon him who possess it. Whom did he strike ? I. 
The winter has not been as severe as we expected it to 
be. There is principles in man who ever incline him 
to feel that he is a dependant creature. We always 
should prefer our duty to our pleasure. There cannot 
be nothing more hurtful to youth than bad example. 



* Pronounced, swa-rè. 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



273 



Two principles in human nature reigns, — 
Self-love to urge,, and Reason to restrain ; 
Nor that a good, nor this a bad we call, 
Each works its end, to move or govern all. 

A lampoon or a satire does not carry in theni robbery 
or murder. 

For if there be first a willing mind, it is accepted ac- 
cording to that a man has, and not according to that 
he has not. 

Having thus began to throw off the restraint of reason, 
he soon was hurried into deplorable excesses. 

Power and superiority is so flattering and delightful, 
that scarcely any virtue is so cautious, or any prudence 
so timorous, as to decline it. 

To be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the opinion 
of the world, and to be wise in the sight of our Creator, 
is three different things. 

Each has their own faults, and every one should en- 
deavour to correct their own failings. 

I am a man who approves of wholesome discipline, and 
who recommend it to others, but I am not a person who 
promotes severity, or who object to mild treatment. 

Many would exchange gladly their honours and riches 
for that more quieter and humbler station which thou 
art dissatisfìed with. 

Mrs Solo always behaved with great severity to her 
maids, and if any one of them were negligent of their 
duty, or made a slip in their conduct, nothing would 
satisfy her but bury the poor girls alive. 

Christ applauded the liberality of the poor widow who 
he had seen casting her two mites into the treasury. 
Who could be happier than her which merited such ap- 
plause ? 

Be solicitous to aid such deserving persons who appear 
to be destitute of friends. 

If we consult the improvement of mind, or the health 
of body, it is well known exercise is the great instrument 
for promoting both. 

s 



274 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



There is not a creature that moves, nor a vegetable 
that grow, but what, when minutely examined, furnish 
materials of pious admiration. 

As soon as the sense of a Supreme Being is lost, so 
soon the great check is taken off which keep under 
restraint the passions of men. Mean desires, low 
pleasures takes place of the greater and the nobler sen- 
timents which reason and religion inspires. 

The most ignorant and the most savage tribes of men 
when thej have looked round on the earth and on the 
heavens, could not avoid ascribing His origin to some 
invisibie designing cause, and felt a desire to adore 
their Creator. 



STYLE. 

Grammatical Style is 
the peculiar mode of ex- 
pressing our thoughts or 
ideas by language. 

The essential qualities 
of Style are, Perspicuity, 
Purity, Propriety, and Pre- 
cision. 

Perspicuity is the funda- 
mental quality of Style ; it 
signifies a clear and con- 
nected view of the subject 
spoken or written, so as to 
become at once easily un- 
derstood by the hearer or 
reader. 

Purity of Style, demands 
the use of classical words,* 



STAIL. 

Is e Stàil Gràmarail 
dòigh àraid ainmeachaidh 
ar smuaintean, no ar beach- 
dan le cainnt. 

Is iad feartan àrd~fhèum- 
ail Stàile, Soillèurachd, 
Snasorachd, Freagarrachd, 
agus Pàngalachd. 

Is e Soillèurachd, priomh 
bhuaidh Stàile, tha i a' 
ciallachadh seallaidh shoill- 
eir agus cheangailte de 'n 
phùng a labhrar, no sgrio- 
bhar, chum 'us gun grad- 
thuigear e gu rèidh leis an 
èisdear, no an lèughadair. 

Tha Snasorachd Stàile, ag 
iarraidh fhocal ùghdarail, 



* Ancient and modern speakers aud writers of high literary attainments and 
rank, whose works form the Classics, or " learned books," are our authoritygfor 
classical or elegant words ; but such authority, although it is the best we cari 
produce, ought not to extend so far as to preclude improvement. Seeing^the 
English language now so much enlarged and improved, by drawing copiously on 



STYLE. 



275 



sound construction, and a 
proper application of the 
idiom of the language 
spoken or written. 

Propriety of Style, de- 
mands the selection of such 
words as are best adapted 
to convej the idea which 
the speaker or writer in- 
tends to express. 

Precision of Style, de- 
mands that neither more 
nor less words be used than 
the sense requires. 



co-rianachadh glan, agus 
ceart cho-chur nois na 
cainnt a labhrar no sgri- 
obhar, a ghnàthachadh. 

Tha Freagarrachd Stàile, 
ag iarraidh nam focal a's 
fìr-fhreagarraiche gu giùlan 
na beachd a ta am fear- 
labhairt a miannachadh 
airis, a roghnachadh. 

Tha Pùngalachd Stkile, 
ag iarraidh gun na's mò, 
no na's lugha dh-fhocalan a 
ghnàthachadh, na tha 'n 
seadh a' sireadh. 



§0$" As the limits of this vvork will not admit of a very exten- 
sive exercise on Style, the following instances of improper expres- 
sions, which are of daily occurrence, are given to be corrected by 
the learner. 



Improper English Expressions 
to be corrected : — 

(The corresponding Gaelic 
Agreeable to order — agreeably 



A few broth — some 

A novel fashion — new 

A milk cow — milch 

A mountaineous country — 

mountainous 
A tremendeous storm — tremen- 

dous 

A stupendeous work — stupen- 
dous 

A pair of partridges — a brace 



Seòllairtean mi-cheart Bheurla 
gu 'bhi ceartaichte : — 
expressions are correct.) 
Gu freagarrach do dh-òrdugh ; 

a rèir òrduigh 
Dèur brota ; beagan eun-bhrìgh 
Fasan ùr ; fasan nodha 
Bò bhainne ; mart bainne 
Dùthaich bheanntail, dùì'ch àrd 

Stoirm uamhasach ; an-uair 



Cupull chearcan-tomain 



other languages, there can be no just reason to spurn at the borrowing of aword 
from one language to enrich another, when circumstances require it. The 
French words, depot, etiquette, eclat, soiree, &c. and the Latin words, aqua, dux, 
genus, idem, &c. are now used by our hterati as popular English words ; however, 
we are not warranted in encouraging the use of t'oreign words in public speaking 
or writing till they are thoroughly naturalized. 

" The word or words following the dash ( — ) are the proper ones. 



276 ENGLISH 
An oldish man — elderly 

About two years back — ago 
A house to sell — to be sold 
A new pair of shoes — a pair of 

new shoes 
A pocket napkin — handkerchief 
A piece bread — of bread 
A second-handed book — second- 

hand 

An honest like man — a tall good- 

looking man 
A dozen of herring — herrings 
A summer's day — a summer day 
Ass milk — ass's milk 
Be sure and come — be sure to 

come 

Be that as it will — as it may 



Chap louder— knock 
Close the door — shut 
Come into the fire — near 
Come here, John— hither 
Cheese and bread — bread and 
cheese 

Do bidding — be obedient 
Did you tell upon him ?— inform 
Did you see my glasses ? — spec- 
tacles 

Draw out the libel — indictment 
Do you play cards ? — at cards 
During the vacancy — vacation 
Do you snuff ? — take snuff 
Gather berries — pull 
Give me them books — these 



SYNTAX. 

Duine sean, aosmhor, seann 
duine 

Mu dhà-bhliadhna roimh so 
Tigh gu bhi reicte, ri rèic 
Paidhir bhròg ùra, dà bhròig ùir 

Neapaig pòcaid, no sròine 
Mir arain, greim arain 
Leabhar ath-làmhach 

Duine tlachdmhor, duine còir, 

duin' onorach 
Dusan sgadan, no sgadanan 
La sàmhraidh 
Bainn' asail 
Cuimhnich teachd 

Bitheadh sin mar bhitheas e, no 

mar is àill leis 
Buail, no cnog na's mò 
Dòin an dorus 
Thig dlù do 'n tèine 
Thig an so Iain 
Aran 'us càis 

Bi umhal ; bi freagarrach 

An d' innis thu air ? 

Am faca tu mo spèuclairean ? 

Sgriobh sios a' chùis-dhitidh 
Am bi thu cluich air chairtean ? 
Rè an tàimh, rè na h-ùine saoire 
'Bheil thu ris an t-snìsean ? 
Tionail dearcagan 
Thoir dhomh na leabhraichean 
sin 

Thoir dhomh deòch leanna 
Bainne goibhre, no bainne 

ghobhar 
Rach 'nairde an staidhir (pr. 

sty-er) 

Mar shàmhladh, mar shàmpull 
Gu lèir, gu buileach, uile gu 
lèir, eadar uile 's èile 



Give me a drink of beer — draught 
Goat milk — goat's milk 

Go up the stair — up stairs 

For an instance — for instance 
For good and all — totally and 
completely, for altogether 



STYLE. 



277 



He put it in his pocket — into 
Half an hour after ten — past 
He stuck among the snow — in 

the snow 
He arrived behind the hour — 

after the hour, too late 
Have you breakfast ? — break- 

fasted, got breakfast ? 
He dare not do it — dares 

He fevered — was seized with a 
fever, took a fever 

He lives in No. 8 Prince's street 

— at No. 
He is a widow — widower 

He is a justice of peace — a jus- 

tice of the peace 
He is going to the shooting — 

a-shooting, to shoot 
He and I never cast out — never 

quarrel 

He wrote a letter conceived in 

the following words — ex- 

pressed, dictated 
He minds how many chapters 

are in Job — remembers, 

recollects 
He proposes to go to Edinburgh 

— purposes 
He took in the soldiers — he en- 

listed 

He has a sore ear — he has ear- 
ache, tooth-ache, belly- 
ache, colic 

How much is it the pound ? — a 
pound 

Have you any word to your 

brother ? message 
He darna do that — dares not 



Chuir e 'na phòcaid e 

Leth-uair an dèigh dèich 

Stad e anns an t-sneachd ; 

chaidh e fodha 'san t-sneachd 
Thainig e an dèigh na h-uaire, 

ro anmoch 
Am bheil thu iar do thrasgadh a 

bhriseadh ?* 
Cha 'n-fhaod e 'dheanamh, cha 

dàn leis a dheanamh 
Bha e anns an teasaich, thuit e 

ann an teasaich ; ghabh e 

an teasach 
Tha e 'fuireach,wo 'chonuidh aig 

Air. 8-chd sràid a' Phrionsa 
Tha e 'na aonracan ; 'na bhànt- 

raich 

Tha e 'na mhaor-sith, 'na bhrei- 

theamh ceartais 
Tha e 'dol a shealg, 'dol a thilg- 

eadh 

Cha droch-còrd esan agus mise 

idir ; uair sam bith 
'Sgriobh e litir deachdte anns 

na briathran a leanas ; ain- 

michte anns, &ce. 
Tha cuimhne aige cia lion caib- 

deil a ta ann an Iob 

Tha rùn air dol a Dhunèdin 

Ghabh e anns na saighdearan ; 

anns an t-saighdearachd 
Tha cluas ghoirt aige, — tha'n 

dèudith, brù-ghoirt, e greim- 

mionaich aige 
Cia mèud tha 'm pùnnd deth ? 

Am bheil guth agad a dh-ionns- 

uidh do bhràthar ? 
Cha dàn leis sin a dheanamh 



* Am bheil thu iar do dhiot-bheag, no do bhracaisd fhaotaiaa ? Aa d' fhuair 
thu do bhiadh-maduino? 



278 ENGLISH 

Here is it — here it is 
There is it — it is 
He did not got it — get 
He did not heard the cuckoo — 
hear 

He stops in the country — lives, 

stays, dwells 
He flits at Whitsunday — removes 

at Whitsuntide 
He will be the better for a sleep 

— of a sleep, a nap 
He hurted me — hurt me 
He is much difficulted — at a loss, 

puzzled 

He was lost in the loch— dro wned 

(if the body was found) 
Has he plenished his house — 

furnished 
He pled his cause — pleaded 
He behaved in a very gentle- 

many manner — gentlemanlike, 

gentlemanly manner 
He lays in bed — lies 
He misguides his books — abuses 

He thinks long for summer — 

longs 
He is cripple — lame 
I had rather not — I would rather 

not 

I want a scissors — a pair of 
scissors 

It lays on the table — lies on the 
table 

1 catched it — caught it 

I'd as lief — I would as soon 

I heard them pro and con — I 

heard both sides 
I shall notice a few particulars 

. — mention 
I an't hungry — I am not hungry 
I think much shame — 1 am 

much ashamed 



SYNTAX. 

So e ; tha e an so 
Sin e ; tha e an sin 
Cha d' fhuair se e 
Cha chual' e a' chuàg 

Tha e 'fuireach air an dùthaich 

Tha e 'dol imrich aig a' Bheall- 

tuinn, thèid e imrich aig, &ce. 
Is fheairrd e codal, no pràmh, 

b' fheairrd e suaineag 
Chiùrr e mi, ghòirtich e mi 
Tha e iar a mhòr-shàrachadh, 

tha e 'an imchèist 
Chailleadh 'san loch e — bhàth- 

adh (ma fhuaradh an corp) 
An d' uidheamich e a thigh 

Thagair e a chùis fèin 

Rinn e mar fhir dhuinn' uasal, 

gu h-uasal ; gu maiseach ; gu 

h-urramach 
Tha e 'na luidhe air an leabaidh 
Tha e mi-ghnàthachadh a leabh- 

raichean 
Tha fadachd air airson an-t- 

sàmhraidh 
Tha e crùbach, bacach 
Cha 'n àill leam ; cha b' àill 

leam 

Tha mi ag iarraidh siosair 

Tha e 'na luidhe air a' bhòrd 

Ghlac mi e, rug mi air 
Bu cho math leam 
Dh'-èisd mi an dà thaobh 

Ainmichidh mi beagan phùngan 

Cha n-'eil ocras orm 
Tha mor-nàire orm, tha mi iar 
mo nàrachadh gu mòr 



STYLE. 



279 



I bave a sore liead — a headache 
I dinna ken — I do not know 



I have nothing ado — 
I find no pain — feel 
I see'd him last week 



to do 



I knowed tkat — knew 
I cannot go the day — to-day 
I shall go the morn — to-morrow 
I tumed them topsy-turvy — I 

overset them 
I am feared for it — afraid of it. 
I smell outhis designs — perceive 
I have got the cold — a cold 

I trow not — I believe not 
I tried the experiment on a cat 
— I made the experiment 

It is not much worth — worth 
much 

If I am not mistaken — if I mis- 

take not 
I sees him often — see 
Let him be — alone 
Let us draw cuts — cast lots 
Mask tbe tea — infuse 



Nice calleroysters— fresh oysters 
No less than a hundred men — 
no fewer 

Oòs. — Less is properly applied to quantity, few and feicer to number 



Tha mo cheann goirt 

Cha n-aithne dhomh ; cha n-'eil 

flos agam 
Cha n-'eil ni agam ri 'dheanamh 
Cha n-'eil mi 'mothachadh pèin 
Chunnaic mi e air an seacbduin, 

so 'chaidb 
Bba fios agam air sin 
Cha-n urrainn mi 'dol an diugh 
Thèid mi am màireacb 
Thilg mi iad bun-os-cionn, thar 

cheann 
Tha eagal orm as 
Tha mi a' tuigsinn a rùin 
Tha 'n cnatan orm ; fhuair mi 

fuachd 
Creideam nach 'eil 
Chuir mi an deuchainn gu dear- 
bbadh air cat ; dh'-fheuch mi 
air cat e 
Cha mhòr is fhiach e, is beag is 

fhiach e 
Mur 'eil mi ann am mearachd ; 

mur 'eil mi clì 
Tha mi 'g a fhaicinn gu tric 
Leig leis, fàg e 
Tilgeamaid cruinn 
Cuir an tì am bogadh, uisgich, 

no maisg an tì 
Eisirean glan ùr 
Gun na 's lugha na cèud fear 



Notar public — notary public 
Our cbild has tbe pox — small- 
pox 

One and each of them — one and 

alL. or each and all 
Provisions are plenty — plentiful 
Put out the fìre — extinguish 
Say the grace — say grace 

Severals said so — severaL, i. e. 
several persons 



Nòtair, no sgriobbadair cumanta 
Tha 'bhreac air an leanabh ag- 
ainn 

Gach aon 's na b-uile dhiùbh 

Tha am biadb, no lòn pailt 
Cuir as an tèine ; smàl e 
Abair an-t altachadh, iarrbeann- 
achd 

Thubbairt moran (sluaigh) mar 
sin 



280 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



Sweet butter — fresh 
Send me a swatch — pattern 
Shall they be here to-morrow? — 
will? 

Send Peter to the school — to 
school 

She is short-sighted — near 
sighted 

The former expreasion is properly applied to the miiid, the latter to the organs 

of sight. 



Im ur, ìm nodha 

Cuir samplair h-ugam 

Am bi iad an so am màireach ? 

Cuir Peadar do 'n sgoil 

Thai gearr-shùileach 



They retreated back — retreated 
The boys got an apple the piece 

— a-piece 
The cock is a noisy beast — fowl 

The boy was maltreated — ill 
used 

That there house — that house 

Take tent — take care 

Take out your glass — off your 

glass [suits 
That dress sets her — becomes, 
To harry a nest — rob 
To slip the school is bad — to 

play the truant 
Tell him to direct his letter to 

me, at Mr O.'s — address his 

letter 

Will I help you to an egg ? — 
shall 

Shall uncle come again ? — will 
Will we see you to-morrow ? — 
shall 

Will I write my copy ? — shall 



Thèich iad, ghabh iad an ratrèut 
Fhuair na balachanan ubhal am 
fear 

Tha 'n coileach 'na eun farum- 
ach 

Chaidh an giullan a dhroch- 

càramh 
An tigh sin, an tigh ud 
Thoir an àire, cuimhnich 
Thoir as do ghloine, òl do 

dhrama 
Thig an t-èideadh sin dh'i 
Nead a spùilleadb, a chreach 
Is olc cleas an lùrdain a dhean- 

amh 

Abair ris a litir a chùl-sgriobh- 
adh h-ugam-sa, aig (tigh) Mhr 
O. 

An toir mi ubh dhut ? an gabh 

thu ubh ? 
An tig bràthair m' athar a-rìst ? 
Am faic sinn sibh am màireach ? 

An sgriobh mi mo chòpi ? 



281 



GAELIC SYNTAX. 
RIALTACHADH GAELIG. 



COXSTRUCTION. 

concord.-^. rticle andNoun. 

Rule 1. — The article 
agrees with its noun in 
number, gender, case, and 
form: as, 



The house, 
The girl, 
The dogs, 



an tigh 
a' chaileag 
na còin 



l.The articìe is generally pre- 
fixed in Gaehc, (but not in En- 
glish) to the names of continen- 
tal countries, to the names of 
virtues, vices, metals, and to a 
word which stands for a whole 
species ; as, 

Italy, an Eadailt. 
Truth is better than gold. 
Sin brought death into the 

world. 
Man he is mortal. 



CO-RIANACHADH. 

cordadh. — Pùngar agus 
Ainmear. 
Bjalt. 1.' — Còrdaidh am 
pùngar ri 'ainmear fèin, 'an 
àireimh, 'an gin, 'an car 'us 
ann an staid ; mar, 

The man, am fear 
The wife's, na mnà 
Of the tables, nam bòrd 

1. Cuirear am pùngar gu 
cumanta 'sa Ghaelig, (ach ni h- 
eadh 'sa Bheurla) roimh ainmibh 
dhùchan mòr-thireil; bhèusan, 
dhubhailcean, mhiotailtean, 'us 
roimh fhocal a ta ag ainmeach- 
adh na gnè uile ; mar, 

France, an Fhràing 
Is fearr an fhirinn na 'n t-òr. 
Thug am peacadh am bàs air an t- 

saoghal. 
An duine tha e bàsmhor. 



2. The article follows the interrogatives, co, cia, ciod ; thus, 
Co an taobh ? which side ? Cia 'n rathad a ghabhas mi ? whick 
road shall I take ? Ciod an tàirbhe ? what profit ? 

3. The article is used before a noun pointed out by a Demon- 
strative pronoun ; as, An tigh so. Na fir ud. 

4. The article is uniformly used before patronymics ; as, An 
Dònullach (the) Macdonald. Am Frisealach (the) Fraser. Na 
Càimbeulaich, The Campbells. 

5. The article isalso used before Numerals; as, à h-aon, a' dhà; 
a' cheud, an dara. — See Gaeìic Ar. R. 1 and 2. Also comp. 
Gael. Adverbs, p. 185. 



282 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

The pens, anpeann* The wife, an bean. The witness, 
an fianuis. The oxen, an damh. The branches, an gcug. 
The air, an athar. The rod, an slat. The clock, an 
uaireadar. The lambs, an uan. The nests, an nead. 
The trees, an craobh. The wives, an bean. The ham- 
mers, an òrd. The speeches, an òraid. 



The land of hills, of glens, 
and of heroes. 

The hen's wing. The 
virgin's head. The raven's 
beak. 

Vines grow in France, in 
Spain, and in Italy. 

Jesus was born in Beth- 
lehem. 

The Israelites were led 
out of Egypt by the hand 
of the Lord. 

Gold is more precious 
than silver. 

Sin is the foe of man. 



Tìr an beann, an gleann, 
agus an gaisgeach. 

Sgiath an cearc. Ceann 
an òigh. Gob am fitheach. 



anns 
agus 



Tha fìonan a' fàs 
Fràing, anns Spàinn 
anns Eadailt. 

' Rugadh Iosa ann Betle- 
hem. 

Threòraicheadh an Israel- 
ach a-mach as Eiphit le 
làimh an Tighearn. 

Is e òr is luachmhoire na 
airgid. 

Is e peacadh eascaraid 
duine. 



NOtJNS IN APPOSITION. 

Rule 2. — Two or more 
nouns, signifying the same 
person or thing, agree in 
case ; as, 

King James. 



AINMEARAN A 
RlALT. 2.- 

ainmear no 



CO-CHORDADH. 

-Cordaidh dà 
na's mò na 



dha a' ciallachadh an aoin 
phearsa no 'Ni, ann a càr ; 
mar, 

Righ Sèumas. 

Obs. — Mac (son) is prefixed to a masculine proper name, Nic 
(daughter) to a feminine ; as, Iain Mac Thomais, John Thomsoji ; 

Anna Nic Uilleim, Ann Williamsow The English wants this 

nice distinction, for in it both men and women are sons ; as, 
Peter Johnson, Ann Williamsow. 



• Co-rianaich a' Ghaelìg gu ireagairt do 'n Bheurla anns gach car. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



283 



Note A simple appellative 

joined with a proper name takes 
no article in Gaelic, but a com- 
pound does ; as, 

Alexander (the) Carpenter. 

Hugh (the) Tailor. 

Alexander (the) Coppersmith. 

Rule 3. — A term de- 
scribing a person's trade or 
profession takes the article 
before it after the full name 
of the person ; as, 

James Grant the Tailor. 

Duncan Campbell the Shep- 
herd. 

Note. — An adjective often intervenes between two nouns in 
apposition ; thus, Sèumas ban cibear, Fair James the shepherd ; 
Anna bheag dhonn a bhanarach, Little brown Ann the dairymaid. 



Nòd. — Cha ghabh gairm shin- 
gilt co-naisgte ri ainmear ceart, 
pùngar 'sa Ghaelig, ach gabhaidh 
gairrn mheasgta e ; mar, 

Alastair Saor. 

Huistean Taillear. 

Alastair an Ceard-umha. 

Rialt. 3. — Gabhaidhfocal 
ag ainmeachadh ceàird, no 
oifig neacli, am pùngar 
roimhe, an dèigh ainme làin 
an neacli ; mar, 

Sèumas Grannd an Taillear, 
Donnachadh Caimbeul an 
Cìbear. 



Rule 4. — A noun in ap- 
position, having the article 
or a possessive pronoun be- 
fore it, is put in the nonii- 
native, tliough its correla- 
tive noun be inthe genitive ; 
as, 

The house of John Macdonald 
the merchant. 

The son of Josepb the car- 
penter. 

The purse of Donald Bain, 
my partner. 



Rialt. 4. — Cuir earain- 
mear a' co-chòrdadh, leis a 
phùngar, no riochdar sèilbh- 
each roimhe, anns an ain- 
meach, ged robh 'ainmear 
co-dhàimheachanns a'ghin- 
teach ; mar, 

Tigh Iain Dhònullaich an 
ceannaiche, (not a cheannaiche.) 

Mac Ioseiph an saor, fnot an 
t-saoir.) 

Sporan Dhònuill Bhàin mo 
chòmpanach, (not mo chompan- 
aich. 



Note. — When the former of two plural nouns is governed in 
the dative, and when the nouns are singular and of the feminine 
gender, the latter is put in the nominative; as, " D'a bhràithribh 
uile, mic an righ," (not macaibh.) " Bi Sàrai a bhean." 

Obs. 1. — Such expressions as, Tigh Iain Dhònullaich an 
Ceannaiche, under Rule 4tb, are to be viewed as elliptical, and 
the ellipsis may be conveniently filled up ; thus, Tigh Iain Dhon- 



284 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



uttaich (neach is e) an ceannaiche, or (is e sin ri radh) an ceann- 
aiche. 

Obs. 2 — The necessity of deviating from the general rule in 
this part of Gaelic Syntax, to prevent ambiguity, will become at 
once obvious from the following expression : — Captain Thomas's 
horse, rendered according to Rule 2d, Each Chaiptein Thomais, 
which may either signify the horse of the captain of Thomas, 
ftaking Thomais in the genitive, as the captain's p%ce or property, 
not his name,) or the horse of Thomas's captain. Therefore the 
more proper mode is, Each Chaiptein Tomas. 



EXERCISES. 

KingGeorge. Theapostle 
Paul. John Chisholm. The 
epistle of the apostle James. 
Peter the son of John, the 
son of Thomas. Jane Pater- 
son. William MacDonald 
or Donaldson. 

3. Roderick Forbes the 
blacksmith. Colin Macken- 
zie the weaver. Donald 
Ross the gardener. 

Black Robert the mes- 
senger. Little Hugh the 
herd. Fair joung Charles 
the drover. 

4. John Bain the fox- 
hunter's dog. The poems 
of Dugald Buchanan, the 
spiritual poet. To Sarah his 
wife. A great loss happened 
to my brothers, poor unfor- 
tunate men. He fell by 
the hand of Oscar, the bold 
hero. 

ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. 

Rule 5.' — An adjective is 



CLEACHDADH. 

Righ Sheòruis. An abstol 
Phòil. Iain Shiosail. Litir 
an abstoil Sèumas. Peadar 
mac lainmac Tomas. Sine 
Mac Phadruig, Uilleam 
Nic Dhonuill. 

3. Ruaraidh Foirbeis 
gobhann. Cailean Nic Coin- 
nich figheadair. Dònull Ros 
gàradair. 

Rob earraid an dubh. 
Uistean buachaill an beag. 
Tearlach dròbhair an bàn 
òg. 

4. Cù Iain Bhain a' bhro- 
caire. Dàin Dhuhgail Bhu- 
chanain, a' bhàird spiorad- 
ail. Ri Sàrai a' mhnaoi. 
Thainig càll mòr air mo 
bhràithribh, daoinibh tru- 
agh mi-fhortanach. Thuit 
e le làimh Oscair an laoich 
chruadalaich. 

BUADHAR AGUS AmMEAR. 

Rialt. 5. — Cuirear huadh- 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIGr. 



285 



placed after its noun, and 
agrees with it in number, 
gender, and case ; as, 

A good man. 

Small stones. 

An honest woman. 

The black horse's bridle. 

Large towns. 

Rule 6. — An adjective 
combined with a noun, 
forming its nominative plu- 
ral like the genitive singu- 
lar, is aspirated in the no- 
minative plural, defìnite or 
indefìnite ; as, 

White horses. 
The white horses. 
Brown oxen. 
The brown oxen. 
Faithful servants. 
Little birds. 
To the little birds. 



ar an dèigh 'ainmeir fein 
agus còrdaidh e ris, 'an àir- 
eimh, 'an gin 'san càr ; mar, 

Duine matk. 
Clachan beaga. 
Bean chòìr. 
Srian an èich dhuibh. 
Bailtean mora. 

Rialt. 6. — Sèidichear bu- 
adhar co-naisgte ri ainmear 
a' cumadh 'ainmich iomadh 
ionann ris a' ghinteach aon- 
ar, anns an ainmeach iom- 
adh, cinnteach no neo- 
chinnteach ; mar, 

Eich gheala, 

Na h-èich gheala. 

Daimh dhonna. 

Na daimh dhonna. 

Oglaich dhileas. 

Eòin bheaga. 

Do na h-eunaibh* beaga. 



Note 1 An adjective beginning with d, preceded by a noun 

ending in n, is not aspirated in either number; as, Nighean 
donn, a brown girl, (brunette) ; Coin dubha, black dogs. 

Note 2 An adjective referring to two or more nouns, takes 

the gender of the noun next it ; as, 

A white mare } and a white horse, Làr agus each bàn. 
A white horse, and a white mare, Each agus làr bhàn. 



EXERCISES. 

A wise man, a little wo- 
man, a white sheep, a black 
cow, a brown horse, a soft 
potato, long beard, salt 
butter, hot water, red hips, 



CLEACHDADH. 

Glic duine, beag bean, 
bàn caora, dubh bò, donn 
each, bog buntàta, fad 
fèusag, sàilt ìm, teth uisg, 
dearg mucag, briste piob. 



« The plural noun ending in a, an, or ibh, takes the adjective in itaplain form. 



286 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



broken pipes. Highland 
merchants, black men, red 
ink. The sharp knives. 

6. White birds, the big 
men, grey cats, brown 
horses, thick stocks, thin 
bushes, the deep pits. 

P The little man's hat. 
The door of the big house. 
The honest wife's glove. 
The calf of the hornless 
cow. 

Proud men fall, but 
humble and cautious men 
shall be exalted. 

A good conscience and a 
contented mind will make 
a man happy. 

The smooth stream, the 
serene atmosphere, and the 
mild zephyr, are the proper 
emblems of a gentle tem- 
per and a peaceful life. 

NUMERALS. 

Rule 7. — Numerals are 
placed before their nouns, 
and agree with them in 
number* ; as, 
One boy 

The third month 
Ten ploughs 
Eighteen men 
Twerity-four pounds 



Gaelach ceannaiche, dubh 
duine, dearg ìng. Gèur 
an sgian. 

6. Geala eoin, na fir mora, 
cait glasa, eich donna, stuic 
garbha, pris tana, na sluic 
domhain. 

P An fear beag ad. An 
dorus mòr tigh. An còir 
bean làmhainn. An laogh 
maol bò. 

Tuit bòsdail duine ach 
àrdaich, seimh agus cura- 
mach duine. 

Dean glan coguis agus 
toilichte inntinn duine sona. 

Is i an seimh sruth, an 
ciùin aileadh, agus an tlàth 
sefìr, fior samhladh min 
nadur, agus siochail bea- 
tha. 

CUNOTAICH. 

Rialt.7. — Cuirearcwwif- 
aich roimh an ainmearan 
agus còrdaidh iad riù 'an 
àireimh ; mar, 

Aon bhalachan 

An treas mios 

Deich crùinn 

Ochd fìr dhèug 

Ceithir pùinnd ihar fhichead\ 



• The nouns la or latha, hliadhna, bolla, sgillinn, ceud, and mile, &c. are com- 
monly used in the singular, with numerals requiring tlie plural ; as, seachd là, 
euig bliadhna, sea spillinn, ochd ceud, deich mile ; but the plural of là is joined 
with tri, naoi, and deich. 

f Sometlmea ceithir pùinndfìiichead. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



287 



Obs. — That tbe noun must be always placed before dèug or 
dhèug, and also before thar in compound numbers. 



Rule 8. — Dà, fichead, 
cèud, mile, muillion, alone or 
combmedwitk otkernumer- 
als, do not admit of plural 
nouns ; as, 



Rialt. 8. — Cka ghabh dà, 
fichead, cèud, mile, muiUion, 
ainmear ioniadh leò fèin, 
no co-naisgte ri cùnntaich 
èile ; niar, 



Two heads, dà cheann Twenty shillings, fichead tasdan 

A hundred cows, ceud bò A thousand men, milefear 

Sixty lambs, trifichead uan Eighty cups, ceithir fichead còrn 

Note 1 Though " G?a"takes its noun in the singular, it takes 

its adjective intheplural ; as, " Dàiasg bheaga" two small fishes. 



Note 2 In describing mea- 

sure or extent, the word denot- 
ing dimension is followed by air; 
as, 

The house is ten feet high, 
twelve feet broad, andfortyfeet 
long. 



Nod 2. — 'An ainmeachadh 
tomhais, cuirear air, an dèigh 
an fhocail a ta ag airis na meud ; 
mar, 

Tha an tigh deich troighean air 
àirde, dà throigh dheug air leud, 
agus dà fhichead troigh air fad. 



Translate — Five pins ; thirteen sheaves ; sixteen pounds ; the 
eighth mile stone ; the twenty-sixth chapter; forty herrings ; 
two wives ; twelve otters ; twenty-two salmons ; two hundred 
birds ; fifty-nine trees ; a thousand years ; sixty days ; the field is 
24 yards long, and 16 broad. 



PR0N0UNS. 
Rule 9. — Personal and 
possessive pronouns agree 
in number, gender, and per- 
son, with their correlatives, 
or the nouns for which thej 
stand ; as, 

Jane made money, and she 
put it in the bank. 

James wrote three letters, 
and he sent them to Edinburgh. 

John huit his foot. 



PJOCHDARAN. 

Rialt. 9. — Còrdaidh Ri- 
ocìidaran pearsantail, agus 
sèilbheach, 'anàireimh, 'an 
gin 'sam pearsa ri'n cho- 
dhàimhearan, no na h-ainm- 
earan a ta iad a' riochdach- 
adh ; mar, 

Rinn Sine airgid agus chuir i 
anns a bhanc e. 

Sgriobh Sèumas tri litrichean 
agus chuir e do Dhunèdin iad. 

Chiùrr Iain a chas. 



Rule 10. — When a pro- Rialt. 10. — 'Nuair a 



288 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



noun stands for a sentence, 
or clause of a sentence, it 
is put in the third person 
singular, masculine ; as, 

Tho' my purse was empty, 
others did not know of ìt. 



sheasas riochdar an aite 
ciallairte, no pàirte de 
chiallairt cuirear e anns 
an treas pearsa aonar fear- 
anta ; mar, 

Ged bha mo sporan falamh. 
cha d' aithnich càch e. 

Note A collective noim requires a pronoun in the third per- 

son plural ; as, " Chuala Iosua toirm an t-sluaigh, an uair a rinn 
iad gàir," Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted. 



Rule 1 1 .— Interrogatives 
are used before nouns and 
personal pronouns without 
the verb bi or is ; and be- 
fore prepositions which go- 
vern them ; as, 

Who (is) he ? 

Who (are) those fellows ? 

Which (is) the first com- 
mandment ? 

Of whom do you speak ? 

Rule 12. — The Demon- 
stratives so and sin, &c. re- 
quirethe article before their 
nouns in both numbers ; as, 

This is the heir 

This day is cold 

These flies 

Yon large ship 

Yonder is the new steamer 

EXERCISES. 

9. That is a young wife. 
This is a heavy stone. Is 
yon not a tidy girl ? Is the 
day cold ? Yes, it is. Are 
the potatoes good ? They 



Rialt. 11. — Gnàthaichear 
Cèistich roimh ainmearan 
agus 'riochdaran pearsant- 
ail, gun an gniomhar bi no 
is ; agus roimh 'roimhearan 
a spreigeas iad ; mar, 
Co e? 

Co iad na fir ud ? 
Ciod i a' cheud àithn ? 

Co mu 'm beil thu 'labhairt ? 

Rialt. 12.' — Gabhaidh na 
Dearbhaich so 'us sin, &c. 
am pùngar roimh an ainm- 
earan 'san dà àireimh ; mar, 

So an f-oighre* 

Tha 'w la so fuar 

Na cuilleagan sin 

An long mhòr ud 

Sid an toitear ùr 

CLEACHDADH. 
9. Is òg an bean e sin. 
Is trom an clach e so. Nach 
grinn an caileag e sud. Am 
beil an là fuar ? Tha i. 
Am beil an buntata math ? 



See Gaelic Ar.—RxÙQ 4.— 1 and 2. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



2S9 



are. When will the black 
sheep lamb ? She will lamb 
in the course of a month. 
Is thy thumb sore ? It is. 
Did they hurt their feet? 
They did. 

10. Though he got nioney 
he did not tell it to us. And 
the lean kine (cows) ate 
up the fat kine, and it could 
not be known on them. 

11. Who is she, this 
woman ? Who is he, yon 
fair lad ? Whose pen is 
that ? Which is the second 
commandment ? Which of 
them is the best scholar? 
On whom did you put the 
question ? 

12. Thishill; thatglen; 
this good boy ; this day ; 
yon is the big stone ; these 
small trees ; that sheaf ; 
yon defile ; yonder are 
the fine knolls on which 
the cattle pasture. 

J? A certainman planted 
a vineyard, and let it forth 
to husbandmen, and went 
into a far country for a long 
time ; and, at the proper 
season, he sent a servant to 
the husbandmen, that they 
should give him of the fruit 
of the vineyard, but the 
husbandmen beat him and 
sent him away empty. 



Tha i. Cuin a bhios uan 
aig an caora dubh ? Bith- 
idh uan aige an ceann 
mhios. Am beil mo òrdag 
gort ? tha e. An do cliiùrr 
mi mo chas ? Chiùrr e. 

10. Ged fhuair i airgid 
cha d' innis i dhomh-sa i. 
Agus dh'-ith an bo caol 
suas an bo reamhar agus 
cha n-aithnichteadh air i. 

11. Co ta i, an bean 
so ? Co ta e, am ban gille 
ud ? Co ta leis an peann 
sin ? Ciod ta e an dara 
àithn ? Diam co am scoil- 
ear math ? Air co a chuir 
thu an cèist ? 

12. Beinn sq ; gleann ud ; 
balachan math so ; là so ; 
is e sud clach mòr ; beag 
craobh sin ; sguab ud ; beal- 
ach ud ; sid cnoc torach air 
am beil an sprèidh ag ion- 
altradh. 

J? Plànndaich duine ar- 
aidh fìon-lios, agus suithich 
i air tuath i agus rach i air 
choigrichrè aimsirfad, agus 
anns an àm dligheach cuir 
i seirbhiseach a do ionnsuidh 
an tuath chum gun thoir e 
domh de toradh an fion-lios, 
ach ghabh an tuath orm agus 
cuir e uam falamh i. 



290 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



SUBJECT AKD VERB. 

Rule 13. Avcrbis placed 
before its subject or nomiii- 
ative, and agrees with it in 
number and person ; as, 

I am 

He loved 

John struck 

Did they not prove ? 

Rule 14. The nominative 
is not expressed after a per- 
sonal termination of a verb ; 
as, 

Let me be 

Seek ye or you 

I would prove 

We would not go 



CUISEAR AGUS GNIOMHAR. 

Rialt. 13. Cuireargniomh- 
ar roimh a chuisear, no 
'ainmeach fèin agus còrd- 
aidh e ris 'an àireimh 'sam 
pearsa ; mar, 

Ta no tha mi 

Ghràdhaich e 

Bhuail Iain 

Naeh do dhearbh iad?y 
Rialt 14. Cha n-airisear 
an t-ainmeach an dèigh ice 
pearsantailgniomhair; mar, 

Bitheam 
Iarnn'6/ii-se 
Dhearhhainn 
Cha r?Lchamaid 



1. A question is always answered in Gaelic by the verb and 
tense which asks it ; as, Am beil d' athair a stigh ? Tha or tha 
e.* Is your father within ? He is. Yes. An robh sibh 'san 
eaglais ? Eha, or bha sinn. Were you in church? We vcere. 
Yes. Am bi sibh aig an tigh am màireach ? Bithidh (sinn) or 
cha bhi (sinn.) Will you he at home to-morrow ? We will he. 
Yes ; or, We will not. No. 

2. When a question is asked by the subjunctive mood, the 
answer is commonly returned by the speaker in the 2nd or 3rd 
person of the verb ; as, An òladh tu deòch ? Would you take a 
drink ? Dh'-òladh, or cha n-òladb, instead qf, Dh' -òlainn, or 
cha n-òìainn. Am bitheadh sibh deònach ? Wouldyou be willing? 
Bhitheadh, or cha bhitheadh, instead of, Bhithea?«a^ or cha 
hhìtheamaid. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

I strike, huail. He spilt, dòirt. We called, gairrn. 
We shall speak, labhair. I cannot stand, seas. They 
may refuse, diùlt. I would see, faic. Let him fall, 
tuit. Confess ye, aidich. Let tlicm go, rach. Let him 
not say, can. I can read, ìèugh. I was baptised, baist. 



* The pronoun is seldom expresscd in answering, except when emphasis is re- 
quired. 



CO-HIANACHADH GAELIG. 



291 



Thej will be exalted, àrdaich. Thej maj be destroyed, 
mill. It would be broken, bris. Let us be raised, tog. 
Be je not condemned, dìt. I mentioned, ainmich. Thej 
will ask, iarr. I can drink, òl. We will get, faigh. 
He was wounded, lot. It will be opened, fosga.il. I have 
been praised, mol. Thej had been abused, mill. Lead- 
ing, treòraich. Lost, caill. Stretched, shi. 

14. Let me be. Let us 
drink tea. Let eggs be 
eaten. Open je the door. 
We could knit. We would 
go over. Thej could speak 
Gaelic. 

The men are ploughing 
to-daj, and will be thrash- 
ing to-morrow. We wrote 
letters. Letters were writ- 
ten bj us. 

A daj has passed, and a 
new daj will come. 

Though I am poor I am 
happj. 

We maj go home. He 
can both read and write. 

If jou will open the door, 
the horses maj go out. 

If James break the glass, 
he must paj a shilling. 

Note 1 . The reader, in correctìng a part of the foregoing and 
most of the following exercises, has to supply the helps in com- 
pound tenses, and the conjunctives am, an, do, §c. of the interro- 
gative, and cha, nach, 8fc. of the negative mood. 



14. Bi mi. 01 sinn ^tì. 
Ubh ith. Fosgail sibhse. 
An dorus. Mi figh. Rach 
sinn an nùll. E labhair 
Gaelig. 

An duine bi treabh an 
diùgh agus e bi buail am 
màireach. Mi sgriobh litir. 
Litir sgriobh le mi. 

Là falbh, agus là ùr 

Ged mi bi bochd mi bi 
sona. 

Mi rach dhachaidh. E 
araon lèugh agus sgriobh. 

Ma thu fosgail an dorus, 
rach an each a-mach. 

Ma Sèumas bris an 
gloinne paigli e tasdan. 



INTERROGATIVELY AND NEGA- 
TIVELY. 

Is the sun rising ? Do jou 
not know that he rose at six 
to-daj ? 



GU CEISTEACH AGUS GU DIULT- 
ACH. 

An grian bi èirich ? Fios 
bi agad gun e èirich aig sea 
an diùgh ? 



292 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



Did John eat the apples, 
and not give one to me ? 

Have they killed a deer ? 
Shall a deer not be killed 
by them ? 

Will the mason break 
this stone ? Shall this stone 
not be broken by him ? 

May I see the organ ? 
Might the organ notbe seen 
by me ? 

Can John lift the lamb ? 
Conld it not be lifted by him? 

Note 2. The present of the 
indicative in English, is often 
translated by tbe future of tbe 
indicative and subjunctive in 
Gaelic, to express habit or cus- 
tom ; as, " He who loves instruc- 
tion loveth knowledge." " The 
righteous is delivered from trou- 
ble," 

The man who runs obtains. 

Every tree is known by 
its fruit. 

The hand that gives is 
the hand that gets. 

E vil communications cor- 
rupt good manners. 

When drink is (will be) 
ìn, tlie sense is out. 

A soft answer turns away 
wrath, but grievous words 
stir up anger. 

S 9 He that hath pityupon 
the poor lendeth unto the 
Lord, and that which he 
hathgivenwillhe(the Lord) 
pay him again. 



Iain ith an ubhal, agus e 
thoir aon do mi ? 

E marbh fìadh ? Marbh 
fiadh le e ? 

An clachair bris an clach 
so ? An clach so bris le 
e? 

Mi faic an òrgan ? An 
òrgan faic le mi ? 

Xain tog an uan ? E tog 
le e? 

Nòd 2. Eadar-theangaichear 
làthaireil an Taisbeanaich 'sa 
Bheurla, gu tric, le teacail an 
Taisbeanaich agus an Leantaich 
'sa Ghaelig a dh-airis gnàtha no 
cleachdaidh ; mar, " Esan a 
ght ddhaicheas fòghlum gràdh- 
aichidh e eòlas." " Saorar am 
fìrean o thèinn." 

Am fear a ruith faigh e. 

Aithnich gach craobh air 
a toradh. 

An làmh a thoir, is i 
faigh. 

Truailldroch comhluadar 
deagh bèus. 

'Nuair bi deòch a stigh 
bi an ciall a-mach. 

Pill freagair mìn c orruich , 
ach dùisg briathar garg 
fearg. 

I? An ti a gabh truas do 
an bochd thoir e iasachd do 
an Tighearn, agus an ni 
thoir e uam, ioc e (an Tigh- 
earn) do e, a-rìst. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



293 



And as Moses lifted up 
the serpent in the wilder- 
ness, even so must the Son 
of Man be lifted up ; that 
whosoever believeth in him 
should not perish but have 
eternal life. 

The mariner's compass 
is one of the most important 
discoveries that have ever 
been made. Before the pro- 
perties of the loadstone had 
been developed, sailors had 
no means of steering their 
ships from countr y to coun- 
try over the wide ocean ; — 
they were always obliged to 
keep in sight of land, for 
fear of going astray, or fall- 
ing upon rocks or shallows. 

We are chiefly indebted 
to the compass, and the art 
of printing, for the amount 
of useful knowledge which 
has been opened up and cul- 
tivated among us. 



GOVERNMENT OF NOUNS. 

Rule 16. Wben two or 
more nouns are used to de- 
note the possessor and the 
thing possessed, the name 
of the possessor is governed 
in the genitive ; as, 

A man's head. 



Agus mar tog Maois suas 
an nathair, anns an fàsach 
is ann mar sin is èigin do 
Mac an duine bi air a tog 
suas; chum 'us ge b'e neach 
a creid ann e, nach sgrios 
e, ach gu'm bi an beatha 
siorruidh aige. 

Is i an cairt-iùil an mar- 
aiche aon de an innleachd 
isluachmhor afaigh a-mach 
riabh. Mu'n do cuir solus 
air feart an clach-iùil, cha 
bi dòigh aig seòladair air a 
long a stiùr o dùthaich gu 
duthaich air an cuan fars- 
uing, fèum e, a ghnà a sùil a 
cumail ri an talamh, air 
eagal rach air seachran, no 
tuit air sgeir no oitir. 

Bi mi mòr ann an comain 
an cairt-iuil agus innleachd 
an clo-bhualadh airson an 
iomlan de an eòlas fèumail 
a fosgail suas, agus a sgaoil 
ann an measg. 



SPREIGEADH 'AINMEARAN. 

Rialt. 16. 'Nuairaghabh- 
ar dà ainmear no tuille, dh - 
ainmeachadh an t-sealbh- 
adair agus an ni air am 
beil seilbh aige, sprèigear 
ainm an t-sealbhadair anns 
a' ghinteach ; mar, 

Ceann fir. 



294 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



The wife's cloak. 
A hen's foot. 
My father's house. 
The garden of Eden. 
The grey horse's bridle. 
The land of mountains. 



Cleòc na mnà. 
Cas circe. 
Tigh m' athar. 
Gàradh Edein. 
Srian an èich ghlais. 
Tir nam beann. 



Note 1 . The owner is always put last, except in expressions 
like the following, Fear Chùillodair, The Laird or Taxman of 
Culloden, JBean Bhailaneilich, The Lady or Rentrix of Balanèil- 
ich. 

JVote 2. When two definite nouns in English are turned into 
Gaelic, the article is prefixed only to the noun governed in the 
genitive ; as, The side of the sea, Taobh na mara, (not an taobh.) 



Rule 17. When three 
nouns are combined, of 
which the second and 
third are in the genitive, in 
English, the last only is 
generallyput in the genitive 
in Gaelic ; as, 

The fruit of the trees of the 
garden. 

The sister of the clergyman's 
wife. 

Rule 18. Masculine pro- 
per names, governed by a 
noun, are for the most part 
aspirated,* but feminine 
ones, and a noun represent- 
ing one of a species, are 
usually plain ; as, 
James's knife. 

Janet's gown. I 



Rialt. 17. 'Nuairthatri 
ainmearan co-naisgte, de 
am beil an dara 'san treas 
'sa ghinteach 'am Beurla 
cha tric a chuirear, ach am 
fear deireannach 'na aonar 
'sa ghinteach 'sa Ghaelig ; 
mar, 

Meas craobhan a' ghàraidh 
(not chraobhan.) 

Piuthair bean a' mhinisteir (not 
mnà.) 

Rialt. 18. Sèidichearmar 
istrìce ainmearan ceartfear- 
anta, spreigte le ainmear, 
achthafeadhain bhoireanta 
agus ainmear ag airis aoin 
de sheòrsa gu cumanta lom; 
mar, 

Sgian Shèumais. 

Gùn Seònaid.-J- 



* A proper name beginning with d, governed by a noun ending in n, is com- 
monly plain ; as, Nighean Donachaidh, Duncan's daughter. 

f A proper name fem. is sometimes aspirated, and if followed by an adjective, 
the adjective, instead of agreeing with the governed noun in the genitive, is used 
in the nominative ; as, Tigh Chaitir mhòr, big Catherine's house,—for Chaitire 
moire. 



CO-RIANACHi 
A deer's antler (or horn.) 

Rule 19. Ownership is 
often denoted by the pre- 
positions aig, do, le, either 
simple or compounded with 
personal pronouns ; as, 

Jobn's pen. 

A son of John Stewart. 
This is my pencil. 
That book is mine. 

EXERCISES. 

16. The horse's halter. 
The bird's wing. A hare's 
skin. Side of the burn. 
The milk of the white cow. 
The top of the hay-stack. 
Fins of the fìshes. Well 
of the heads. The feather 
of the wing of theblack hen. 

By the stream of sounds. 
Like the beam of the moon 
011 the top of the heath. 
Light of the sun. The day 
of wrath. The brink of 
the river. The sheep's cot. 
Key of the little door. 

1. & 2. I saw the Laird 
of Culloden. I am not ac- 
quainted with the Lady of 
Borlum. The fish of the 
sea. At the end of the bed. 
On the north side of the 
big house. 

17. Did you hear that the 
carpenter's wife's brother 
married the smith's wife's 
sister ? 

The song of Solomon. 
Paul's Epistles. Duncan's 



iDH GAELIG. 295 
Cròc fèigh. 

Rialt 19. Airisear sèilbh 
gu tric leis na roimhearan, 
aig, do, le, aon chuid singilt, 
no measgta le riochdaran 
pearsantail ; mar, 
Am peann aig Iain. 
Mac do dh-Iain Stiùard. 
Is e so an sgelpan agam-sa. 
Is leam-sa 'n leabhar sin. 
CLEACHDACH. 

16. Taodaneach. Sgiath 
an eun. Bian maigheach. 
Taobh an allt. Bainne an 
bòbàn. Mullach ancruach- 
fheòr. Ite an iasg. Tobar 
an ceann. Ite sgiath an 
cearc dubh. 

Aig sruth an fuaim. Mar 
ghath an gealach air barr 
an fraoch. Solus an grian. 
Là an fearg. Bruach an 
abhainn. Crò an caora. 
Iuchair an dorus beag. 

1. & 2. FaicmiCuiliod- 
air fear. Cha bhi mi eòlach 
air Borlum bean. An t-iasg 
an muir. Aig an ceann an 
leaba. Air an taobh tuatli 
an tigh mòr. 

17. Cluinn tu gu'n do 
pòs bràthair mnà an t-saoir, 
piùthair mnà a' ghobhainn ? 

Dàn Solamh. Litir Pòl. 
I LeabharDonachadh. Baile 



296 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



books. David'stown. Ken- 
neth's son. Norman's 
daughter. Moses' rod. Fair 
Mary 's brother. J ane Mac- 
leod's son. Peter Grant's 
shop. Mr William Mackin- 
non'shouse. Colin'sgarden. 

19. An ox's horn. A 
bull's head. A man's foot. 
A salmon's gills. 

Angus' dog. Thomas' 
horse. That is my hat. 
A friend of mine. 

My son looks on the sea 
fowl. Give the head of a 
boar to Candona. 

P Look not to the dark 
robed moon, nor to the 
meteors of heaven. Around 
thee is the gleaming steel 
of the heroes. It is not 
theswordof the feeble men, 
nor of the dark in soul. 

OF ADJECTIVES. 

Rule 20. — An adjectivo 
prefìxed to a noun, a verb, 
or another adjective, aspir- 
ates either ; as, 

The real Christian. 
Clothe with a shroud. 
A dark-brown dog. 
JVote. — Seann or sean does not aspiratea word beginning with 
d, s, or t; as, seann dìùc ; seann sòc ; seann tigh. 

NUMERALS. CUNNTAICH. 

1. Aon, dà, and a' cheud aspirate their nouns ; as, aon phiob, 
one pipe ; dà chois, two/eet ; a' cheud chèist. 



Daibhidh. Mac Coinneach. 
Nighean Tormaid. Slat 
Maois. BràthairMhariban. 
Mac Seine Mac Leòid. Buth 
Peadar Grànnd. Tigh Mr 
Uilleam Nic lonmhuinn. 
Lios Cailean. 

19. Adharc dhaimh. 
Ceann thairbh. Casdhuine. 
Giùran bhradain. 

An cù Aonghas aig. 
Each Tomas le. Sin ad 
an aig mi. Caraid mi do. 

Bi sùil mo mac air eun 
an tonn. Thoir ceann an 
torc do Candona. 

P Na seall air rè fo èididh 
donn, no air tèine an tonn 
o speur. Bi stàilinn an 
sonn mu 'n cuairt domh. 
Cha n-e lann an lag bi ann, 
no anam cam an faon-fear. 

BHUADHARAN. 

Rialt. 20.— Sèidichidh 
buadhar roimh ainmear, 
gniomhar, no buadharèile, 
aon air bith dhiù sin ; mar, 
Am fior Chriosdaidh. 
Marbh-phaisg."' 4 
Cù dubh-dhonn. 



* Hence the common imprecation, " Marbhaisg' ort," thy death-shroud on thee; 
death to you ; used among the Scotch and Irish Celts. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



297 



After aon, a noun beginning with d, s, or t, is plain ; as, aon 
dòrn, aon sàil, ann toll. 

2. Dà* governs its noun in the dative singular, and if its noun 
be followed by an adjective, the adjective is put in the nomina- 
tive singular feminine ; as, dà chruaich, two stacks ; dà mhnaoi, 
two wives ; dà fhear, iwo men. Dà bhonnach bheag, two small 
cakes. Dà chraoibh chianail, two solitary trees. — Ossian. 

3. The adjective after a simple preposition is put in the dative 
singular ; as, Do dhà mhnaoi òig, for two young wives. Anns an 
dà chuaich bhig, in ihe two small cups. Air dà phùnnd Shasun- 
ach, for two pounds sterling. 



Rule 21. — Anadjective 
of plenty governs the geni- 
tive, and an adjective of 
scarcity requires de after 
it ; as, 

Full of seed. 

Scarce of money. 



Rialt. 21. — Spreigidh 
buadhar pailieis an Igint- 
each, agusgabhaidh buadh- 
ar gainneid de 'na dhèigh ; 
mar, 

Làn sìl. 

Gànn de'n airgid. 



Both require de before the article ; as, làn de'n or, full of (the) 
gold ; falamh de'n ù, void of (the) tea. 

Adjectives of Plenty — such as, làn, buidheach, mòran, pailt, 
sgith, sàsaichte, sultmhor, lionmhor, tuille, &c. 

Of Scarcity — such as, gànn, falamh, lom, fànn, bochd. 



Rule 22. — Adjectives 
signifying affeclion of the 
mind, prqfit, liheness, prox- 
imity, or ìcindness, &c. and 
their opposites, require air, 
aig, ri, or do ; as, 

Desirous of honour. 
Expert at the pen. 
Like your or thy father. 
Near Fort Augustus. 
Unhospitable to strangers. 



Rialt. 22. — Gabhaidh 
buadharan a' ciallachadh 
càìle na h-inntinn, buan- 
nachd, coltais, fagusgachd, 
no càirdeis, &ce. agus an 
luchd-aghaidh air, aig, ri, 
no do 'nan dèigh ; mar, 

Miannach air urram. 

Ealand aig a' pheann. 

Coltach ri d' athair. 

Fagus do Chille-Chuimean. 

Mi-fhialaidh H coigrich. 



Adjectives signifying affection of the mind, &c. — such as, togar- 



* The noun joined with dd, though governed ia the genitive by another noun, 
is always in the singular; as, bùinn rao dhà choise, the soles of both my feet. Pris 
an dà osain, the price of the two hose — of apair ofhose. Clauu ua dà pheathc/-, 
the childrens of the two sisters ; cousins. 



298 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



rach, miannach, sanntach, dèidheil, cronail, iarrtach, càirdeil, 
iochdail. 

Of Profit — math,, fèumail, buannachail, tàrbhach, coromach, 
sgileil, eòlach, teoma, seòlta, tapaidh, bàigheil, buailteach. 

Of Likeness — amhuil, coslach, cosmhal, ionann, co-ionann, &c. 
Of Proximity — fagus, fogus, dlùth. 

OfKindness — bàigheil, blàth, càirdeil, caomh, caomhail, caoin- 
eil, dàimheil, fàbharach, fiùghantacb, math, tlusail, &c. 



Rtjle 23. — Adjectives 
signifying volition or readi- 
ness, and their opposites, 
govern the infìnitive ; as, 

Willing to learn. 

Ready to strike thee. 

Rule 24. — The Compa- 
rative degree of adjectives, 
with the Verb Bi, requires 
nas or ni's* immediately 
before it, and na after it 
whenobjects are compared; 
as, 

My knife is sharper than your 
knife. 

They are sweeter than the 
honey. 



Rialt. 23. — Spreigeadh 
buadharan a' ciallachadh 
toile no dèise, agusan luchd- 
aghaidh am Feartach; mar, 

Toileach ionnsachadh. 

Ullamh gu do bhualadh. 

Rialt. 24. — Gabhaidh 
cèum coimeasach bhuadh- 
aran leis a' Ghniomhar Bi, 
nas no nis* dlù roimhe, 
agus na dlù 'na dhèigh 
'nuair a choimeasar cusp- 
airean ; mar, 

Tha mo sgian-sa nas gèire 
na do sgian-sa. 

Nis milse na a' mhil a ta 
iad 



1. The Comparative, with the Verb Is> takes only na afterthe 
first object ; as, Is fearr gliocas na 'n t-òr, wisdom is better than 
gold. Bu luaithe iad na iolairean, iìiey were swifter than eagles. 

2. The English Comparative preceded by the definite article, 
is rendered in Gaelic by mar, is, and ann ; thus, mar is luaithe 
's ann is feair, the sooner ths better : mar is sine 's ann is miosa. 



Rule 25. — Both the com- 
parative and superlative are 
followed by de, when selec- 
tion is implied ; as, 



Rialt. 25. — Cuirear de 
an deigh a' choimeasaich 
agus an Anardaich, 'nuair 
a dh-ainmichear roghann ; 
mar, 



* Contracted for na is and ni is, and pronounced nas, nis; na's is most corn- 
monly used in the spokeu, and ni's in the written languafje. 

Na's and nVs drop the 's bef'ore bu or b' ; as, Bha iad na bu ghile, they were 
■whiter. Bha e ni b' eòlaiche,"/ie was more skilful; hence there is reason to con- 
clude that 's after na and ni is from the verb is, seeing bu, its past rejects it. 



CO.RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



299 



Peter is the elder of the two. 

Soloraon was the wisest of the 
sons of men. 

Sarah is the prettìest of them 
all. 

EXERCISES. 

A good boj. True be- 
lievers. Many people. A 
joung man. Narrow street. 
Black gruel. High priest. 
Old wife. Highly extol. 
Exceedinglj good. Loudlj 
sing. Last long. Cullo- 
den's old house. One ton. 
Willie's old trousers. 

21. Full of flesh. Aboat 
full of fìsh. Satisfìed with 
meat. 

Little sense. Tiredofhim 
or it. 

Scarce of nionej. Emptj 
of water. Bare of clothes. 

22. Fond of the drink. 
Wishfnl for praise. Good at 
the oar. Active at a mar- 
ket. Up to spinning. 

Like his brother. Unlike 
their ancestors. Kind to 
strangers. Clement to me, 
to thee, to him, to her, to 
us, to jou, to them. 

23. I am willing to write. 
It is right to praj. I wish 
to hear jou. I am readj 
to count the monej. 

24. There is nothing 
among men sweeter than 
honej, and more precious 



Is e Peadar is sine de 'n dithis. 

Is e Solamhbu ghlice de chlann 
nan daoine. 

Is i Mòrag a's ro bhòidhche 
dhiùbh uile 

CLEACHDADH. 

Deagh giullan. Fior 
creideach. Mòr sluagh. 
Og fear. Caol sràid. Dubh 
brochan. Ardsagart. Seann 
bean. Ard-mol. Sàr math. 
Ard-sèinn. Buan-mair. 
Seann thigh Cuillodair. 
Aon thunna. Seann thru'fs 
Uilleachan. 

21. Làn feòl. Bàta làn 
iasg. Buidheach biadh. 

Beagan ciall. Sgith 
dhiom. 

Gànn an airgid. Falamh 
uisg. Lom aodach. 

22. Dèidheil an òl. Cion- 
ail cliù. Math an ràmh. 
Tapaidh fèill. Eòlach sni- 
omh. 

Coltach a bhràthair. Mi- 
choltach an sinnsear. Càir- 
deil coigreach. Iochdail ri 
mi, thu, e, i, sinn, sibhse, 
iad. 

23. Bimi deònachsgriobh. 
Is còir ùrnuigh dean. Bi 
mi toileach do cluinn. Bi 
mi ullamh gus an airgid 
cùnnt. 

24. Cha bi ni am measg 
duine milis meal agus 
luachmhor gliocas. Is olc an 



300 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



than wisdom. Fear is worse 
than battle. The tenantry 
are stronger than the laird. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Rule 26. — The posses- 
sives mo, do, and a* (his 
or its,) aspirate theirnouns ; 
as, 

My eye, Mo shùil. Thy foot, Do chas. His pen, A pheann. 

Mo and do drop the o before a vowel, and a before a vowel or 
f aspirated, or, between two vowels, is cut out altogether and an 
apostrophe (') inserted in its place ; as, M' ìibh, my egg ; d' àm, 
thy time; 'athair, his father, (not, a athair); 'fhuil, his blood, (not, 
a fhuil) ; fo 'òrdaig, under his thumb. 



eagal an cogadh. Is làidir 
tuath an tighearn. 



RIOCHDARAN SEILBHEACH. 

Rialt.26. — Sèidichidh na 
sèilbheich mo, do, 'us a, an 
ainmearan; mar, 



1. After ar, bhur or 'wr, a, 
(her or its.) and an or am (their), 
the noun or word combined with 
them is plain ; as, 

Our friend, Ar caraid. 

Her eye, A sùil. 

Her zeal, A dealas. 



1 . An dèigh ar, bhur no 'wr, 
a, agus an no am, tha an t- 
ainmear, no 'm focal a ta naisgte 
riù lòm ; mar, 

Your house, Bhur tigh. 

Their love, An gaol. 

Their pride, Am mòr-chùis. 



2. Ar, bhur or y ur, take n- (hyphen) between them and a word 
beginning with a vowel, and a (her or its) takes k-; as, Ar n- 
athair, our father ; bhur or 'ur n-onoir, your honour ; a A-èideadh 
her dress. 

3. A possessive pronoun joined with the name of the owner, 
excludes the article from the name of the object possessed ; as, 
obair mo làimhe, (the) work of my hand, ( not an obair) ; falt a 
chinn, (the) hair of his head, (not am falt. ) 



EXEECISES. 

My finger, my toe, our 
children, thy tongue, his 
shoes, her gown, your faith, 
their (m.) ears, their (/.) 
hope, my hat, his horse, my 
father, his ring, thy pipe, 
your country, her shop. 



CLEACHDADH. 

Mo meur, mo ordag, ar 
chlann, do teanga, a bròg, 
a ghùn, bhur chreidimh, an 
chluas, an dhochas, mo ad, 
a each, mo athair, a fàine, 
do piob-sa, bhur thir-se, a 
bhùth-sa. 



* These possessives aspirate adjectives aud infinitives also. — See Rule 32 — 1. 



CO.RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



301 



3. The point of thy finger. 
The days of their trial. 

P Rejoice, Oyoungman, 
in thy youth, and let thy 
heart cheer thee in the days 
of thy youth, and walk in 
the ways of thine heart and 
the sight of thine eyes ; but 
know that for all these 
things thy Creator will 
bring thee into judgment. 

VERB AND ITS OBJECT. 

Rule 27. — A transitive 
verb governs its object after 
it in the nominative* or 
objective case ; as, 

I wrote a letter. 

He struck the door. 

They did not lift the stones. 



3. An ceann do meur. 
An là an deuchainn. 
P Dean gàirdeachas duine 
òg ann do òige, agus dean 
do cridhe subbach thu ann 
an là do òige, agus siubh- 
ail ann an slighe do cridhe 
agus ann an sealladh do 
sùil ; ach bi fios agam gu'n 
thoir do Chruidhear chum 
breitheanas thu, airson an 
ni so uile. 

GNIOMHAR 'SA CHUSPAIR. 

Rialt. 27. — Spreigidh 
gniomhar asdolach a' chus- 
pair 'na dhèigh, anns a' 
char ainmeach, no chusp- 
arach ; mar, 
Scriobh mi litir. 
Bhuail e an dorus. 
Cha do thog iad na clachan. 



Many active and neuter verbs require a preposition after them 
to make their sense complete ; such as, Abair ri, buail air, cuir 
air, dean do, èisd ri, feith ri, gairm air, iarr air, leig le, labhair 
ri, tagair ri, thoir do, tog air, S$c. 



Rule 28. — Verbs of giving 
and telling, or such as af- 
fect two objects, require a 
preposition, either simple 
or compounded, before the 
object of the benefit ; as, 

Give James a drink. 
He told me a story. 

Rule 29. — • Verbs re- 



Rialt. 28. — Gabhaidh 
gniomharan toirte agus 
innsidh, no 'leithid 'sa 
bheanas ri dà chuspair, 
roimhear singilt, no meas- 
gta roimh chuspair na 
buannachd ; mar, 

Thoir deòch do Shèumas. 

Dh'-innis e sgèul dhomh-sa.. 

Rialt. 29.' — Gabhaidh 



* We say nominative case, because the^Gaelic noun haa no objeciive form dit'- 
fering Irom the nominative. 



302 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



quiring a preposition after 
them in the active voice, 
require it also in the pas- 
sive ; as, 

Drink was given to James. 
Note — The passive form of active and neuter verbs is often 
followed by le, either simple or compounded, expressive of the 
agent or instrument, as, 

The world (globe) is established by Him. 
Shocruicheadh leis an cruinne-cè. 

Rialt. 30/ — Sèidichidh 



gniomharan a dh-fheumas 
roimhear 'nan dèigh 'sa 
ghuth spreigeach, e anns a 
ghuth fhulangach mar an 
cèudna ; mar, 

Thugadhdeòch do Shèumas. 



Rule 30. — Bu (was) the 
past of the defective verb 
Is, aspirates a consonant 
next it, except d and t, and 
u in bu is elided before a 
vowel or / aspirated ; as, 

Great was his praise. 
Intense was his zeal. 
His desire was bad. 
Cold was the day. 

Rule 31. — One verb go- 
verns another in the infìrìi- 
tive mood ; as, 



bu, seachadail a' ghniomh- 
air ghaoideich Is, cònnrag 
dlù dha, ach d, 'us t ; agus 
tilgear an litir u 'mach à 
bu, roimh fhuaimraig, no / 
seidichte ; mar, 

Bu mhòr a chliù. 

Bu dian 'èud. 

B' olc a mhiann. 

B'fhuair an là. 

Rialt. 31. — Spreigidh 
aon ghniomhar, gniomhar 
èile 'sa mhodh fheartach; 



mar, 

Thèid sinn a dh' -ionnsachadh.* 
Tha iad a' dol a bhualadh* 



We shall go to learn. 
They are going to strike. 

1. Auxiliary Verbs and Verbs requiring a preposition after them, 
govern the infinitive in its plain form ; as, 

Fèumaidh sinn pasgadh, We mustfold. 

Abair ri Tomas bualadh, Tell Thomas to strike. 

2. When its object, whether a noun or a pronoun, precedes the 
infìnitive, it is aspirated, and the object is followed by a (do) ; as, 



Fèumar an t-aodach a phasga 
Is urrainn e wus' a chiùrradh, 



The clothes must be folded. 
He can hurt me. 



• The a or a dh- before the infinitive is a euphonic fonn of the preposition do. 
A ia elided after a vowel, and an ascair (') put in its place ; as, thainig mi 
'phaigheadh. Chaidh ise 'dh-innsead/i. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 303 

Obs. — A Possessive pronoun before the infinitive must be 
translated into English by a personal ; as, 

Tbeab e mo bhualadh. He almost struck me. 

o. — Verbs of motion govern a regular infinitive ; as, " Cbaidh 
iad sios a cheannach sìl." tC Tbainig mise as a dh-innseadh dhuit.'' 

4. Tbe infinitive sometimes takes the preposition chum, gu, gus, 
or ri between it and tbe governing verb ; as, Tbainig mi chum d' 
fhaicinn, / came to see thee, ov, in order io see thee. Tba iad gu 
falbh, they are to depart. Cbaidh e g 'am pilleadh. Gus an siol 
a chur, to soio the seed. Bba agam ri dol suas, / had to go up. 



Rialt 32. — Spreigidh arn 
feartach a chuspair roimhe 
'sa char aimneach agus 'na 
dhèigh 'sa ghinteach ; mar, 



Rule 32. — The innnitÌTe 

gOYerns its object placed 

before it in the nominative 

case, and affcer it in the 

genitive ; as, 

m c , , , ! j f An t-aodach a pbasgadh. 

To fold tbe clotbes, < . , » • i 

( A phasgadb an aodaich. 

Breaking bread, A' biiseadh arain. 

1. When tbe object is expressed by a possessive pronoun, it is 
always placed before tbe infinitive, and Englished by a corres- 
ponding personal ; as, Is urrainn mi do pbaigheadb, I canpay you. 
Faodar ar ciùrradb, we may be burt. And empbatically ; Is ur- 
rainn mi do pbaigbeadh-sa. 

2. When it is necessary to express the object pointedly and with 
emphasis^ the emphatic form of the personal pronoun is generally 
used ; as^ Fèumaidh tu mise 'phaigheadh, you must pay me. Faodar 
thusa 'us mise 'chiùrradb le sin, You and I may be hurt by that. 



IMPERFECT PARTICIPLE OR rNFDTETIYE. 
The infinitive_, preceded by the preposition ag, forms tbe im- 
perfect participle in Gaelic. 

Rule 1. The Imperfect Participle gOYerns its object 
placed after it in the genitive ; as, Ag iarraidh bidh, 



* The part of the Gaelic verb commonly called the irtfinitive, such as bucdadh, 
briseadh, togail, <$-c. is a noun expressive ct' tlie verbal action or state ; but as 
the corresponding English, striking, breaking, lifting, #-c. are also nouns iu many 
respects, and yet retain the name participle, because they partake of the uature 
and effect of strike, break, and lift, t'rom which they are'derived. We may, 011 
the same principle, and on the score of convenience, without the lea^t ÌDjury, 
apply the name participle to bualadh, briseadh, togail, and the like, without the 
sign ag, just as we call the root of the English verb strike, &c. the infiuitive with- 
out its sign To. See Eng. Cons. Rule 14 and 15. 



304 GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 

seeking food. A' casgadh fèirge, restraining anger. A' 
rusgadh nan craobh, peeling the trees. 

2. The Imperfect Participle, or inflnitive,* governs its noun in 
the nominative, when that noun governs another in the genitive ; 
as, A' bualadh clag na h-eaglais, ringing the church bell, (not 
cluig.) _ 

The infinitive, used as a noun, governs and is governed like a 
noun. 

VARIATIONS OF " AG." 

3. Ag, of the Imperfect Participle, drops the g between two 
consonants ; as, Tha iad a' cosgadh. 

Ag, drops the a between two vowels ; as> Tha mi 'g iarraidh. 

Ag, with a consonant before it and a vowel after it, remains 
entire ; as, Tha na fir ag iarraidh, the men are seeking. 

Ag, with a vowel before it and a consonant after it, is suppress- 
ed altogether, and its place supplied with an ascair, (') ; as, Tha 
mi 'casgadh. 

4. Ag drops the a before the possessives mo, do, a, ar, and am 
or an, placed between it and the infinitive; and in this position mo 
and do become am and ad ; as, Tha e 'g am iarraidh, he is seeking 
me. Tha iad 'g am mholadh, they are praising me. Tha sinn 'g 
ad iarraidh. Bha sinn 'g ad mholadh. Am beil sibh 'g a iarraidh ? 
'g a mholadh, 'g ar n-iarraidh, 'g ar moladh, 'g an iarraidh, 'g am 
moladh, &c. The preposition ag, or its representative 'g and the 
pronoun are often, but improperly united in the written language; 
thus, 'gam "gad 'ga ^gar 'gur ^gam ^gan. 

5. A of ag is often transposed before mo, do, and bhur, in 
which case mo and do are unchanged ; as, Tha e ga mo threòrach- 
adh, he is leading me. Tha mi ga do phàisteadh, / baptise, or 
am baptising thee. Bha iad ga bhur* seòladh, they were directing 
you. 



EXERCISES. 

I wrote a letter. The 
bojs read their lessons. 
He killed a deer. He struck 
the horse. Thej took a 
drirk of water. He mar- 



CLEACHDADH. 

Mi litirf sgriobh. An 
balachan a leasan lèugh. 
E fìadh marbh. E an each 
buail. E an uisge deòch 
òl. Gruagach donn e pòs. 



* Ar and bhur, or 'wr, are often spoken and written nar and mir, or na, bei'ore 
the inlinitive : as, ga nar moladh, ga nur n-iarraidh, ga nur bualadh, ga na 
piìigheadh, &ce. See Rule 26 — 2. 

f Tiie object is placed immediately after the subject or nominative, as, ghearr 
mi an cais'.— F. Gael. Ar. R. 8. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



305 



riedabrunette. The drover 
bought twenty horses and 
forty cows. 

The wife folded the 
clothes. The criminals 
would not acknowledge 
their fault. The earth 
heard it. God wisely go- 
verns the world. Riches 
often procure envy. Birds 
do not everywhere build 
their nests. The dog nim- 
bly pursues the hare. 

28. I gave a lesson to 
Helen. She thanked me. 
Archibald is at (beating) 
me. My father promised 
me a shilling. My mother 
sent me a new coat, and 
my sister has made me a 
pair of warm stockings. 

Tell me thy news. The 
scholarsrepeated their task 
to their master. The shep- 
herdswill showyoutheway. 

29. Praise will be given 
to good scholars. The lazy 
scholars shall suffer punish- 
ment. 

A pair of shoes was pro- 
mised to him. That was 
told to me. The king was 
honoured. A stop shall be 
put to their folly. 

30. Yon was % large 
vessel. Little was his need 
of more drink. 

Strive to learn. I or- 



An diòbhair each fìchead 
agusmartdàfìchead ceann- 
aich. 

An bean an aoclach paisg. 
Ciontach a coire cha aidich. 
E an cruinne-cè cluinn. Dia 
gu glic ceannsaich an saogh- 
al. Beartas faigh farmad 
gn tric. Eun a nead cha 
tog anns gach aite. An 
cù lean an gear gu luath. 

2.8. Leasan thoir mi 
dh-Eillidh. Tàing thoir i 
do mi. Gilleaspuig bi ri 
mi. Tasdan geallmo athair 
do mi. Còta ùr mo màth- 
air cuir gu mi, agus mo 
piuthair càraid blàth stoc- 
ain dean do mi. 

Do naigheachd innis do 
mi. Tasg airis an sgoilear 
a maighstear do. An rathad 
feuch an cibear sibh do. 

29. Cliù do thoir an 
deagh sgoilear. Peanas an 
dean air leisg sgoilear. 

Paidhir bròg geall do e, 
Sin ìnnis do mi. Onair 
thoir do an righ. Stad air 
cuir an faonachd. 

30. Bu mòr an long'i 
sud. Bu beag a fèum air 
tuille deòch. 

Oirpich ionnsaich. Or- 



c 



306 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



dered him to write. He 
went to fish. Thej came 
to tell their news. Go je 
to work. 

31. Let us go to hunt. 
You ought to marrj. John 
went to thrash. Thej 
went to cut. The deer are 
going to rise. He will not 
go to drink. If jou see 
anj person stealing, curs- 
ing, or breaking the Sab- 
bath-daj, jou ought to a- 
void his companjinstantlj. 

32. Robert is ringing the 
bell. Js he pulling the rope 
right ? Jane is feeding the 
hens. Was James not 
opening the door ? Thej 
went to cast (the) peats. 
Let Janet go to milk the 
goats, and Ann to turn the 
sheep. A letter was sent 
bj the captain to inform 
me that the ship is to sail 
for America to-morrow. 

To sowthe seedin spring, 
and to gather the crop in 
harvest, is the husband- 
man's chief occupation. 

!P Remember the coun- 
sel which I gave thee, it 
will profit thee verj much ; 
if thou dost not forget it. 
Obe j the laws of Almight j 
God ; obej the king, and 
all other subordinate ma- 
gistrates, in all things that 



duich mi do e sgriobh. 
Rach e iasgaich. Thig e 
innisannaigheachd. Falbh 
obair. 

31. Rach mi sealg. Is 
còir dhuibh pòs. Rach 
lain buail. Rach e gearr. 
Rach fìadh èirich. Cha 
rach e òl. Ma faic tu 
neach air bith goid, mall- 
aich, no bris là an Sàbaid, 
is còir do tu a cuideachd 
seachain air bàll. 

32. Buail Rob an clag. 
Tarruing e an còrd gu 
ceart? Biadh Sèine an 
cearc. Nachfosgail Sèumas 
an dorus ? Rach e buain 
an moine. Rach Seònaid 
leigeilan gobharagus Anna 
till an caora. Cuir litir 
leis an caiptean innis do 
mi gu'm bi an long seòl do 
America am màireach. 

Is e an t-sìl cur 'san earr- 
ach, agus a' bharra tionail 
'san fhoghar priomh obair 
an tuathanach. 

3P Cuimhnich an leasan 
a thoir mise do thu, dean i 
mòr buannachd do thu ; 
mur di-cuimhnich thu i. 
Gèill lagh do Uile Chumli- 
achdach an Dia ; gèill do 
an righ agus uile iochdrach 
uachdaran eile anns an 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



307 



are lawful ; resist the be- 
ginnings of anger, and 
jield nottothe allurements 
of pleasure. 

When Caius, a Roman 
nobleman, had beaten 
Pjrrhus, king of Epire, and 
driven him out of Italj, he 
divided the land among his 
soldiers ; to everj man he 
gave four acres, and re- 
served no more for himself: 
for none, sajs he, ought 
to be a general who will 
not be content with the 
share of a common soldier 



OF ADVERBS. 

Rule 33. — The simple 



h-uile ni a bi laghail ; grab 
aobhar fearg, agus na gabh 
breugadh ri sògh. 

'Nuair Caius flath Ròm- 
anach ceannsaich Pirrus 
righ Epìrus, agus fuadaich 
se e a-mach as Eadailt, e 
roinn an fearann am measg 
a saighdear, gach fear do 
thoir i ceithir acair, agus 
cha gleidh i mòr di-fèin : 
oir cha is còir do a bhi 
neach e arsa ann a sean- 
ailear bi nach toilichte le 
roinn cumanta saighdear. 



CHO-GHNIOMHARAN. 

Rialt 33.— Theid na 
Co-ghniomharan, cha, do, 
fior no fir, gle, ro, agus ni, 
nior no nar, roimh agus 
sèidichidh iad na focail a 
mhùthar leò ; mar, 



Adverbs, cha, do, fior or 
fir, gle, ro, and ni, nior or 
nar, precede and aspirate 
the words which thej mo- 
difj ; as, 

Cha bhuail mi ; do bhriseadh leis ; fior cheart ; gle bheag ; ro 
rahòr ; nior thuig ar sinnsear. 

1. Cha seldom aspirates d or t ; as, cha dean e ; cha tig mi. 

2. Cha requires n- before a vowel or f aspirated, and ni re- 
quires h- before a voweL, and m- before a labial ; as, Cha n-òl mi, 
I shall not drink ; cha n-fhiach e, it is not worth ; ni A-eagal 
leam, / do not fear ; ni m-faigheam. 



EXERCISES. 

The night is verj cold, 
but the daj was verjwarm. 

I will neither take this, 
nor ask that. 



CLEACHDADH. 

Bi an oiche gle fuar, ach 
bi an là fior blàth. 

Cha gabh mi so, agus cha 
iarr mi sin. 



338 GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 

You will require two shil- | Cha fhuilear* duit dà tasd- 



lings a-daj. 



OF PKEPOSITIONS. 

Rule 34. The simple 
Prepositions, aig, air, ann, 
<fcc. govern the dative ; as, 

At the house (at home) 

At my foot 

On green pastures 



an 'san (anns an) là. 

'ROIMHEARAN. 

Rialt 34. Spreigidh na 
Roimhearan aig, air, ann, 
&ce. an doirteach ; mar, 

Aig an tigh 

Aig mo chois 

Air cluainibh glasa. 



Air sometimes aspirates its noun ; as, air ò/mrraibh nan tonn, 
on the tops of the waves. Air thalamh, on earth. 

1. Bhàrr and chum, govern the genitive ; as, Bharr an rathaid, 
off the way. Chum bàis, unto death. 

2. Gus and mar govern a noun definite in the nominative ; as, 
Gus a' chrioch, to the end. Mar a' ghrian, like the sun. 



S. Eadar and seach, govern a 
noun definite, or indefinite in 
the nominative ; as, 

Betvveen the mouth and the 
dish 

Between a man and a wife 
Do not go past the knoll 

4. Eadar signifying both, as- 
pirates its noun or adjective; as, 

Both lads and lasses 
Both great and small 

5. The prepositions de, do, 
fo, mar, mu, o, roimh, tre, troi, 
or troimh, aspirate a noun sin- 
gular, definite or indefinite, ex- 



3. Spreigidh eadar agus seach, 
ainmear cinnteach, no neo-chinn- 
teach anns an ainmeach ; mar, 

Eadar am bèul 's an gogan • 

Eadar jfe«r agus bean 
Na rach seach an cnoc. 

4. Sèidichidh eadar, a' ciall- 
achadh araon, 'ainmear no 'bhua- 
dhar ; mar, 

Edar ghillean agus chaileagan 
Eadar bheag 'us mhòr. 

5. Sèidichidh na roimhearan 
de, do,fo, mar, mu,o, roimh, tre, 
troi, no troimh, ainmear aonar, 
cinnteach no neo-chinnteach, 



* Fuilear or uilear (uile leòr)signifies too much or too many, enough, sufficiency; 
as, Cha n-fhuilear dhuit dà thasdan 'san là. Tu-o shillìngs u-day icill not be too 
much for you; that is, You will need two shillings a day. Fhuair mi m' fhuilear, 
1 got enough, I got my sujfficiency. 

Fuilear is used to express necessity, need, or obligation, and l'orms a composite 
varb, which is Englished hy must, need, or require ; as, Cha n-fhuilear dhuibh a 
blii cinnteach à sin, you MUST be sure of that. Cha n-fhuilear dha pùnnd èile, 
he will NEED another pound. Cha b' fnuilear dhoibli tighinn aig aoin uair, they 
would REQUJRE to come at one o'clock. Cha n-fhuilear, is rendered affirmatively, 
and Is uiìear, negatively in English ; thus, Cha n-fhuilear dha tasdan air an tunn- 
&ig, he icill require a shillingfor the duck. Is uilear dha, he does not; or, it (that 
price) istoo muchfor him. Sarcastically ; as, Cha b' fhuilear leam, gu dearbh, ach 
brògan sioda dhut sa ! 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG 

cept a definite beginning with 
d, s, or t ; as, 

De cheò, of mist, 

Do chibear, to a shepherd, 



309 
le 



Fo bhòrd, under a table, 
Mar chraoibh, like a tree, 
Mu phàirt, about a part, 
O mhòd, from a court, 
Roimh phèiieir, before a bul- 



let, 



ach cinnteach a toiseachadh 
d, s, no t ; mar, 

De 'n cheò, of the mist. 
Do 'n chibear, to the shep- 
herd. 

Fo 'ft bhòrd, under the table. 
Mar a' chraobh, like the tree. 
Mu'iì phàirt, about the part. 
O 'ra mhòd, from the court. 
Roimh an phèilleir,befove the 
I bullet. 

Do 'n duine, to the man. 



Troimh an tèine, through the 
fire, 1 

Fa and gun aspirate a noun without the article only 
dhcireadh, at last ; gun cheann, without a head. 



Fa 



De and do take dh- between 
them and a vowel or / aspirated; 
as, 

A piece of bread, 
To John, 

A pound of powder, 

7. De* and do are often con- 
verted into a ; as, 

A pound of fresh butter, 
I am going to America, 



6. Gabhaidh de agus do, dh- 
eadar iad agus fuaimrag, no f 
seidichte; mar, 

Jìlìr de dh-aran. 

Do dh-Iain. 

Pànnd de dh-fhàdaìr. 

7. Tha de 'us do gu tric iar 
an atharrachadh gu a ; mar, 

Pùnnd a dh-ìm ùr. 

Tha mi dol a dh-America. 



A or dh- is sometimes elided, and often in rapid speaking, no 
trace of the prepositions is expressed before the aspirated noun ; as, 



Chaidh e dh- Inbhernis, 
Thèid e ' Dhunèdin, 

8. The Preposition ann, 
combined with a possessive pro- 
noun, is ahvays contracted and 
united therevvith, and Englished 
by the indefìnite article ; thus^, 



He vvent to Iriverness. 
He will go to Edinburgh. 

8. Tha an Roimhear ann, 
naisgte ri rioehdar sèilbheach a 
ghnàgiorraichte, agus iar aonadh 
ris, 'us iar a chur 'am Beurla leis 
a' phùngar neo-chinnteach ; mar 
so. 



* De, of, is often confounded with do, to or for, and it is strange to see how 
tenacious some Gaelic writers are of using do instead of de, when it is perfectly 
evideut that the nieaning of the one is quite the coutrary of the otlier ; as, Thoir 
mir do Sheumas, giie a piece to 3am.es. An gabh thu roinn dhe sin ? will you 
take a share of that ? Bheir mi a' ghlas de 'n dorus, / vcill take the lock OFF the 
door. Thug mi a'n ceann de m' òrdaig, / took the head OFF my thumb. Chuir e 
dheth a bhreacan, he put off (him) his plaid. Now, if do be used in these expres- 
sions instead of de, the sense is reversed or destroyed. 



310 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



Are you a good boy ? Am beil thu ad* bhalachan math? 

He is a blacksmith, Tha e 'na ghobhann. 

We were strangers in the land, Eha sinn 'nar coigrich 'san tir. 
They were wise men, Bha iad 'nan daoine glic. 

*Ann is contracted and united thus, am, ad, 'na, "nar, 'nur 'nan, 
for ann mo, ann do, ann a, ann ar, ann bhur, ann am or an. 1 



9. The euphonic particle an 
or am is placed between the 
preposition ann and a singular 
or plural noun used indefinitely; 



Ann an toll. 
Ann am monadh. 



In a hole ; 
In a hill, 

10. Ann becomes anns before 
the article and the relatives a, 
na, nach ; as, 

In the woods, 

In the morning, 

The state in which I was, 



9. Cuirear an smid bhinn an 
no am, eadar an roimhear ann 
agus ainmear aonar no iomadh 
gnàthaichte gu neo-chinnteach ; 
mar, 

In rocks, Ann an creagan. 
In bottles, Ann am botulan. 

10. Cuirear s ri ann roimh an 
phùngar agus roi' na dàimhich 
a, na, nach ; mar, 

Anns na coilltibh. 
Anns a' mhaduinn. 
An staid anns an robh mi. 



There was sense in what he said, Bha ciall anns na labhair e. 
A man in whom there is no guile, Fear anns nach 'eil cealg. 

1 1 . Anns before the article is 



11. Giorraichear ann gu tric 
gu 's, agus air uairibh gu a's ; 
gabhaidh an staid so (a's) t-, 
i oimh fhuaimraig no f ; mar so, 



often contracted into 's, and 
sometimes a's ; the latter form 
requires t- before a vowel or /; 
thus, 

In the land, 
In the fìeld, 
In the woods, 
In summer, 
In spring, 
In autumn, 

12. Ann is frequently elided I 12. Gearrar as ann gu tric 
before a noun ; as, j roimh ainmear ; mar, 

In the house of bondage, 'An tigh na daorsa, for, ann an tigh. 
In Charlestown, 'Am baile Thearlaich, — ann am baile. 

Note. — That am and an may not be mistaken in this ellipsis 
for the article, the sign of contraction ('), -which is often omitted, 
should be written over them : thus, 'am, 'an, as above. 



'San tir, (for, anns ann tir ) 
'Sa mhachair, — (anns a mhachair.) 
'Sna coilltibh, — (anns na, &ce.) 
'San t-sàmhradh, — (anns an t-, &ce.) 
A's t-earrach, — (anns an earrach.) 
A's t-fhoghar, — (anns an fhoghar.) 



1. See Gaelic Ar. R. 7.-4. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



311 



13. A,* gu, le, n,f are used before consonants, and by ascrib- 
ing s to each, they become as, gus,^ leis, ris, which are used 
before the article and relatives ; as, à Tuath, from (the) North ; 
gu bàs, unto death ; le peanu, with a pen ; ri bualadh, thrashing. 
As an rathad, out of the way ; gus an t-sràid, to the street. An 
taobh leis am beil mi, the side with which I am ; sin duine ris 
nach do labhair mi riamh, that is a man to whom I never spoke. 



EXERCISES. 

At the window. To a 
wife. On my right ear. 
To the men. Without 
bread. At thnes. Under 
the hen. In a big stack. 
Before your eyes. With a 
smart breeze. 

About my wig. From 
thy kind hand. 

Though I am scarce of 
wealth, my mind is always 
happy with the little things 
which have been bestowed 
on me. 

The heart of the wicked 
(man) is like a troubled 
rbuntain. 

A wise and pious man is 
like a streaming star, im- 
parting a portion of light 
to the dark woiid. 

1. Sheweanedthe child, 
(put it off the breast.) 

Come ye to the feast. 



CLEACHDADH. 

Aig an uinneag. Do 
bean. Air mo cluas deas. 
Do an duine. Gun arain. 
Air uair. Fo an cearc. 
Ann an cruach mòr. Fo 
bhur sùil. Le osag gèur. 

Mu mo gruag. O do 
làmh mìn. 

Ged bi mi gànn de stòr- 
ais, bi mo inntinn an comh- 
nuidh toilichte le an ni 
beag builich air mi. 

Bi cridhe an fear ciont- 
ach mar tobar buairte. 

Bi duine glic agus diadh- 
aidh mar rionnag dealrach, 
tabhair roinn de solus do 
an saoghal dorch. 

i. Cuir i an leanabh 
bhàrr an cioch. 

Thig chum an fèisd. 



* Gu used before au adjective to change it into a compouud adverb, requires h- 
before an iuitial vowel ; as, gu h-ealamh, quickly ; gu h-òròail, orderly. 

t Ri, to preveut a hiatus, commonly drops the i before the possessives a, ar, 
'ùr, am, or an, &c. aud in this state it is harshly pronounced ra by some speak- 
ers, running the fragmeut of the preposition into the pronoun, and pronouncing 
them as one word Thus, r'a cheann, to liis head; r'a guth, to her voice ; r' ar 
ceanu, r' am bùinn, to their soles ; for, ri a chearm, ri a guth, &c. 

X As aud gus are used before the possessive prououns; as, as?no shealleadh, oul 
ol niy sight ; gus ar milleadh, to destroy us. 



312 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



2. The fair njmph came 
to the well, she stood on its 
brink, she sung like the 
mavis on a tree, her gar- 
ment shining as the moon 
on the heath. 

5. To the master. To a 
town. ln sorrow. Under 
the table. About the maid- 
en's head. There is a halo 
round the moon. He gave 
me a part of the straw. 

Like a round goblet. 
Give us a tune from the 
big bagpipe. From the 
top of thy head to the sole 
of thy foot. 

To the man. Under the 
oak tree. From wave to 
wave. As a high tower. 
Through the little door. 
Like a hero. From the 
earth. A grain of mustard 
seed. Without beauty. 

6. Give Ann a piece. A 
lump of gold. A pound of 
flesh. 

7. When the priests blew 
the seven trumpets of ram's 
horns, the city of Jericho 
fell flat to the ground. 

I am going to Fort Wil- 
liam. They went to Ire- 
la.nd. 

8. I am a shepherd with 
Mr Ross. Wast thou long 
a farmer ? He was a miller 
for The Chishoìm. We 



2. Thig an ainnir bà«_ 
gus an tobar, seas i air a 
bruach, sèinn i mar an 
smeòraich air crann, a 
trusgan dealraich mar an 
gheallaich air an fraoch. 

5. Do am maighstear. 
Do baile. Fo bròn. Fo 
am bòrd. Mu ceann an 
òigh. Bi roth mu an geal- 
ach. Thoir do mi pàirt de 
an fodar. 

Mar cuach cruinn. Thoir 
do mi ceòl o an piob mòr. 
mullach do ceann gu 
bhonn do cas. 

Do an dhuine. Fo an 
dharag. tonn gu thonn. 
Mar tùr àrd. Troimh an 
dhorus beag. Mar sònn. 
an thalamh. Grainne 
de siol-mustard. Gun 
maise. 

6. Thoir mir do Anna. 
Meall de òr. Pùnnd de 
feòil. 

7. 'Nuair a sèid an sag- 
art an seachd trompaid do 
adharc reithe, tuit baile 
lericho sios gus an làr. 

Bi dol do lonarlòchaidh. 
Rach e do Eirinn. 

8. Bi ann mo cibear aig 
Mr Ròs. Bi tu fad ann do 
tuathanach. Bi e ann a 
muillear aig an t-Siosalach. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



313 



shall be servants for the 
king. Are you good scho- 
lars ? These men are not 
hypocrites. 

9. The blessing of God 
is often in a small cottage. 
English is generalìy spoken 
in large towns, and Gaelic 
in Highland counties and 
glens. 

10. There are small and 
large fishes in the sea. Seed 
was sown in the fìelds. 

This is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased. 

Rùle 35. — Compound 
prepositions govern the 
genitive ; as, 

Against the pricks. 

Without knowledge. 

EXERCISES. 

Throughout the land. 
According to the truth. 
Towards the sea. 

Above the house. Oppo- 
site to the church. Among 
the long bushes. 

For the honest wife. 
Against the wind. Without 
sweet drink. 

She went in pursuit of 
the cow. The fox is among 
the birds. 



Bi sinn ann ar seirbhiseach 
aig an righ. Bi sibh ann 
bhur sgoilear math. Cha 
bi an duine so ann an 
cealgadair. 

9. Bi beannachd Dia gu 
tric ann tigh beag. Labh- 
air an Beurla gu cumanta 
ann baile mòr, agus an 
Gaelig ann dùthaich agus 
ann gleann Gaelach. 

10. Bi iasg beag agus 
mòr ann an cuan. Cuir 
siol ann an raon. 

Is e so mo Mac gràdhach 
ann am bi mo mòr-tlachd. 

Rialt 35. — Spreigidh 
roimhearan measgta an gin- 
teaeh; mar, 

An aghaidh nan dealg* 
A dh-easbhaidh eòlais.* 

CLE ACILD ADH. 

Air feadh an tìr. A rèir 
an fìrinn. A dh-ionnsuidh 
an muir. 

Os ceann an tigh. Mu 
choinneamh an eaglais, Am 
measg am preas fad. 

Air son a' bhean chòir. 
An aghaidh an gaoth. A 
dh-easbhaidh deòch milis. 

Rach i air tòir a' bho. 
Bi an sionnach am measg 
an eun. 



# The genitive is governed here and in similar cases by the nouns aghaidh and 
easbhaidh, according to Rule Vàth. The compound preposition in Gaelic is com- 
monly made up of a simple one and a noun ; as, air-son, i'or the sake of, on ac- 
count of, i.e. for. 



314 



GAELIC CONSTRUCTION. 



OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

Rule 36.— The Con- 



junctions agus, 'ms* or 's, 
ach, no, neo,&c. connect like 
cases and forms of nouns, 
and like moods and tenses 
of verbs ; as, 
Wine and milk. 
Ascending the knolls and heathy 
hills. 

On the seas, or on the fields. 

Threaten, but strike not. 
I vvill neither eat nor drink. 

1. Cho or co, expressing a 
comparison, is followed by ri or 
ris, and sometimes by agus ; or 
Cho signifying as, requires ri 
or ris. 

Cho signifying so, requires 
agus ; as, 

As dead as a herring. 
As black as the raven. 
Be so good as to gi ve me a drink. 

thoirt dhomh. 

2. The Adjective after co is aspirated, but after choj it is plain ; 
as, Co bhinn ris an uiseig, as sweet as the lark ; cho geal ris an 
t-sneachd, as white as the snow. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

36. A cow and a sheep. 36. B6 agus chaora. An 

The horses and the riders. t-each agus na marcaich. 

The side of the burn and Taobh an ùillt agus an 

of the bank. Fellow-men bruach. Fheara agus a 



NAISGEARAN. 

Rialt 36. — Naisgidh na 
Naisgearan agus, \is* no 
's, ach, no, neo, caran agus 
staidean ionann ainmear- 
an, agus modhan 'us timean 
ionannghniomharan; mar, 
Fion agus bainne. 
A' direadh nan cnoc 'us nan 
sliabh. 

Air na cuaintibh, no air na 

cluaintibh. 
Bagair ach na buail. 
Cha n-ith 's cha n-òl mi. 

1. Gabhaidh cho no co a' 
nochdadh coimeis ri no ris 'na 
dhèigh 'us air uairibh agus ; no 
Fèumaidh cho, a' ciallachadh 
as, ri, no ris. 

Fèumaidh cho, a ciallachadh 
so, agus ; mar, 
Cho marbh ri sgadan. 
Cho dubh ris an fhitheach. 
Bith cho math agits deòch a 



* The proper contractions of agus are 'us or 's, buta's, is, and as, are frequent- 
ly used ; the latter, however, are scarcely allowable, because they are other three 
different parts of speech — a relative pronoun, a verb, and a preposition ; as, 7* e 
Sèumas a's òige de'n triùir, James is the youngest of the three; as a' bhùth, out 
of, or from the shop. — For a's, seep. 90. 

f This is not a positive rule, for the adjective is sometimes aspirated after cho, 
and plain after co ; as, " cho chinnteaeh " co tre'wi." But cho with the adjec- 
tive plain is certainly preferable, it being fully as agreeable to the ear as the 
other form, and, moreover, serving to distinguish cho, as, fromthe interrogative 
co, who ? and the prefix co or comh, together, in many cases. 



CO-RIANACHADH GAELIG. 



315 



and bretliren. With the 
thrush or the linnet. 

The child was born and 
baptised last week. 

His blood pours, (is 
pouring) and (it) surrounds 
the hero's side. His shield 
is split and broken in the 
field. — Oss. 

1. As old as the hills 
and the smoke. 

Truth is as independent 
as the ocean, and as pure 
as gold. 



ARRANGEMENT. 

TOSITIOX OF THE GAELIC 
ARTICLE. 

Rule 1.— The Article* 
is arways placed before its 
noun ; as, 
Àn tèine. A' ghlas. Na glaise. 

1. When the noun limited by 
the article, is qualified by an 
antecedent adjective, the article 
is placed before that adjective ; 
as, 

The old man. 

The great shepherd. 

2. The article is placed be- 
fore ordinal numerals ; as, 

The first commandment. 
The eighth day. 
The sixteenth man. 
The thirtieth psalm. 



bràithribh. Aig an smeòr- 
aich no aig an buidheag. 

Rugadh agus baist an 
leanabh air an seachdain 
so 'chaidh. 

Tha a fuil a' taomadh 
agus iadh mu taobh an 
laoch. Thu a sgiath sgoilte 
'us bris air an raon. — Oss. 

1. Cho sean mar an cnoc 
'us mar an ceò. 

Tha an firinn cho saor 
mar an cuan, 'us cho glan 
ri an òr. 



SUIDHEACHADH. 

AIT A' PHUXGAIH GHAELIG. 

Rialt 1. — Cuirear am 
Pùngar a ghnà roimh 'ain- 
mear fèin ; mar, 
Am bàile. Na cinn. JVan tonn. 

1 . 'Nuair a dheasaichear an 
t-ainmear,comharraichte a-mach 
leis a' phungar, le buadhar roi't- 
eacb, cuirear am pùngar roi-'n 
bhuadhar sin ; mar, 

An seann duine. 
An t-àrd bhuachaill. 

2. Cuirear am pùngar roimh 
chùnntaich òrdail; mar, 

A" 1 chèud àithn. 

An t-ochdam.il là. 

An seathamh fear dèug. 

An deicheamh sàlm thar fhichead. 



* See page 281. 



316 



GAELIC ARRANGEMENT. 



POSITION OF THE GAELIC 
ADJECTIVE. 

Rule 2. — The Adjective 
is generally placed after 
the noun which it qualiries; 
as, 



AIT A BHUADHAIR GHAELIG. 

Rialt 2. — Cuirear am 
Buadhar gu cumanta, an 
dèigh an ainmeir a dheas- 
aichear leis ; mar, 



Craobh bhoidheach. Gillean òya. Clachan beaya. 



Rule 3. — The Adjective, 
when ìt qualifies the action 
or state expressed by the 
verb, is separated from its 
noun, and so forms, along 
with the verb, the predicate 
of the noun ; as, 

Fair is thy countenance, 
Thy countenance isfair, 
Small are these stones, 
These stones are small, 
Cold is the wind from the north, 
The vvind from the north is cold, 
Make this knife sharp, or 
Sharpen this knife. 

Obs. 1. — Here the adjective and noun are in different parts of 
the same sentence, and in that case the adjective is always inde- 
clinable. 

Obs. 2 Some Adjectives of one syllable are placed imme- 

diately before the nouns which they qualify, and so remain inde- 
clinable ; as, Deadh dhuine, a yood man ; caol shràidean, narrow 
streels. 

Adjectives placed before their nouns, as above, may be called 
antecedent adjectives ; such as, — àrd, bàn, binn, bog, buan, beò, 
blàth, caol, ciùin, caomh, cas, ciar, cian, deadh, dearg, droch, 
duhh, daor, dàll, dlùth, fliuch, frith, feall, fuar, fad, fàs, fionn, 
fior, fir, garg, gasd, gèur, glas, gòrm, geal, grinn, lag, làn, las, 
leisg, liath^ lòm, mear, mion, mean, mòr, òg, tròm, tlàth, teann, 
ùr, &ce. 

Obs. 3 Antecedent Adjectives often combine with their nouns, 

both fonning a compound vvord ; and such compounds are usually 



Rialt 3. — 'Nuair tha 
am Buadhar a' deasach- 
adh a' ghniomha no na 
staide, a dh-airisear leis a' 
ghniomhar, tha e dealaichte 
bho 'ainmear, agus mar sin 
leis a 'ghniomhar, a dean- 
amh feirt anainmeir ; mar, 

Is boidheach do ghnùis. 
Tha do ghnùis boidheach. 
Is beay na clachan iad so. 
Tha na clachan so beay. 
Isfuar a' ghaoth à tuath. 
Tha a' ghaoth à tuath fuar. 
Dean an sgian so yèur=gèur- 
aich an sgian so. 



SUIDHEACHADH GAELIG. 



317 



written with a hyphen between the adjective and the noun ; thus, 
Mòr-roinn, a province ; gèur-fhocal, a sharp word ; a gibe. 

Obs. 4 — In other compound words of this description, the 
adjective or noun is often contracted, and both unite into one 
word without a hyphen at all ; thus, morair, contracted for mòr 
fhear ; seanair, for sean athair ; òigear, for òg fhear, S$c. 



POSITION OF PROXOUXS. 

Rcle 4. The Kelatives 
a, na, nacTi, whether used 
as the subject or object of 
a verb, are aiways placed 
before their verbs ; as, 

The man who spoke to me 
They paid what they bought 
The thing which you did not 
hear 

The men who departed 
The girl who refused me 
The horse which struck me 



1 . The demonstratives so and 
sin are sometimes placed before, 
and sometimes after their nouns, 
and., in either case, require the 
article before the noun ; thus, 



AITE EIOCHDARAN. 

Rialt 4. Cuirear ua Dài- 
mhich a, na, nach, a ghnà 
roimh an ghniomharan, co 
dhiùbh a gimàthaichear iad 
marchùisear, no mar chusp- 
air d'an gniomharan ; mar, 
Am fear a labhair rium 
Phaigh iad na cheannaich iad 
An ni nach cuala sibh 

Na fir a dh-fhalhh 

A 1 chailin a dhiùlt mi* 

An t-each a bhuail mi.* 



1. Cùirear na Dearbhaich so 
agus sin, air uairibh roimh, agus 
air uairibh an dèigh an ainmear- 
an, agus 'an seasamh air bith 
dhiù sin fèumaidh iad am pùngar 
roimh an ainmear ; mar so, 
This (is) the way, so an rathad. There (is) the town, sin 
am baile. This place, an t-aite so. That man, an duine sin. 

2. Sid or sud is always placed before, and ud after their nouns ; 
as, Sid an t-àite, Yonder is the place- A' bhèinn ud, Yon moun- 
tain. 



" Sucb sentences as the above last two, standing unconnected with other pas- 
s~ges, a r e olteu ambiguous, and the anibiguity arises from tlie want of iuflection 
in ihe relatives, a circumstance whicli reuders it difficult at times to determine 
whether the relative refers to the suhject or object of the verb ; thus, a' chailin a 
dhiult mi, may either signify the girl irho retused me, or the girl vhom 1 refused. 
And an t each a bhuuil mi, may also signify thehorse ichich 1 struck,or the horse 
irhich s:ruck me ; however, tlie sentence may be made quite clear, and the refer- 
ence determined by using the auxiliary verb rff«/z,after the relative and before the 
injinitive ot the transitive verb ; thus, A' chuilin a rinn mi dhiùltadh, The girl 
ir'hom I refused. A' chailin a rinn mo dhiùhadh, The girl icho refused me. 

The meaning is invariablyambiguous when both the antecedent and the obj-'ct 
are ratsona! beings ; but the scope of the sent^nce usually determines the mean- 
ing, when the subject is a rational being and the object au iulerior auimal, or 
thìng without life. 



318 



GAELIC ARRANGEMENT. 



SUBJECT AND VERB. CUISEAR 'US GNIOMHAR. 

Rule 5. In conventional Rialt 5. 'An ciallairtibh 
sentences the subject or còrdail, cùirear an cuisear 
nominative is placed imnie- no an t-ainmeach air bàll 
diatelj after the verb ; as, an dèigh a' ghniomhair ; 

mar, 

Tha mi. Dh'-òl sinn. Chunnaic iad. Brisidh e. Phaisg 
Anrta. Thog, lain. Buailidh nafir, The men will strike. 

Rialt 6. Annagniomh- 



Rule 6. In compound 
verbs the nominative is 
placed between the auxili- 
ary and the participle ; as, 

I am folding, 

We can write, 

The work is finished, 

The doors were shut, 

Rule 7. In poetry, or 
rhetorical sentences, the 
subject is sometimes placed 
before the verb ; as, 

In his hand is the depth of 
the earth, 

No virgin with harp will come 
to meet them, 

When the subject is an interrogative pronoun, it is placed be- 
fore the verb ; as, " Co a bheir glan à neo-ghlan ?" Who can bring 
a clean thing out of an unclean ? 

1. The verb Is stands always before its subject ; as, Is tus' an 
duine, — Thou art the man. Is sibhse mo chàirdean, — Ye are my 
friends. Is còir a' bhean i, — She is a just wife. 

APPLICATION OF TS AND BI. 

2. As there is a peculiar distinction in the application of these 
two verbs, the following rules are given as an attempt to direct 
and assist the learner in applying them idiomatically. 

3. Is } * is used in describing the name, profession, state, or con- 
dition, under which objects definitely exist or did exist ; as, 

• When the subject is pointedly and emphatically expressed or addressed, the 
verb IS, is used ; as, when Nathan said to David, " Is tusa an duine," T/iou art 
the rnan. 



aran measgta, cuirear an t- 
ainmeach eadar an taicear 
agus am pàirtear ; mar, 
Tha mi 'pasgadh. 
Is urrainn sinn sgriobhadh. 
Tha an obair criochnaichte. 
Bha na dorsan dùinte. 

Rialt 7. Ann am bàrd- 
achd, no ann a ciallairtibh 
òr-chainnteach, cuirear an 
cùisear air uairibh roimh an 
ghniomhar ; mar, 

Dòimhneachd na talmhain ta 
'na làimh. 

Oigh cha tig le clàr 'nan 
comhdhail. 



SUIDHEACHADH GAELIG. 319 

Is mise Peadar, I am Peter 

Is tu mo bhràthair, Thou art my brother 

Is caiptean am fear ud, Yon fellow is a captain 

Is iarnnn so, This is iron 

Bu chlachair e, He vvas a mason 

Bu nàmhaid e, He was a foe 

Cha bu robairean, iad, They were not robbers 

4. Bi* when used in expressing the name or profession per- 
taining to objects, must be followedby the preposition ann, joined 
with a possessive pronoun of the same number and persou, as the 
person or thing whose name, trade, or condition is mentioned • as 
Tha mi an mo shaor, or 'nam shaor, — 1 am a carpenter. Bha sinn 
'nar (ann ar) coigrich 'san tir, — We were strangers in the land. 
Tha Ceit 'na (ann a) banaltrum, — Catherine is a nurse. Bithidh 
Sèumas 'na (ann a) dheadh sgoilear, — James will be a good 
scholar.— See Gael. Cons. R. 34—8. 

5. Ann, is not admitted when an adjective is in the predicate, 
in which case either Bi or Is may be used ; as, 

Tha a' chlach so mòr, This stone is large. 

Is mòr a' chlach i so, Large is this stone. 

Tha do chèum màll, Thy step is slow. 

Is mdll do chèum, Slow is tby step. 

Tha a sùil hoidheach, Her eye is pretty. 

Is boidkeach a sùil, Pretty is her eye. 

Tha thusa na 's trèise na mise. Is trèise thusa, na mise. 
Bha an oiche dorch, — The night was dark. 
Bu dorch an oiche, — Dark w a s the night. 



VERB AND ITS OBJECT. 

Rule 8. In convention- 
al sentences the object is 
placednext after the nomin- 
ative of a transitive verb ; as, 

I sawthee, 
He struck the table, 
Ye folded the clothes, 
The huntsman shot a deer, 



GNIOMHAR 'S A CHUSPAIR. 

Rialt 8. Ann a ciallairt- 
ibh còrdail, cuìrear an cusp- 
air, dlù an dèigh ainmeach 
gniomhair asdolaich ; mar, 

Chunnaic mi thu. 
Bhuail e am bòrd. 
Phaisg sibh an t-aodach. 
Thilg an sealgair fiodh. 



* Bi cannot be used alone, or with ann, in many cases, in place of Is. Wecan- 
not say, Tha thusa an duine. Tha thu mo rùn. tha so umha. Tìia thu Sèumas. 
Tha thu mo mhac. Tha so do chòta. We must say, ls tusa an duine. h tii 
mo rùn. Is umha so. Is tù Seumas. Is tù mo mhac. Is e so do chòta. 



320 



GAELIC ARRANGEMENT. 



Rule 9. — When the ob- 
ject is expressed by a rela- 
tive or an interrogative pro- 
noun, it is placed before the 
verb ; as, 

The trees which I did cut, 

Whom didst thou see ? 

Let us hear what the Prince 
said to thee, 



Rialt 9. — 'Nuair a dh'- 
ainmichear an cuspair le 
riochdar dàimheach, no 
cèisteach cuirear e roimh 
an ghniomhar ; mar, 

Na craobhan a ghearr mi. 

Co a chunnaic thu ? 

Cluinneamaid ciod a thuirtarn 
Prionnsa ruit. 



1. The object, when expressed by a noun preceded by a com- 
pound relative used as its adjective, precedes the verb ; as, Ge 
b'e ni a their e ribh deanaibh e, whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. 
John ii. 5. 



Rule 10. — In rhetorical 
sentences, the object, when 
an emphatic word, is placed 
before the verb ; as, 

Advice accept from me at this 
hour, 

The horse and his rider hath 

he cast into the sea. 
Rule 11. — The object is 
often placed before the in- 
fìnitive ; as, 

To shut the door, 
Tell Thomas to break the 
stone. 

FOSITION OF THE INFINITIVE. 

Rule 12. — In conven- 
tìonal sentences, the infmi- 
tive is placed after the verb 
which governs it, though 
often separated from it by 
other words ; as, 

The men went to pull heath. 

FOSITION OF ADVERBS. 

Rule 13. — Compound 
adverbs&YegenersAly placed 



Rtalt 10. — 'An ciallairt- 
ibh òr-chainnteach cuirear 
an cuspair, 'nuair is focal 
neartail e roimhan gniomh- 
ar ; mar, 

Comhairle gabh uam 'san uair 
so. 

An t-each agus a mharcach 

thilg e 'san fhàirge. 
Rialt 11. — Is minig a 
chuirear an cuspair roimh 
an fheartach ; mar, 
An dorus a dhùnadh. 
Abair ri Tomas a' chlach a 
bhriseadh. 

AIT AN FHEARTAICH. 

Rialt 12. — 'An ciallairt- 
ibh còrdail cuirear am feart- 
ach an dèigh a ghniomhair 
a spreigeas e, ach tha e gu 
tric dealaichte uaithe le 
focail èile ; mar, 

Chaidh na fir a bhuain fraoich. 

AITE CHO-GHNIOMIIARAN. 

Rialt 13. — Cuirear co- 
rjhniomharan measgta gu 



SUIDHEACHADH GAELIG. 
afterthesubject,orbetween cumaIlt , an 



321 



the subject and object of 
the verbs which they mo- 
dify ; thus, 

He spoke well. 

The thrush sings sweetly. 

You did it well. 



dèigh cùiseir, 
no eadar cùisear agus cus- 
pair nan gniomharan a ta 
iad a' mùth ; mar so, 
'Labhair e gu math. 
Sèinnidh an smeòrach gu binn. 
Einn thu gu math e. 



Gu, in forming compound adverbs, is expressed only 
before the fìrst of two or more adjectives, except when 
a conjunction intervenes ; as, 

Gu banail, bèusach, modestly, virtuously. Gu h-ùral, min- 
bhallach, àluinn, Gu math no gu dona, well or badly. Gu slàn 
's gu fallain. 



EXERCISES. 



She 



Peter wept bitteiiy. 
spoke foolishly. 

Rebuke me not angrily. 
He came quickly. Let us 
deal wisely. 

They utteiiy destroyed 
the city. 



CLEACHDADH. 

Gu goirt Peadar guil. 
Gu h-amaideach i labhair. 

Gu gàrg mi na cronaich. 
Gu grad e thig. Gu seòlta 
buin. 

Gu buileach am bàile e 
mill. 



Is and Bi. 



3. I am the man. Thou 
art my father. This is 
your cloak. I am that I 
am. That is our house. 
They were not Scotchmen. 
This is not gold. 

4. I am a sailor. He 
was a farmer. We are be- 
lievers. 

We are not soldiers. She 
was not a fìne giii. They 
would not be slaves. 



3. Tha mise an duine. 
Tha tusa mo athair. Bi e 
so do cleòc-sa. Tha Mi an 
Ti A Ta Mi. Bi sin ar 
tigh. Cha robh iad Alban- 
ach. Cha n-'eil so òr. 

4. Tha mi seòladair. 
Bha e tuathanach. Tha 
sinn creideach. 

Cha n-'eil sinn saighd- 
earan. Cha robh i caileag 
grinn. Cha bhitheadh iad 
tràilean. 



x 



322 



GAELIC ARRANGEMENT. 



IMPROPER GAELIC PHRASES. SEOLLAIRTEAN GAELIG MI-CHEART. 



A chuile fear — a h-uile ; every man, every one, each. 

Air leam, — thàrr ; it came with me, I thought, methought. 

Am fear ceudainn — cèudna; the same man, the same one. 

Am faigh mi shèng nod uait ? — mùth noid, iomlaid noid, muth 

pùinnd Shasunaich ; will you change me a pound note ? 
An fbear ud — am fear ; yon fellow, that man. 
An d ain e — an d' thainig ? has he come, or arrived ? 
An gabh tha, five pound ten* air an each ? — cuig pùinnd 'sa deich ? 

will you take £5, lOs. for the horse ? 
Bàlleibh — ciod e b' àill leibh ; sir or madam, what is your will ? 
Bha e searmonachduinn an so — searmonachadh ; he was preach- 

ing here. 

Bhrist e a cbas — bhris ; he broke his leg. 

Ca bheil — c'ait am beil e ? where is he ? ca 'n robh — c'ait an 
robh ? 

Cbar e nùll air an àth — chaidh; he went over the ford, crossed. 
Dar a thig e — 'nuair; when he will come, when he comes. 
De mar tha sibh ? — ciod e ; how are ye ? how do you do ? 
De tha tbu ag radh ? — ciod e ; what do you say ? 
Dùnaibh sibh-se an dorus — dùnaibh-se ; shut ye the door. 
Is dèirg e sin — dèirgid ; it is the redder of that. 
Is glinn an gill' e — grinn ; he is a handsome lad, a fine lad. 
Mar an cionnda — mar an cèudna ; also, in the same manner. 
Na h-uile latha — a h-uile latba ; every day, daily. 
Piob ombac — piob tombaca ; tobacco pipe, a smoking pipe. 
Tba e mìneachdainn an leasain — mìneachadhf ; he is explaining 
tbe lesson. 

Tba nar n-ùrnuigh rut — ar n-ùrnuigh ; our prayer is to thee, we 
pray tbee. 

Tha feagal orm — eagal ; I am afraid, I fear. 
Tha e umbailte dhomh — umhal ; be is obedient to me. 
Theirubh iad sin — theireadh ;[£ they would say so, they say so. 
Tha e dependigeag ort — ag earbsadh, riut, a' cur earbs' annad, 'an 

* Is cùis nàire focal Beurla 'ghnàthachadh ann a ciallairt Gaelig 'nuair tha a' 
Ghaelig fèin a' toirtfocail fhreagarraich ; tha an cleachdadh sgòideach so, a' tais- 
beanadh mòr-aineolais air taobh an fhir-labhairt. Is còir do "gach neach cumail 
gu dlù agus gu h-eagarra ris a' chainnt anns am beil e 'labhairt no 'sgriobhadh. 

■\ Ardachdainn, cruineachdainn, cinneachdainn,ceasnachdainn,fireanachdainn, 
nanmhachdainn, aud the like, are improperly used by vulgar speakers, for àrdach- 
adh, cruinneachadh, cinneachadh, &c. 

% The erroneous practice of pronouncing adh or eadh like ubh or u, prevails to 
agreat extent in Ross and Sutherlandshire ; as, bheirwM, chuirwiA, chitw, vachrt, 
theirw, for bheireatf/i, chuirearf/ì, chiìeadh, rdrhadh, theireadA. 



SUIDHEACHADH GAELIG. 



323 



crochadh riut-sa ; he depends on you, is trusting in you, or 

he is dependent on you. 
Thoir leis an t-èach — leat ; take with you the horse, fetch. 
Thug mi leis an t-òrd — leam ; I took with me the hammer, 

fetched. 

Thoiribh leis na h-èich — leibh; take with you the horses, fetch. 
Thug sinn leis na h-ùird — leinn ; we took with us the hammers, 
fetched. 

Thug iad leis am bàta — leò ; they took with them the boat, 
fetched. 

Togadh sinn ar cinn — togamaid ; let us lift our heads. 

6|3p cc> The following popular English words are here translated for the conveni- 
ence of the Gaelic speaker : — 

Intrude, v. Fòirn, sàth a stigh, rach a stigh gun iarraidh ; spàrr 

a steach olc air mhath le muinntir èile. 
Intrusion, n. Fòirneadh, sàthadh a stigh, dol a stigh gun iarraidh, 

gun aonta, no gun chuireadh o neach èile — " Gad fhòirn- 

eadh" fèin, intrudiag thyself — Old Song. "A' fòirneadh 

gu dàna/' intruding boldly — Stew. Col. — Dr Armstrong. 
Intrusionist, n. Fòirnear, fòirneach ; fear a shàthas, no chuireadh 

e-fèin no fear èile, a stigh do dh-Eaglais gun aonta na mòr- 

chuid de 'n phobull leis. 
Moderate, n. Moderatach,-aich, n. fear-ciùin, ( adj.) measarra, 

meadhonach, (v.) ciùinich, rialtaich. 
Non-Intrusion, n. Neo-fhòirneadh, neo-sparradh ; an aghaidh 

cuir a stigh gun aonta. 
Non-Intrusionist, n. Neo-fhòirnear, neo-fhòirneach ; fear nach 

sàth a stigh, no nach tèid a stigh gun chuireadh, no gun 

ghairm. 

Patron, n. Pàtran,-ain, fear aig am bheil còir air Eaglais a bhuil- 
eachadh. 

Patronage, n. Pàtranachd, fàbhar, taic, no dion o phàtran. 
Presentation, n. Buileachadh, achd buileachaidh Eaglais. 
Presentee, n. Presentì, am fear a gheibh am buileachadh, no 
còir o 'n phàtran air beathachadh Eaglais. 



PUNCTUATION. 

Punctuation is the art of 
making or marking pauses, 
or stops, in written or spo- 
ken sentences ; that the 
meaning may be clearly 



PUNGACHADH. 

Is e Pùngachadh alt 
deanaimh no comharrach- 
aidh anailean,no stadanann 
an ciallairtibh sgriobhta, no 
labhairte gus an tuigear an 



324 PUNCTUATION. 



PUNGACHADH. 



nnderstood bj the reader 
or hearer. 

The points or marks 
chiefl j used to denote pauses 
in sentences are, the Com- 
ma, (,) the Semicolon, (;) 
the Colon, (:) and the 
Period. (.) 

The Comma denotes the 
shortest pause, and is in- 
serted between those parts 
of a sentence which are 
closelj connected in sense. 

The Semicolon marks a 
pause longer than the com- 
ma, and is inserted between 
clauses somewhat different 
in sense, but dependent on 
one another. 

The Colon marks a pause 
longer than the semicolon, 
and is inserted between 
clauses differing in sense. 

The Period, or full stop, 
is inserted at the end of a 
sentence, to show that it is 
completèd. 



seadh gu soilleir leis an 
lèughadair no an èisdear. 

Is iad na pùngan, no na 
comharan a ghnàthaichear 
gu h-àraid a chomharrach- 
adh stadan ann a ciallairt- 
ibh, an Snagan, (,) an Le- 
sgoiltean, (;) an Sgoiltean, 
(:) agus an Cuairtean. (.) 

Tha 'n Sgnagan a' comh- 
arrachadh an stad' a's 
giorra, agus suidhichear e 
eadar na bùill sin de chiall- 
airt a ta dlù-cheangailte 'an 
seadh. 

Tha 'n Lesgoiltean a' 
comharrachadh stada na 's 
faide na 'n snagan, agus 
suidhichear e eadar ear- 
anaibh a ta leth-char sgoilte 
'an seadh, ach an eisimeil 
a chèile. 

Tha 'n Sgoiltean a' comh- 
arrachadh stada na's faide 
na'n lesgoiltean, agus suidh- 
ichear e eadar earanaibh a 
ta sgoilte 'an seadh. 

Suidhichear an Cuairtean, 
no làn phùng an dèigh cial- 
lairte, a nochdadh gu'm 
beil e colionta. 



The following rule is to enable the young student to distinguish 
in reading the different lengths of pauses indicated by each of the 
foregoing points : — 

The Comma requires the time Fèumaidh an Snagan an tim 

occupied in uttering one ; the a ghabhar a radh aoin ; an Le- 

Semicolon, one, one; the Colon, sgoiltean, aoin, aoin; an Sgoilt- 

one, one, one ; and the Period, ean, aoin, aoin, aoin ; agus an 



PUNCTUATION. 



PUNGACHADH. 325 



%vhen the reading is not closed, 
one, one, one, one. 



cuairtean, 'nuair nach 'eil an 
lèughadh criochnaichte, aoin, 
aoin, aoin, aoin. 
Rules for inserting the Pausing Points in Sentences. 

THE COMMA. 

1. In general, a simple sen- 
tence takes only a period at the 



end of it ; as, 

God governs the world. 

2. When a simple sentence 
is long, the subject and predicate 
consisting of a number of words, 
a comma may be placed between 
them ; as, 

To be constantly doing good, 
is the pious man's desire. 

3. The name of a person or 
object addressed is separated 
from the rest of the sentence 
by a comma; as, 

Lord, Lord, open to us. 

4. Absolute and relative 
clauses are in general separated 
from the other parts of a sen- 
tence by commas ; as, 

The candle being lighted, 
darkness left the room. 

The little house, which we 
saw on the mountain's brow, is 
a shepherd's eot. 

5. The simple members of a 
compound sentence are often 
separated by a comma ; as, 

Prosperity gains friends, and 
adversity tries them. 

6. When two or more words 
— whether nouns, adjectives, 
pronouns, verbs, participles, or 
adverbs, — are connected by 
another word not expressed, a 



AN SNAGAN. 

1. An cumantas gabhaidh 
ciallairt singilt, a-mhain cuairt- 
ean 'na dheigh ; mar, 

Tha Dia a' riaghladh an 
t-saoghail. 

2. 'Nuair tha ciallairt singil^ 
fad, an cuisear 's an abairt a' co- 
sheasamh ann an aireimh fhocal, 
faodar snagan a chur eatorra : 
mar, 

Is e miann an duine dhiadh- 
aidh, a bhi sior-dheanamh maith. 

3. Dealaichear ainm neach 
no cuspair ris an labhrar bho 
'n a' chuid èile de 'n chiallairt le 
snagan ; mar, 

A Thighearn, a Thighearn, 
fosgail dhuinne. 

4. Dealaichear earranan 
Fèineil agus dàimheach gu tric o 
na pàirtibh èile de chiallairt le 
snagan ; mar, 

Iar do 'n choinneal a bhi laiste, 
dh'-fhàg dorchadas an seòmar. 

Is tigh cìbeir, am bothan. 
beag, a chunnaic sinn air aodainn 
an t-slèibh. 

5. Dealaichear bùill shingik 
ciallairte mheasgte gu tric le 
snagan ; mar, 

Gheibh sonas càirdean, agus 
dearbhaidh an-shocair iad. 

G.'Nuair a naisgear dà f hocal no 
tuille — co dhiùbh is ainmearan, 
buadharan, riochdaran, gniomh- 
aran, pàirtearan, no co-ghniomh- 
aran iad,-le focal neo-ainmichte, 



326 PUNCTUATION. 



PUNGACHADH. 



comraa is inserted where the 
connecting word is understood ; 
as ; 

Books, ink, pens, and paper, 
are sold here. 

The night was dark, dreary, 
wet and cold. 

Give nuts to him, her and to 
me. 

The lady reads, writes and 
speaks well. 

By reading, writing and study- 
ing books we become learned. 

We should peruse the Scrip- 
tures frequently, carefully and 
heartily. 



cuirear snagan far an tuigear am 
focal nasgaidh ; mar, 



mg, pinn agus 



Reicear rolan, 
pàipeir an so. 

Bha an oi'che dorcb, dubhach, 
fliùch agus fuar. 

Thoir cnothan dhà-sa, dhi-se 
agus dhomh-sa. 

Lèughaidhj sgriobhaidh agus 
labhraidh an ledi gu grinn. 

Le lèughadh, sgriobhadh agus 
ionnsachadh 'leabhraichean fàs- 
aidh sinn ionnsaichte. 

Bu chòir dhuinn na sgriob- 
tuirean a lèughadh gu tric, gu 
cùramach agus gu h-inntinneach. 

7« Such words and phrases as the following are usually sepa- 
rated from the other members of sentences by a comma : — besides, 
doubtless, indeed,finally, hence, however, nay, at least, in fine, in 
short, Sfc. 

A bhàrr air, gun teagamh, gu dearbh, fa dheòigh, à so, gidheadh, 
ni h-eadh, an car a's lugha, 'an aon fhocal, &ce. 



THE SEMICOLON. 

8. When a sentence consists 
of two members, the one making 
complete sense of itself, and the 
other following as a consequence 
or explanation, the two mem- 
bers are separated by a semi- 
colon ; as, 

The rich and the poor meet 
together ; the Lord is the maker 
of them all. 

9. When a sentence consists 
of several members, each of 
which is complete in sense and 
dependent upon each other, they 
are separated by a semicolon; as, 

Wisdom hath builded her 
house ; she hath hewn out her 
seven pillars ; she hath killed I 



AN LESGOTLTEAN. 

8. 'Nuair a tha ciallairt a' 
co-sheasamh 'an dà earrain 'us 
aon a' toirt seadh iomlain dhi- 
fèin agus an aon èile ag èiridh 
mar cho-dhùnadh, no mar mhin- 
eachadh, dealaichear iad le les- 
goiltean ; mar, 

Coinnichidh am beartach agus 
am bochd a chèile ; 'us e'n 
Tighearn a rinn iad gu lèir. 

9. 'Nuair tha ciallairt a' 
co-sheasamh 'an iomadh earrain, 
'us gach aon iomlan 'an seadh 
'us co-chrochte ri 'chèile, deal- 
aichear iad le lesgoiltean ; mar, 

Thog gliocas a tigh ; ghearr i 
mach a seachd puist ; mharbh 
i a feòil ; mheaser i a fìon ; 



PUNCTUATION. 



PUNGACHADH. 327 



her beasts ; she hath mingled 
her wine ; she hath also fur- 
nished her table. 

TIIE COLON. 

10. When the preceding clause 
of a sentence is so complete in 
sense as to admit of a full stop, 
but is followed by some addi- 
tional remark or illustration de- 
pending in sense upon the for- 
mer ; the junction of the re- 
mark, &c- with the preceding 
part, is indicated by a colon ; as, 
Consider the work of God : 
for who can make that straight 
which he hath made crooked ? 



11. When a sentence con- 
sists of a number of clauses, of 
which each is separated from the 
other by a semicolon, and the 
sense concluding in the last 
clause, that last clause is separ- 
ated from the preceding by a 
colon ; as, 



dheasaich i mar an cèudna a 
bòrd. 

AN SGOILTEAN. 

10. 'Nuair tha 'chèud earran 
de chiallairt cho iomlan 'an 
seadh 'us gu'n gabhadh i pùng 
làn, ach leante le beachd no 
soilleurachd èigin èile, a bhuin- 
eas a thaobh brìghe do'n chèud 
earrain; nochdar aonadh na 
beachd, &ce. ris a' chèud earrain 
le sgoiltean ; mar, 

Smuainich air obair Dhè : oir 
co is urrainn an ni sin a dhean- 
amh direach a rinn esan càm ? 



11. 'Nuair tha ciallairt a' 
co-sheasamh 'an àireimh de 
dh-earranaibh, agus gach aon 
dealaichte bho 'n aon èile, le 
lesgoiltean, 's an seadh a' co- 
dhùnadh leis an earrain dheir- 
eannaich, dealaichear an earran 
sin uatha-san roimpe le sgoil- 
tean ; mar, 

" If he has not been unfaithful to his king ; if he has not proved 
a traitor to his country ; if he has never given cause for such 
charges as have been preferred against him : why then is he afraid 
to confront his accusers." 



THE PERIOD, OR FULL STOP. 

12. The period, or full stop, 
is always placed at the end of a 
complete or independent sen- 
tence, and after initials and ab- 
breviations of words when used 
alone; as, 
Jesus wept. 

D.M. for Doctor of Medicine. 
Viz. for videlicet. 



AN CUAIRTEAN, NO LAN PIIUNG- 

12. Cuirear an cuairtean no 
làn phùng a ghnà an dèigh ciall- 
airte iomlain no shaoir, agus an 
dèigh thùsagan'us ghiorrachaidh- 
ean fhocal'nuair a ghnàthaichear 
iad 'nan aonar ; mar, 
Gbuil Iosa. 

O.L. airson Ollamh Leigheis. 
Eadh. airson Eadhon. 



Exercises Point the follovoing sentences according to the fore- 

going rules, — introducing capitals into their proper places : — 
Trees flowers grass and fields resume and lose their captivating 



328 PUNCTUATION. 



PUNGACHADH. 



appearances in due season when the clouds of sorrow gather over 
us we see nothing beyond them nor can we imagine how they 
will be dispelled yet a new day succeeds the night and sorrow is 
never long without a dawn of ease do not suffer life to stagnate 
it will grow muddy for want of motion avoid the society of slan- 
derers it is better to dwell alone princes have courtiers and mer- 
chants have partners the voluptuous have companions and the 
wicked have accomplices none but the virtuous can have real 
friends. 



The following marks are also 
used to indicate certain pauses, 
and express certain relations in 
Composition. 

Mark. Name. Ainm. 

! Admiration, Iongantas 
3 Apostrophè, Ascair 
' Acute accent, Stràc gèur 
N Grave accent, Stràc màll 
^ Brace, Bànn 
Breve, or short, Brisg 
Caret, Easbhaidh 
[] Crotchets, Cromagan 
Circumflex, Cuairtlùb 
— Dash, Spealt 
•• Diaèresis, Dàlid 
* * * or — • Ellipsis, Bearn 
JZÌf Index, Comharraiche 
? Interrogation, Cèisteach 

The foregoing marks are thus 
defined : — 

J . The mark of Admiration 
is placed after a word or phrase, 
denoting some strong or sudden 
emotion of the mind ; as, Alas ! 
Pity me ! 

As a sign of great wonder, it 
may be repeated thus, ! ! ! 

2. The Apostrophè, the sign 
of the possessive case in English, 
is placed instead of a letter of a 



Gnàthaichear fòs na comharan 
a leanas a chomharrachadh sta- 
dan agus a dh'-airis sheasamh- 
an àraid ann a Co-Sgriobhadh. 
Mark. Name. Ainm. 

- Hyphen, Tàthan 
() Parenthesis, Iadhan 
Tf Paragraph, Ceannùr 
" " Quotation Pungan 
points, dearbhaidh 
§ Section, Ro'inn 
* Asterisk, Rèultag 
t Obelisk, Crois 
X Double Dagger, Dagar 
Dùbailt 

|| Parallel, Càsànach 
a, b, c, Small letters, &c. 
Meanbhagan, &ce. 

Tha na roimh chomharan 
mìnichte mar a leanas : — 

1. Cuirear Comhar an lon- 
gantais an dèigh focail no seol- 
lairte a' ciallachadh gluasaid-inn- 
tinn ghraid no theann ; mar, 
Och ! Gabh truas rium-sa ! 

Mar shamhla' culaidh-iongant- 
ais, faodar 'airis mar so, ! ! ! 

2. Cuirear an t-^sca2>,samhla' 
a' chair ghinteich 'saBheurla *an 
aite litir' a rùnaichear 'fhagail a- 



PUNCTUATION. 

word intentionally omitted ; as, 
lov'd, o'er, tko', for loved, over, 
though. 

3. The Acute Accext, 
marks an accented syllable, or 
the close sound of a vovvel ; as, 
equal. 

4. The Grave Accent marks 
a long syllable or the open sound 
of a vowel ; as,fàvour,fàll. 

5. The Brace is used to unite 
a triplet, or to connect the items 
of accounts or other affairs. 

6. The Breve marks a short 
vowel, or a syllable of short 
quantity ; as, jeUi/. 

7. The Caret points out 
where to insert one or more let- 
ters or words that have been ac- 
cidently omitted ; as, his 

He fell and broke t leg. 

8. The Crotchets or Brac- 
kets are used to enclose a mark, 
a word, or an explanatory pas- 
sage in the body of a sentence. 

9. The Circcmflex is used 
to denote tbe broad sound of a 
vowel ; as, Depòt (depò.J 

10. The Dash is used to de- 
note abruptness — an important 
pause — a long syllable — an em- 
phatic stroke of the voice on the 
words following, or a connexion 
between clauses — as here itself. 

11. The Diaeresis is placed 
over the second vowel of a diph- 
thong, to show that each forms 
a syllable, or is sounded alone ; 
as, Aerial (A-e-ri-al.) 

12. The Ellipsis is used to 
denote the omission of some let- 



PUNGACHADH. 329 

j mach à focal ; mar, fa'near, 
i bi'bh airson fainear,' 1 bithibh:' 

3. Tha an Strac gedr a' 
comharrachadh smid stràcte, no 
fuaim fànn fuairaraige ; mar, 
feumail.n 

4. Tha an Strac lan a' comh- 
arrachadh smid fada, no fuaim 
rèidh fuaimraige ; mar, fàbhar. 

5. Gnàthaichear a' Bhann a 
dh-aonadh trìdain, no cho-nasg- 
adh cuisean chunntasan agus 
nithe èile. 

6. Comharraichidh am Brisg 
fuaimrag ghrad, no smid de dh- 
ùine ghraid ; ìnar, Slàmàn- 

7. Tha 'n Easbhaidh a leig- 
eil ris far an suidhichear aon no 
iomadh litir a dh'-fhagadh a-mach 
le tuiteamas ; mar, e 

Thuit e agus bhris » 'chas. 

8. Gnàthaichear na Cromag- 
an a chuairteachadh comhair, 
focail, no ceann-mineachaidh 
ann an coluinn ciallairte. 

9. Gnàthaichear a' Chuairt- 
ll*b a nochdadh fuaim làin fuaim- 

I raige ; mar, Tigh-stòr. 

10. Gnàthaichear an Spealt, 
no 'n Sinean a nochdadh graide 

; — stad feumail — smid fhada — 
tonn trom a ghuth air na focail 
a leanas, no aonadh eadar earran- 
aibh — mar tha an so fèin. 

11. Cuirear an Dalid thairis 
air an dara fuaimraig ann an dà- 
ghuth a dh'-innseadh gu 'm beil 
gach aon a deanamh suas smid, 
no fuaimichte leatha fèin ; mar, 
O'iche,' 1 fo-iche.)" 

12. Gnàthaichear a' Bhearn 
a nochdadh gu 'n d' fhàgadh a- 



330 PUNCTUATXON. 



PUNGACHADH. 



ters or words ; as, K — g for 
king. 

Two or three asterisks denote 
the omission of some bold or 
unbecoming word or expression. 

13. The Index is used to 
point out something remarkable. 

14. The Interrogation is 
placed at the end of a word or 
sentence that asks a question ; 
as, Will you come ? Who art 
thou ? 

15. The Hyphen is placed 
at the end of the line, to show 
that one or more syllables of the 
word ending that line, is at the 
beginning of the next. 

It also connects compound 
words ; as, Self-love. 

16. The Parenthesisìs used 
to enclose a clause hastily thrown 
into the body of another sen- 
tence. 

17. The Paragraph, chiefly 
used in the Bible, is placed at 
the beginning of a new subject. 

18. The Quotation Points 
are used to distinguish a passage 
quoted or taken from another 
author or speaker in his own 
words ; as, — ' ' Come, gentle 
spring," said the poet. 

19. The Section marks the 
minor divisions of a book or 
chapter. 

20. The Asterisk and the 
other three characters following 
it in the table, refer to notes on 
the margin, or at the bottom 



mach litriehean no focail ; rnan 
R — h airson righ. 

Feuchidh dhà no tri rèultag- 
an gu 'n d fhagadh a-mach focal 
no labhairt bhorb, no mi-bhèus- 
ach. 

13. Gnàthaichear an Comh- 
arraiche, a nochdadh rud-eigin 
sònruichte. 

14. Cuirear an Ceisteach 
an dèigh focail, no ciallairte a ta 
faighneachd cèiste ; mar, An tig 
sibh ? Co thusa ? 

15. Cuirear an Tathan aig 
ceann sreath', a nochdadh gu'm 
beil aon no tuilleadh smidean 
de 'n fhocal a ta dùnadh na 
sreatha sin,aig toiseach na h-ath- 
aoin. 

Naisgidh e fòs focail mheasgte; 
mar, Fèin-ghràdh. 

16. Gnàthaichear an t-lADHAN 
a dhùnadh earrain' a thilgear le 
cabhaig ann an coluinn ciall- 
airt' eile. 

17. Cuirear an Ceannur, 
gnàthaichte gu h-araid 'sa Bhio- 
bull, aig toiseach cuiseir no 
cinn-theagaisg ùir. 

18. Gnàthaichear na Pungan- 
Dearbhaidh, a chomharrach- 
adh earrain' a bheirear o ùghdair 
no labhairtear eile 'na bhriathran 
fèin ; mar, — " Thig, Earraich 
chiùin," ars' am bàrd. 

19. Tha 'n Roinn a' comh- 
arrachadh nan roinnean a 's 
lugha de leabhar no de chaibdeil. 

20. Buinidh an Reultag 
agus na tri comharan 'na deigh 
'sa chlàr, do nòdaibh air oir, no 

I aigiochdair naduilleige. Gabhar 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

of the page. The small letters, 
% % % &c. andfigures, \ 2 , 3 , &c. 
are used for the same purpose. 

ABBREVIATIONS & INITIALS. 



GIORRACHAIDHEAN. 331 

na litrichean beaga, % b , c , &ce. 
agus na figearan, l , 2 , 3 , &ce. 
airson an fhèuma chèudna. 

GIORRACHAIDHEAN & TUSAGAN. 





English' 




Gaelig, 


A. tor 


Aasvver, 


F. airson 


Freagair 


Acct. a[ c 


•Account^ 


Cuns. 


Cunntas 


xiart. 


Baronet, 


jjar. 


JjdldU, XvlUU 


Jbp. 


Bishop, 


tLta.SU. 


Easbuig 


i^apt. 


Captain, 


^dipC. 


Caiptean 


Co. or 


Coy. Company ( of 
merchants ) 


L/Uia. 


Cuideachd ( de chean- 
naicheaìì) 


L>01. 


Colonel fpr. kurnel J 


Còir. 


Coirneal 


Cr. 


Creditor, 


ur. 


Creidear 


u r . 


jjeotoi, 


r r. 


Fiachair, no feichear 


J -v _ 
UI 


Doctor, 


uin. 


unamn 


Do. or 


ditto, The same^ 


Ion. la. 


Ionann 


i-sq. 


Esquire, 


Esc. 


Escuire 


__nt. 


TT n 1 f rl 1 1- 

j\ iiigm, 


Ridr. 


Ridir 


J.P. 


Justice of the Peace 


M.S. 


Maor na Sith 


K.C.B. 


Knt. Commander of 
the Bath, 


R.F. 


Ridir Feadhnach 


K.G. 


Knight of the Garter, 


R.G. 


Ridir a' Ghartain 


K.C. 


Knight of theCrescent, 


R.G.U. 


Ridir na Geallaich Uir 


K.B. 


Knight of the Bath, 
Knight of St Patrick, 


R.F. 


Ridir Feadhnach 


K.P. 


R.P. Ridir an Naoimh Pàdruig 


K.T. 


Knight of the Thistle, 


R.C- 


Ridir a' Chluarain 


L.C.J. 


Lord Chief Justice, 


A.T.C.ArdThighearna Ceartais 


MS. Manuscript (handwriting ) 


L.S. 


Làmhsgriobhaidh 


MSS. 


Manuscripts, 


L.Sn. 


Làmhsgriobhaidheaji 


N.S. 


New Style, 


C.U. 


Cùnntadh Ur 


o.s. 


Old Style, 


s.c, 


Seann Chùnntadh 


Q. 


Question, 


c. 


Cèist 


R.N. 


Royal Navy, 


C.R. 


Cabhlach Rioghail 


St. 


Saint, written before a 
Christian name, 


Nh. 


Naomh 


Mr. 


Master, (Magister) 


Mr. 


Maighstear 

'Nuair a labhrar ri na's 
mò na h-aon 


Messrs. 


When more than one 
is addressedj 


Mrn. 


Mrs. 


Mistress, 


Bmr. 


Bana-mhaighstear 


Curt.* 


running, inst.* instant, standing. 



Either of these after a fieure deuotes 



tha present month ; as, 4th curt. 8th inst. 



332 ABBREVIATIONS. GIORRACHAIDHEAN. 



The Initials of the follovving Latin vvords are used alike in 
both English and Gaelic : — 



Latin. 



Ante Christum, A.C. 

Anno Domini, A.D. 

AnnoMundi, A.M. 

Anno Urbis A.U.C. 
Conditae, 

Ante Meridiem, A.M. 



ArtiumBaccalaureus,A.B. 
Artium Magister, A.M. 
Ttatis, 

Baccalaureus Divini- B D. 
CustosPrivatiSigillijC.P.S. 



Custos Sigilli, C.S. 
Doctor Divinitatis, D D. 
Et caetera, &c. 

Exempli gratia, e.g. 

Georgius Rex, G.R. 

Id est, i.e. 

Idem, id. 
Jesus Hominum 

Salvàtor, J.H.S. 

Legum Doctor, LL.D. 
Medicinae Doctor, M.P. 

Memoria Sacrum, M.S. 



Messieurs, ( Fr.) Messrs. 
Nemine contra- 

dicente, nem. con. 
Nota Bene, N.B. 

Ossianicae Societàtis 

Socius, O.S.S. 
Post Meridiem, P.M. 
Post Mortem, P.M. 



English. 
Before Christ, (B.C.) 
In the year of our Lord, 
In the yearof the world, 
In the year after the 

building of the city 

Rome, 
In the forenoon, 
Bachelor of Arts, (B.A.) 
Master of Arts, 

Bachelor of Divinity,' 
Keeper of the Privy Seal, 

Keeper of the Seal, 
Doctor of Divinity, 
And the rest ; and so 

forth, 
For example, 
George the King, 
That is, 
The same, 

Jesus, the Saviour of 

men, 
Doctor of Laws, 
Doctor of Medicine, 
Sacred to the Memory, 

(or S.M.) 
Gentlemen, Sirs, 
None objecting, 

Note well, observe, take 

notice, 
Fellow of the Ossianic 

Society, 
In the afternoon, 
After death, 



Gaelic. 
Roimh Chriosd. 
'AmbliadhnaarTighearna. 
'Ambliadhna 'nt-saoghail. 
Anns a' bhliadhna an 

deigh leigeil bunaite na 

Roimhe. 
Roimh 'mheadhon làtha. 
Sgoilear Ealaidhean. 
Maighstear nan Ealaidh- 

ean. 

Sgoilear ri Diadhachd. 
Fear-glèidhidh na Sèula 

Diomhair. 
Fear-glèidhidh na Sèula. 
Ollamh ri Diadhachd. 
Agus a' chuid èile,mar sin 

sios, (&ce.) 
Airson samplair. 
Righ Seòrus. 
Is e sin ri ràdh, (i.e.) 
Ni cèudna. 

Iosa Slànuighear Dhaoine. 

Ollamh Laghan. 
Ollamh Leigheis. 
Deachdte do Chuimhne. 

Maighstearan, Fir uasal. 
Gun aon ag obadh. 

Thoir deagh àire, faic, 

cuimhnich. 
Fear* de'nChomunn Oiss- 

ianach. 
An deigh a' Mheadhoin 
An dèigh bàis. [làtha. 



i.e. the fourth and eighth day of this month. As they have no corresponding 
single words of this sense in Gaelic, we say, An ceathr'amh là de'n mhios so, or, 
An 4-mh de 'n mhios so, the ith day, or the Ath of this month. 

The Gaelic and English names of the months of the year run thus : — Cheud 
mhios, January ; Daramios, February ; Màrt, March; Giblin, April; Màigh, 
May; Og-mhios, June ; lul, July ; Liùnasd, August ; Naoimios, September ; 
Deichea-mios, October; Aon-mios-dèug, November; Dara-mios-deug, December. 

March was originally the first month of the Roman year, so called,according to 
tradition,by Romulus, in honour'of his father Mars. Hence the names September, 
October, November, December, meaning according to theirderivation,the 7th, 8th, 
9th, and U)th month from March. 

In Gaelic dating, the numerical mouth of the year or season is commonly used ; 
as, An 6-mh Mios de 'n bhliadhna, the sixth month of the year, June. Mios 
mheadhonach an t sàmhraidh, or Dara Mios an t-Sàmhraidh, the middle or 
second month of summer, June. This is a very ancient mode of computiug time 
by months. It is followed by the Chinese,and other nations. 



* Or Bàll; as, Bàll Urramach>o Onarach, Honorary Member. 



ABB.REVIATIONS. GIORRACHAIDHEAN. 333 



Latin. English. Gaelic. 

Per annum, During the year, Rè na bliadhna. 

Per centum, or per cent. By thehundred, Air a' chèud, (100.) 

Post Scriptum, P.S. Postscript,some pieceof Fo-sgriobhadh. Ath-sgrio- 

writing added, bhadh. Leasachadh 

sgriobhaidh. 

RegiaeSocietàtisSocius,R.S.S. Fellow of the Royal So- Fear de 'n Chomunn 

ciety, Rioghail. 
Rigiae Societatis Anti- Fellow of the Royal So- Fear de Chomunn Riogh. 

quariorum Soeius, R.S.A.S. _ ciety of Antiquaries, ail nan Arsairean. 



Ultimo, 
Vide, 
Videlicet, 
Versus, 

Lib. Liber, a book. 



Ult. Last (month,) 

V. See, 
YÌ7,. To wit, namely, 
V. Against, towards 
Lr. 

Fol. Folio, half a sheet. 
4to. Quarto, fourth part of a sheet. 
8vo. Octavo, eighth part of do. 
l2mo.Duodecimo, twelfth part of do. 
18mo.Octodecimo, eighteeuth part do. 
24mo.Quarto vigesimo, twenty-fourth 
part of do. 



A' mhios so'-chaidh. 
Faic, Seall. 
Eadhon, eadh. 
An aghaidh. 
Leabhar. S 
Leth shit. 

Ceathramh pàirt de shit. 
An t-Ochdamh pàirt de shit. 
An dara pàirt deug de Ion. 
18-eug.Au t-ochdamh pàirtdeugde Ion. 
24-eug. An ceathramh pàirt thar fhich- 
ead de Ion. 



Leths 
4-mh. 
8-mh. 

12-eug, 



A sheet of the paper used for this book is folded into 16 leaves, each sheet 
making 32 pages. 



DIRECTIONS FOR ADDRESSING PERSONS OF EVERY RANK AND STATION. 
SEOLAIDHEAN GU CORADH RI PEARSAIBH ANNS GACH INBHE AGUS OIFIG. 



1. Title,— 2. Address,— 3. 
Superscription. 

ROYAL FAMILY. 

1. The King. — 2. Sire, or 
Sir ; Most Gracious Sovereign ; 
May it Please your Majesty. 
3. To the King's Most Excel- 
lent Majesty. 

1 .The Queen. — 2. Madam ; 
Most Gracious Sovereign; May 
it Please your Majesty. 3. To 
the Queen's most Excellent 
Majesty. 

Conclude a petition or speech 
to either, thus: — Your Majesty's 
Most loyal and dutiful Subject. 

Prince. — 2. Sir ; May it 
Please your Royal Highness. 
3. To his Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales. 

After the same manner, ad- 
dress other members of the 
Royal Family. 



1. Tiodal,— 2. Co-labhairt, 
— 3. Cùl-sgriobhadh. 

AN TEAGHLACH RIOGHAIL. 

1. An Righ 2. Shir; A 

Righ Ro Ghràsmhoir; Gu ma 
Toil le do Mhòrachd. 3. Do 
Mhòrachd Ro Oirdheirc an Righ. 

I. A Bhan-Righ 2. A 

Bhain-Tighearna; A Bhan-Righ 
Ro Gràsmhor ; Gu ma Toil le 
Do Mhòrachd. 3. Do Mhòrachd 
Ro Oirdheirc na Ban-Righ. 

Co-dhùin iarrtas, no òraid gu 
h-aon diùbh ; mar so, — Is Mise 
iochdaran Ro umhal agus dleas- 
annach do Mhòrachd. 

Prionnsa 2. Shir ; Gu 

ma Toil le d'Airde Rioghail. 
3. Do Airde Rioghail Prionnsa 
na Cuimrich. 

Air an dòigh chèudna, co- 
labhair ri bùill èile de'n Teagh- 
laich Rioghail. 



334 TITLES. 



TIODALAN, 



NOBILITY. 

Duke. — My Lord ; May it 
Please your Grace. To his 
Grace the Duke of Montrose. 

Marquis — My Lord ; May 
it Please your Lordship. To 
the Most Noble the Marquis 
of B. 

Earl. — My Lord ; May it 
Please your Lordship. To the 
Right Honourable the Earl of L. 

Viscount and Baron, similar 
to Earl. 

Noblemen's Ladies have the 
same titles with their husbands ; 
and a Nobleman's Widow has 
the word Dowager along with 
her other title. 

The titles of Lord and Right 
Honourable are given to the 
Sons of Dukes and Marquises, 
and to the Eldest Sons of Earls ; 
and Lady and Right Honourable 
to all their Daughters. 

The Younger Sons of Earls, 
and the Sons and Daughters of 
Viscounts and Barons, are styled 
Honourable. 

Baronet, Knight. Sir. 

The title Sir is prefixed to 
the Christian name of a Baronet 
or Knight ; as, 

Sir Francis M'Kenzie, Bart. 

A Baronet or Knight's Wife 
is addressed Lady ; as 

Lady M'Kenzie. 

GENTRY. 

Gentlemen of property or in- 
dependent fortune are styled 
Esquire, and their wives Mrs ; 
as, John Sim, Esq. of B — n. 



ARD-UAISLEAN. 

Diuc — A Thighearn; Gu 
ma Toil le do Mhaise. D' A 
Mhaise, Diùc Mhontròise. 

Marcus A Thighearn; Gu 

ma Toil le do Thighearnas. 
Do 'n Ard-Uasal, Marcus Bh. 

Iarla — A Thighearn ; Gu 
ma Toil le do Thighearnas. 
Do 'n Ion Urramach Iarla L. 

Biocas agus Baran co-ion- 
ann ri Iarla. 

Gheibh Bain-tighearnan Ard- 
uaislean na h-aon tiodalan ri 'n 
cèilean ; agus tha 'm focal Ban- 
dubhairicke aig Bantraich fhir 
àrd-uasail 'an cois a tiodal èile. 

Bheirear na tiodalan, Tighearn 
'us Ion Urramach do Mhic 
Dhiùcan, agus Mharcusan, agus 
do na Mic a's sine aig Iarlan ; 
agus Bain-tighearn 's lon Urr- 
amach d'an Nigheanaibh gu lèir. 

Bheirear Urramach do na Mic 
a's Oige aig Iarlaibh, agus do 
Mhic 'us do Nigheanaibh Bhioc- 
asan 'us Bharanan. 

Ridir. Sir. 

Cuirear an tiodal Sir roimh 
ainm baiste Ridire ; mar, 

Sir Francis M'Coinnich, Bar. 
Theirear Bain-tighearn ri 
mnaoi Ridire ; mar, 

Bain-tighearn Nic-Coinnich. 

UAISLEAN. 

Bheirear Escuire do dh-Uais- 
leibh sèilbhe, no mòr fhortain 
agus (Mrs) Bmr. do 'm mnàth- 
aibh ; mar, lain Sim Esc. air 
B — n. 



Courtesy has now-a-days extended the limits of this order 
beyond what is here assigned to it. 



TITLES, 



TIODALAN, 335 



Persons in business get Sir I 
on the left-hand corner inside j 
of a letter, and Mr on the out- 
side ; when more than one is ! 
addressed, Gentlemen, or Sirs, 
and Messrs on the outside. 

I 

OFFICIAL TITLES. 

The titles of Lord, Bight 
Honourable, or Esquire, §c. are 
due to Gentlemen in virtue of 
their official stations ; such as j 
Members of Her Majesty's Privy 
Council, Judges, Mayors, Pro- | 
vosts, Sheriffs, &c. a Justice of | 
the Peace gets Esquire. 

THE CLERGY. 

Archbishop. — My Lord ; 
May it please your Grace. To 
his Grace the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, or, To the Most 
Reverend Father in God, 
Charles, Lord Aichbishop of 
Canterbury. 

Bishop. — My Loid; May it 
please your Lordship. To the 
Right Reverend Father in God, 
John, Lord Bishop of Oxford. 

Dean. — My Lord; May it 
please your Lordship. To the 
Rev. Dr Isaac Milner, Dean of 
C— . 

Drs. in Divinity. — Reverend 
Doctor. To the Rev. Doctor 
Gordon. 

The Principal of the Uni- 

versity of Edinburgh Rev. Dr. 

To the Very Rev. Dr Lee, &c. 
The other Professors thus : — To 
Dr T— , Professor of — If a 
Clergyman, To the Rev. Dr 



Gheibh Fir-gnothaich Sir,* 
air oisinn na làimhe clìthe air 
taobh stigh litreach ; Mr air an 
taobh mach, 'nuair a cho-labhrar 
ri na 's mò na h-aon ; Dhaoine- 
vasal, no Shirean, 'us Mrn. air 
an taobh mach. 

TIODALAX OIFEAGACH. 

Buinidh na tiodalan Morair, 
Ion Urramach, no Escuire do 
Dhaoinibh uasal an lòrg an 
inbhean oifeagach ; mar tha 
bùill Comhairle Diomhair à 
Mhòrachd, Breithamhan, Ard- 
mhaoir, Proàistean, Siorradhan, 
&ce. Gheibh Maor.sith Escuire. 

a' chleir. 
Ard-easboig — A Thighearn; 
Gu ma Toil le do Mhaise. D'a 
Mhaise, Ard-easbuig Chanter- 
buri ; no Do 'n Athair Ro Urr- 
amach 'an Dia, Tearlach, Tigh- 
earn Ard-easbuig Chanterburi. 

Easbdig — A Thighearn ; Gu 
ma Toil le do Tighearnas. Do 
'n Athair Ard Urramach 'an Dia, 
Iain, Tighearn EasbuigOcsfoird. 

Deadhan. — A Thighearn ; 
Gu ma Toil le do Thighearnas. 
Do 'n Urramach an t- Olh. Isaac 
Milner, Deadhan Ch — 

Olhn. 'an Diadhachd — 
Olh. Urramaich. Do'n Urram- 
ach, an t-Olh. Gòrdan. 

Ceannard Colaiste Dhunèdin. 
— Olh. Urramaich. Do 'n Ro 
Urramach, an t-Olh. Lee, &ce. 
Na Professaran èile mar so : — 
Do 'n Olh. T — , Professar ri— . 
Ma 's ann de 'n chlèir e. Do 'n 



* Or Uasail; as, Uasail lonmhuinn, Dear Sir. 



336 



TITLES. 



TIODALAN. 



B — , Professor of — . Profes- 
sors who are not doctors, are 
styled Esquires. 

Clergymen who have no 
honorary title are always styled 
Reverend ; thus, — Rev. Sir. 
To the Rev. J. S. or To the 
Rev. Mr 1 J. S. &c. 



Urramach an t- Olh. B — , Pro- 

fessar *ri — . Gheibh Professaran 
nach 'eil 'nan ollamhan Escrn. 

Theirear Urramach, a ghnà 
ri Ministearaibh aig nach 'eil 
tiodal onorach; mar so, — Shir 
Urch. Do 'n Urch. I. S. no 
Do 'n Urch. Mr I. S. &ce. 
1 The propriety of adding Mr to Rev. seems to be questioned 
by some, but upon no reasonable grounds. Why not say Rev. Mr, 
as well as Rev. Dr? and, besides, one may not know or recollect 
whether the clergyman's name is Daniel or James. 

PARLIAMENT. 

House of Peers. — My Lords ; May it please your Lordships. 
To the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in 
Parliament assembled. 

a' pharlamaid. 

Tigh nam Morairean — A Thighearnan no Mhorairean ; Gu 
ma Toil le bhur Tighearnasaibh. Do na Tighearnaibh Ion Urram- 
ach. Spioradail agus Timeil co-chruinnichte 'sa Phàrlamaid. 

House of Commons. — May it please your Honourable House. 
To the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdoms of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

Tigh nan Cumantan — Gu ma Toil le bhur Tigh Urramach. 
Do Chumantaibh Urramach 'Rioghachdan Ceangailte Bhreatuinn 
Mhòr. 



LATIN PHRASES. SEOLLAIRTEAN LAIDINN. 

Tha na Seollairtean Laidinn agus Fràngach a leanas, a 
chleachdar gu tric ann a comhradh 'us ann a co-sghriobhadh 
Bèurla, iar àn suidheachadh an so, agus iar àn cur ann am Bèurla 
'san Gaelig, chum goireis na muinntir nach 'eil eòlach air Laidinn 
agus Fràingis. 



Every letter in a Latin word 
is sour.ded, — e final sounds like 
à in àle. 

Ab initio ; from the beginning 
Ab urbe condita; from the build- 

ing of the city, — thus ab- 

breviated, A.U.C. 



Fuaimichear gach litir ann 
am focal Laidinn, — bheiv edeir- 
annach fuaim coltach ri à 'an àle. 
Bho thoiseach ; o thùs 
O thogail a' bhaile ; o am tog- 
ail a' bhaile 



• In a Gaelic garb, used for aidmheilear. 



SEOLLAIRTEAN LALDINN. 



337 



Ad captandum vulgus ; to en- 

snare the vulgar 
Ad infinitum ; to infinity, with- 

out end 
Ad libitum ; at pleasure 

Ad referendum ; for considera- 
tion 

Ad valorem ; according to value 
A fortiori ; with stronger reason 
Adapertùram libri ; at the open- 

ing of the book 
Alma mater ; the university 
Amor patriae ; the love of our 

country 

Annus mirabilis ; the wonder- 
ful year 

A posteriòri ; from the latter, 

from behind 
A priòri ; from the former, from 

before 
Arcànum ; secret 
Arcàna imperii ; state secrets 
Ardentia verba ; glowing words 
Argumentum ad hominem ; an 

argument to the man which 

derives strength from per- 

sonal application 
Argumentum ad judicium ; an 

appeal to the common sense 

of mankind 
Audialteram partem ; hear both 

sides, hear pro and con 
Bona fide ; in good faith, in 

reality 
Contra ; against 
Cacoèthes scribendi ; an itch 

for writing 
Causa euphoniae ; for sound's 

sake 

Caput mortuum ; the dead head, 
the worthless remains 

Cede Deo; yield to Providence; 
to God 



A ribeadh a' chumanta ; a mhe- 

alladh an t-sluaigh 
Gun chrioch, gun cheann ; gu 

dìlinn 

Gu tlachd ; a rèir toile, le toil- 
inntinn 

Gu smuanachadh ; aig rànns- 

achadh 
A rèir luach ; fo mheas 
Le aobhar na 's trèise 
Aig fosgladh an leabhair; far ara 

fosgail an leabhar 
An colaist; a' mhàthair bhiadh- 
Gaol ar dùcha [char 

A' bhliadhna iongantach, no 

mhiorbuileach 
O'n deireannach ; o chùl, o' ni 

mu dheireadh 
Bho 'n roimh-aon ; o thùs, o 

nàdur na cùise 
Rùn diomhair ; càgar 
Nithe uaigneach na rioghachd 
Briathran blàth ; cainnt òrail 
Argumaid ris an duine, a bheir 

a neart o cho-chur pears- 

antail, — o bhi iar a cur o 

bhèul gu bèul 
Leigeil gu radh tuigse cumant' a' 

chinnidh daoine; fo fhianuis 

chloinn' daoine 
Eisd an dà thaobh ; èisd ri gach 

taobh, airson 's an aghaidh 
'An creidimh math ; 'am firinn, 

gu fior 
An aghaidh 

Miann sgriobhaidh; tart airson 

sgriobhaidh 
Air sgà fuaime bhinn, no binneis 

An ceann marbh ; na corran 
suarach, an duslach 

Striochd do 'n Fhreasdal ; do 
Dhia 



338 



LATIN PHRASES, 



Compos mentis ; of a sound 

mind, in one's senses 
Cum privilègio; with privilege 
De facto; from the fact, in 

reality 
De jure ; from the law 
Dei gratia ; by the grace of God 
Deo juvante ; with God's as- 
sistance 

Deo volente; (D.V.) God wil- 
ling 

Desunt caetera; the rest are 

wanting, no more 
Dominè dirige nos; O Lord, 

direct us 
Desideràtum ; something desir- 

able, or much wanted 
Dramatis personae ; characters 

represented 
Durante vita ; during life 
Dum vivimus, vivamus ; while 

we live let us enjoy life 

Durante placito ; during plea- 
sure 

Excerpta ; excerpts, extracts 
Ex officio ; officially, by virtue 

of office 
Ex pàrte ; on one side 
Ex tempore ; fròm the time, 

without delay, without pre- 

meditation, at once 
Fac simile; exact copy or re- 

semblance 
Fiat ; let it be done, a decree 
Fiat lux ; let there be light 
Flagrante bello ; during hosti- 

lities 

Hòra fugit ; the hour or time 

flies 

Humànum est erràre ; to err is 
human, itisthe lot of man 
to err 



Dh-inntinn fhallain ; crùinn, 

glic, 'am puirp 
Le dlighe ; le còir 
Bho 'n ghniomh ; 'an cinnteas, 

gu dearbh 
Bho 'n lagh ; le ceartas 
Tre ghràs no fàbhar Dhe 
Le comhnadh Dhè 

Le toil Dhè; Dia 'na thoiseach 

Tha 'chuid èile as ; cha n-'eil 

tuilleadh ann 
O Thighearna treòraich sinne 

Ni-eigin taitneach ; easbhaidb, 

no ionndran mòr 
Pearsan no ainmean riochd- 

aichte 
Rè beatha, rè làtha 
Feadh a bhitheas sinn beò bith- 

eamaid sona, mealamaid a' 

bheatha so 
Rè toile, rè taitneis, am feadh 

is àill 

Mìrean taghta ; earanan àraid 
Gu h-oifìgeach, an lòrg oifige, le 

còir dreuchda 
Air aon taobh 

As a' mhionaid, gun stad, gun 
roi-smuanachadh^ gun ull- 
achadh,à seasamh nam bònn 

Fior chòpi, fìor dhùblachadh ; 
leth-bhreac 

Bitheadh e deante, reachd 

Bitheadh solus ann 

Rè àm cogaidh ; àm air 

Tha 'n uair, no an ùin' a' ruith 

Buinidh mearachd do dhaoinibh; 
is nì talmhaidh mearachd 



SEOLLAIRTEAN LAIDINN, 



339 



Ibidem ; (ib.) in the sarae place 

In loco ; in this place 
In propria persona ; in liis own 
person 

In statu quo ; in the former 
state 

Inter nos ; between us 

In terorem ; in terror 

In vino veritas ; there is truth 

in wine 
Inter alia ; among other tbings 
Ipse dixit ; himself said, on his 

sole assertion, his own 

word 

Ipso facto ; by the fact itself 
Ipso jure ; by the law itself 
Jure divino; by divine right 
Jure humano ; by human law 
Jus gentium ; the law of nations 
Labor omnia vincet ; labour 

overcomes everything 
Lapsus linguae ; a slip of the 

tongue 

Lapsus pennae ; a slip of the pen 
Lex terrae; the law of the land 
Literatim ; literally 
Licentia vàtum ; poetical license 

Locum tenens ; a deputy, or 

substitute 
Magna charta ; the great charter, 

the basis of our rights and 

liberties 
Mecum tecum ;* agreeing with 

me and you 
Memento mori ; remember death 
Memorabilia ; matters deserving 

of record 
Meum et tuum ; mine and thine 
Multum in parvo ; much in little, 

a great deal in few words 



'San àite chèudna, ionann aite 
(ion) 

'San aite so, 'ann an so 

'Na phearsa fèin, gu pearsantail 

Anns an staid 'san robh 

Eadarainn 

'An oillt, fo eagal 

Tha fìrinn ann am fion 

Am measg nithe èile 

Deir e-fèin, air 'fhocal fèin, a 

radh, no a dhearbhadh fèin, 

fèin-fhocal 
Leis a' ghniomh fèin 
Leis an lagh fèin, fèin lagh 
Le còir dhiadhaidh 
Le lagh dhaoine 
Lagh nan sluagh, nan cinneach 
Bheir saothair buaidh air gach 

ni, buadhaichidh saothair 
Tuisleadh na teanga, mearachd 

I Tuisleadh a' phinn, mearachd 

Lagh na tìre 
I Gu litireil, rèir nam focal 
i Saorsa nam bàrd, saorsa bhàrd- 
ail 

Fear-ionaidjfear aite> fear gnoth- 
aich 

A' chairt mhòr, stèigh ar cor- 
aichean agus ar saorsa 

Leam leat ; miodalach, sodalach 

Cuimhnicdh air a' bhàs 

lon-chuimhneachan, nithe airidh 
air cuimhne 

Mo chuid-sa 's do chuid-sa 
I Moran 'am beagan, mòr-bhrigh 
I 'am beagan fhocalan 



* Consenting to what every one says ; every man's man. 



340 



LATIN PHRASES. 



Nemo me impùne lacesset ; no 

one shall provoke me with 

impunity 
Ne plus ultra ; no farther, no- 

thing beyond 
Nolens volens ; willing or un- 

willing 

Non compos mentis ; not of a 

sound mind, insane 
Nisi Dominus frustra ; unless 

the Lord be with us, all 

efforts are in vain 
Ne qtiid nimis ; too much of one 

thing is good for nothing 
Nemine dissentiente ; (Nem, 

dis.) none disagreeing,none 

objecting 
Omnes, all. Onus, a burden 
Ore tenus ; from the mouth 
O tempora, O mores; O the 

times, O the manners 
Passim ; everywhere 
Per se ; by himself, itself, alone 
Prima fàcie ; at fìrst sight 
Posse comitàtus ; the power of 

the country 
Primum mobile ; the mainspring 

Pro and con ; for and against 
Pro bono publico ; for the good 

of the public 
Pro loco et tempore ; for the 

place and time 
Pro re nàta ; as occasion re- 

quires, for a special busi- 

ness 

Pro rège, lège, et grège ; for the 

king, the constitution, and 

the people 
Pro rege et patrià ; for my king 

and my country 
Quantum libet ; (q. 1.) as much 

as you please 



Cha bhuair neach mise gun 
pheanas, cha tèid mo 
nàmh-s' as gun pheanas 

Gun tuilleadh, gun dol na 's 
faide 

Toileach no diombach : olc air 
mhath 

A dhith cèille, gun inntinn 

chruinn; mearanach, gòrach 
Mur bi 'n Tighearn leinn is 

diomhain gach oi'rp, 'se an 

Tighearn ar neart 
Cha n-fhiù tuille 's a chòir de 

ni sam bith 
Gun neach a' mi-chòrdadh gun 

eas-aontachd, gun diùltadh 

Na h-uile. Luchd 

O'n bhèul, le focal beòil 

O na timean,0 na gnàthan, Och, 

an ann mar so a tha 
Anns gach aite, thall 'sa bhos 
Leis fèin, 'na aonar 
'Sa chèud sealladh 
Cumhachd na dùcha, neart tìr- 

eil 

Màthair-aobhair, a' bheart- 

ghluasaid 
Airson 'san aghaidh 
Airson maith an t-sluaigh, chum 

maith na dùcha 
Airson an ionaid 's an àma, aig 

an aite 's aig an àm 
Mar tha aobhar ag iarraidh, air- 

son gnothaich àraid 

Airson an righ na rioghachd agus 
an t-sluaigh 

Airson mo righ 's mo rioghacbd; 
dileas 

Na 's àill leat, urrad 's à thoil- 
icheas tu 



SEOLLAIRTEAN LAIDINN. 



341 



Quantum sufficit ; (q. s.) a suf- 

ficient quantity, enough 
Quasi dicat ; (q. d.) as if he 

should say 
Quid vide ; (q. v.) which see 
Quo animo ? with what mind? 
Quo jure ? by what right ? 
Quoad ; as far as 
Quoad sàcra ; as to spiritual mat- 

ters, spiritual, established 

by the Church 
Quoad civilia ; as to civil mat- 

ters, civil, established by 

the state 
Quondam ; formerly 
Res publica ; the commonwealth 
Rara avis ; a rare bird, a stranger 
Rex, a king. Regina, a queen 
Senatùs consultum ; a decree of 

the senate 
Seriatim; in regular order 
Sine die ; without a day being 

fixed 

Sine qua non ; this phrase applies 
to the terms of a treaty, 
and signifies something in- 
dispensably requisite 

Statu quo ; the state in which it 
was 

Sub poena; under penalty 

Sui generis ; the onìy one of his 

kind, singular 
Supra ; above 

Summum bonum ; the chief good 
Triajuncta in ùno ; three joined 
in one 

Tòties quoties ; as often as, — a 
law phrase, signifying the 
levying a fine as often as 
the crime is committed 
Ultimus, (ult.) ; the last 
Una voce ; with one voiee, 
unanimously 



Na 's leòir, meud phailt, tomhas 

mòr, gu leòir 
Mar gu'n canadh e 

Faic sin, faic am pùng sin 

Ciod an rùn leis ? 

Ciod a' chòir leis ? 

Fhad 's a, cho fad ri 

A thaobh nithe spioradail, spior- 

adail ; daighnichte leis an 

Eaglais 

A thaobh nithe siobhalta, siobh- 
alta ; daighnichte leis an 
stàit. 

Roimh so, o shean 

Co-fhlaitheachd, pobull 

Eun tearc, coigreach 

Righ. Ban-righ 

Reachd no òrdugh an t-sean- 
aidh 

'An òrdugh rialtach 

Gun la (bhi) suidhichte, no 
ainmichte 

Co-chuirear an seòllairt so ri 
cùisibh cumhnaint, a chiall- 
achadh ni-eigin cho fèumail 
's nach ghabh e seachnadh 

An staid 'san robh e, mar bha e 

Fo pheanas, supèna 

An t-aon de 'ghnè, e-fèin 'na 

aonar, neònach 
Os-cionn, os-ceann 
An t-àrd-mhath 
Tri ceangailte 'an aon, triùir 'an 

aon 

Cho tric 's a, — seòllairt lagh a' 
ciallachadh ùbhlaidh a chur 
cho tric 's a nithear an 
ciont 

An deireannach 

Le aon ghuth, dh-aon inntinn, 
gu h-aon-inntinneach 



342 LATIN 

Ultra vires ; beyond the power 
of 

Utile dulci ; the useful with the 

pleasant 
Uti possidètis ; as ye possess 
Verbatim ; word for word 
Vade mecura ; go with me, a 

book or provision for the 

way 

Vale ; farewell, good bye, adieu 

Veritas est magna et prevalèbit; 
truth is great, and it will 
prevail 

Via; by the way of (Perth) 
Vicè ; in the room of 
Vicè versa; the reverse, the 
contrary, conversely 

Vide (v.) see 

Vide ut supra ; see as above 
Vis poetica ; poetic genius 
Viva voce ; witìi the living 

voice, by word of mouth, 

orally 

Vincit veritas ; truth conquers 
Vivant rex et regina, long live 

the king and the queen 
Vox naturae ; the voice of na- 

ture — the Gaelic language 
Vox populi ; the voice of the 

people 
Vulgo ; commonly 



PHRASES. 

An taobh thàll de chumhachd, 

gun chomas 
An ni fèumail 'an cois an ni 

thaitneich 
Mar tha sibh a' sealbhachadh 
Focal air an fhocal 
Rach leam, leabhar no biadh 

slighe, biatsadh 

Beannachd leat no leibh, sor- 

aidh leat, no leibh 
Is mòr an fhirinn agus bheir i 

buaidh ; seasaidh an fhirinn 

Rathad (PheairtJ 

'An aite, 'an ionad 

An rathad eile, an deireadh air 

toiseach, no'n toiseach air 

deireadh 
Faic ( f.) seall 
Faic mar os-cionn 
Càil bhàrdail, spiorad bàrdail 
Leis a' guth bheò, le focal beòil, 

o bhèul gu bèul 

Buadhaichidh an fhirinn 

Gu ma fada beò an righ agus a' 

bhan-righ 
Guth nàduir — a' Ghàelig 

Guth an t-sluaigh 

Gu cumanta, a ghnà 



FRENCH PHRASES 
With their pronunciation, and 
English and Gaelic transla- 
tion : — 

French. i English. 

Aide-de-camp, (pr.) An assistant to a ge- 

ad-de-kong x I neral 

A la bonne heure ; Luckily, in good time 

a la bon oor y ' 



SEOLLAIRTEAN FRANGACH. 
Le 'm fuaimeachadh, agus an 
eadar-theangachadh Beurla 's 
Gàelig : — 

Gaelig. 

Fear-còmhnaidh sean- 
alair, dian-chomhla 
Gu fortanach, gu 
tràthail 



SEOLLAIRTEAN FRANGACH. 



343 



French. i 
Àffaire de coeur; af- 

fdr de koor s 
A la mode ; a la mòd^ 

A fin; afong 

A propos ; ap-prò-pò 

Au fond ; d fong 
Auto da fè, (Portu- 
guesè) d-to da-fd 

Beau monde ; bò 

mòngd s 
Beaux esprits ; boz 

espre 

Billet-doux ; bil-le dù 
Bon mot ; bong mò 

Bon grè mal grè; 
bong grd, mal grd 



[EngHs'h. 

A love affair, an 

amour 
According to fashion 

To the end 

To the purpose ; op- 

portunely 
To the bottom 
Burning of heretics 



Thegay world, people 

of fashion 
Men of wit 

A love letter 

A jest, a quibble, a 

piece of wit 
With good or bad 

grace, whether one 

will or not 



Bon jour ; bong shùre Good day or morning 



Bon soir ; bong soo-a 
Bon nuit ; bong noo-e 
Boudoir ; boo-doo-ar\ 

Carte blanche ; kart 

blangsh 
Chàteau, sha-tò' 
Chef d' oeuvre ; shay 

doo-ver 
Ci-devant; se-de-vang 
Comme il faut ; com 

Hfo 

Con amore (Italian) 

con amo're 
Congè d' elire ; kong 

she de-ler 
Coup de gràce ; ku-de 

grass' 



Good evening 

Good night 

A cabinet, a lady s 

private room 
A blank, full power 

to act 
A country seat 
A masterpiece 

Formerly 

As it should be 



With love 

Leave to elect or 

choose 
A stroke of mercy, a 

fìnishing stroke 



Cuis-ghaoil,cuis-lean- 

nanach, suireadh 
A rèir fasain, 'san 

fhasan 
Gus a' cheann, gu 

crich, gu deireadh 
Freagarrach, gu deas, 

gu tràthail 
Gu grùnnd,gu iochdar 
Lòsgadh shaobh- 

chreideach, no èir- 

iceach 
An saoghal sgiamhach 

luchd nam fasan 
Fir ghèur-fhoclach 

Litir-ghaoil 
Fala-dhà, gèur-fhocal, 

car-fhocal 
Le gean math nodroch 

gean, co dhiubh is 

àill no nach àill le 

neach 
Là math, maduinn 

mhath, (dhùibh) 
Feasgar math(dhuibh) 
Oiche mhath (dhuibh) 
Seòmar uaigneach 

mnà uasaile 
Aite bàn, lan chomas 

gu deanamh . 
Tigh-dùcha 
Ard-ghniomh, uchd, 

claon-char 
Roimh so ; o chian 
Mar bu chòir dha bhi 

Le gaol, le gràdh 

Comas taghaidh, no 

raghaidh 
Cùl ris^, stràc crioch- 
nachaidh 



344 

French. 
Cortège ; kor-taije 

Coup d'oeil ; ku-dail 

Coup de main ; ku 

de mang 
Dèbut ; dèboo 

Dernier-resort; deur- 

nyai res-sor^ 
Depòt ; de-pò 

Double ènteridre ; 

dubl ang-tang-dre 
Douceur ; da-soor 
Dieu et mon droit ; 

dyoo è mong drwa 
Eclàt; ai-klah 

Elève ; ai-lev 

En bon point ; ang 

bong poo-ang 
En masse ; ang mass 
En passant; angpas- 

sang 

Ennui ; ang-noo-e 
Faux pas ; fo pd 

Fète ; fcite 

Fracas ; fra-cà 



FRENCH PHRASES. 

English. 

A retinue, company. 
procession 



Gaelig. 
Luchd-leanmhuinn, 
cuideachd 



A peep, a glance of Dìdeag, plath na sùla 
the eye 



A sudden or bold en 

terprise 
First appearance in 

public 
The last shift or re- 

source 
A storehouse, a mag. 

azine 

A double meaning, a 
pun 

A present or bribe 
God and my right 

Splendour, pomp, 

noise 
A pupil, scholar 
In a good condition 

jolly, stout,fat 
In a body 

In passing, by the 

way, by the bye 
Lassitude.ilstlessstate 
A slip, misconduct 

A feast or entertain- 
ment 

Bustle,a slight quarrel 



Honi soit qui mal-y-; Evil be to him that 



pense ; hòn-e swa 

he mal-e-pangs 
Hauteur; ha-toor 
Je ne s^ais quoi ; she 

ne sai kwa 
Jeu de mots; zhoo de 

mò^ 

Jeu d' esprit ; zhoo 

de-zprè s 
Mal-à-propos ; mal 

ap-ro-pò 



evil thinketh 

Haughtiness 
I know not what, in- 

describable 
A play upon words, 

a pun 
A display of wit ; 

witticism 
Unfit, untimely, ill- 

suited 



O'irp ghrad no mhis- 

neachail 
Ceud theachd 'am 

follais 
An ionnsuidh dheir- 

eannach 
Tigh-stòr, tighglèidh- 

idh 

Dà sheadh, rùn dùb- 
ailt 

Gibhte no brìb 
Dia 's mo chòir 

Dearrsadh,fuaim,mòr- 

chuis 
Sgoilear 

' An cor math, subhach 

reamhar, làn 
'Am meall, taom 
'San t-slighe 'san dol 

seachad 
Sgios, cor airtnealach 
Tuisìeadh, droch- 

bheart 
Fèisd, cùirm 

Iomairt, co-stri bheag 

Olc dha-san a smuan- 
aicheasair olc ; olc 
air fear an uilc 

Ardan, uabhhar 

Cha n-aithne dhomh 
ciod, do-airis 

Cleas air focail 

Strod de ghèurfhocail 

Neo-iomchuidh, mi- 
fhreagarrach 



SEOLLAIRTEAX FRA>TGACH. 



345 



French. 
Mauvaìs hònte ; mo- 

vaiz hùnt 
Mot du gùet ; mo doo 

gooa 

Xaivetè; nah-ivv-tai 



Outrè ; oo-trai 

Petit maitre ; pe-te 

mey-tre 
Protègè ; pro-tai-jai 
Rouge ; roohje 



English. 

False modesty ; affec- 

tation 
A watch-word 

Candour, simplicity, 
ingenuousness 

Extravagant, eccen- 
tric, excessive, wild 
A fop, a beau 



A favourite 
Red ; a kind of red 
paint for the face 
Sang froid ; sangfrwa Cold blood ; indiffer- 
ence 
A learned man 
Self-styled, pretended 

The carpet 
Face to face, cheek 
by jowl, private 
conversation 
Singular 

A pretender to wit 



Gaelig. 

Màldachd fhealsa ; 

baoth-leanachd 
Focal-faire, ciall-cha- 

gar 

Fosgailteachd, aon 
fhillteach, fosgarr- 
achd 

Xeo-chuimseach, neò- 

nach, bòrb 
Spalparra, gaoithean 

Cèistean 

Dearg, seòrsa dath 
dearg do'n aodainn 
Fuil fhuar : neo-aire 



Savant ; sa-vong 
Soi-disant ; svca-de- 

sang 
Tapis ; ia-pai 
Tète à tete ; tet-a -teu 



Unique ; oo-neek 
L'n bel esprit ; ung beì 

espre 
Valet de chambre ; 

val-a de shom-ber 
Vive le roi ; vive la 

roo-ah 



Fear ionnsaichte 
Fèin-ainmichte fear 

spad-fhoclach 
Brat-ùrlair, cas-bbrat 
Ceann ri ceann, cluas 

ri cluais, comhradh 

diomhair 
Sonruichte, air leth 
Aigneach maol 



A valet, or footman Gille-seòmair, gille- 
coise 

Long five the king Gu ma fada beò an 
righ 



mrnoi of Brsrsi:??. 
After the pupil has learned to 
read, spell, and speak the words 
of both, or either language, 
with a degree of propriety ; the 
next subject to which he should 
direct his careful attention is, 
the mode of applying words in 
business ; and, in order to assist 
him in doing so, a few directions 
and models axe subjoined. 



BEACHD G>'OTHAICH. 
'Nuair a dh-ionnsaicheas an 
sgoilear focail na dà, no na 
h-aoin chainnt a lèughadh, a 
chùbadh agus a labhairt mar nach 
olc, is e 'n ath cheann-teagaisg 
d' an còir dha 'aire chùramach a 
thoirt, alt cleachdaidh fhocalan 
ann an gnothachaibh ; agus a 
chum a chònadh gu sin a dhean- 
amh, cuirear sios beagan sheòl- 
aidhean agus shamhuiltean. 



346 NOTION OF 

LETTER-WRITING, OR EPISTOL- 
ARY CORRESPONDENCE. 
Letter-writing, or the art of 
conveying our ideas to one 
another througli the raedium of 
ink and paper, forms a most im- 
portant part of one's education; 
and without a competent know- 
ledge of this noble art, no person 
is fit to transact his business 
with advantage. 

The learner, as soon as he is 
taught the use of the pen, should 
be made to write the names of 
the objects around him on his 
slate, or on paper ; and then a 
short description of the utility 
or beauty of each of them, in 
the form of a letter to the Mas- 
ter, to be corrected and improved 
by hirtì. The pupil will be 
thus, by degrees, led to the art 
of composition. 

DIRECTIONS, &C. 
In writing to relations, some 
endearing epithet is always put 
before the kindred title in 
English, and after it in Gaelic ; 
as, Dear, Beloved, Revered, or 
Honoured Father, or Mother. 
Conclude a letter to either thus, 
— Your very affectionate, duti- 
ful, or loving Son or Daughter, 
— as the case may be. 

Children should adopt the 
most respectful, as well as the 
most endearing mode of address 
towards their parents. 



BUSINESS. 

LITIR-SGRIOBHADH, NO CON- 
ALTRADH LITIREIL. 
Tha Litir-sgriobhadh, no 
alt giùlain ar smuaintean gu càch 
a chèile tre chònadh ìnge agus 
pàipeir, a' deanamh suas roinn 
ro-fhèumail de ionnsachadh 
neach agus gun eòlas cuimseach 
air an innleachd òrail so, cha 
n-'eil neach sam bìth freagarrach 
airson a ghnothaich a chur air 
aghaidh gu coromach. 

Cho luath 's a dh-ionnsaicheas 
am foghlumach fèum a' phìnn, 
is còir a thoirt air, ainmean nan 
nithe a ta mu 'n cuairt da a 
sgriobhadh air a sgleit, no air 
pàipeir ; 'an dèigh sin, cunntas 
gearr mu mhaith, no mhaise 
gach aoin diùbh ann an uidheam 
litire do 'n Mhaighstear gu bhi 
ceartaichte agus leasaichte leis- 
san. Mar so stiùirear an sgoilear 
a chuid 's a chuid gu alt co- 
sgriobhaidh. 

SEOLAIDHEAN, &CE. 

'An sgriobhadh gu càirdibh, 
cuirear focal-gràidh eigin roimh 
an*ainm dhàimheil 'sa Bheurla 
agus 'na dhèigh 'sa Ghaelig ; 
mar, Athar, no A Mhathair Ion- 
mhuinn, Ghaol* Urramach, no 
Onarach; co-dhùinlitir gu h-aon 
diubh mar so, — Bhur Mac no 
Nighean Ghràdhach, Ghaolach, 
no Dhleasannach, — mar thach- 
ras do 'n chùis a bhi. 

Is còir do chloinn co-labhairt 
fior mhodhail cho math 'us fior 
ghaolach a ghnàthachadh do 'm 
pàrantaibh. 



• The genrler n.nd case of the noun addressed must be attended to, — We say, 
Athar Ghaoil, A Mhdthair Ghaol ; in the vocative case. 



BEACHD GNOTHAICH. 



347 



Parents and guardians, &c. 
address their children, and those 
under their care, by using their 
christian name, along with the 
endearing term, instead of the 
kindred title ; thus, Dear John, 
My dear Ann, — concluding with 
— Your affectionate or loving 
Father or Mother, &c. 

In writing to a familiar ac- 
quaintance, to a friend, or to a 
person of equal rank with the 
writer, or a grade below him, 
the common form of address is, 
Dear Sir, — concluding with 
— Yours truly, or sincerely, or 
some other familiar phrase. 

In writing on general business, 
to a person of higher rank than 
the writer, or to one with whom 
he is not familiarly acquainted, 
the ordinary address is, Sir, — 
concluding with, — Your Most 
Obedient Servant. 



MODELS OF LETTERS. 

No. 1. 

From a son to his parents, on 
leaving home. 



Co-labhraidh pàrantan agus 
cèileadairean, &ce. ri 'n cloinn 
agus riù-san a ta fo an cùram, le 
gnàthachadh an ainme bhaiste'an 
cois an fhocail-ghràidh 'an ait 
an ainme dhàimheil; mar so, Iain 
Ionmhuinn, M' Anna Ghaol- 
ach, — a'co-dhùnadhle D'Athair, 
no Do Mhàthair Ghaolach no 
Ghràdhach, &ce. 

'An sgriobhadh gu fear eòlais, 
gu caraid, no gu neach 'an inbhe 
co-ionann ris 'an sgriobhadair, 
no cèum fodha, 'se an seòl co- 
labhairt cumanta, Shir Ionmh- 
uinn, — a' co-dhùnadh le Dhut- 
sa, no Dhùibh-se gu fìor, no gu 
h-ionraic, no seòllairt caoineil 
èile. 

'An sgriobhadh air gnothach- 
aibh cumanta,gu neach 'an inbhe 
a 's àirde na 'n sgriobhadair, 
no gu h-aon air nach 'eil e gu 
math eòlach, is i cho-labhairt 
ghnàthaichte, Shir, — a' co- 
dhùnadh le, — Do Sheirbhiseach 
Ro-Umhal. 



SAMHUILTEAN 'LITRICHEAN. 

Air. 1. 

Bho mhac gu 'phàrantaibh, an 
dèigh tigh 'athar fhàgail. 



Glasgow, 8th May, 1843. 

My dear Father, 

I arrived here in safety, on Saturday last. My passage 
was indeed very favourable all along. The steamer was not in the 
least retarded by contrary winds. Captain T. and all the hands 
on board were very kind to me all the way. I was particularly 
delighted with the fresh and beautiful scenery opening to my view 
on every side, as we were sailing up the Frith of Clyde : But 
O, father ! I was completely lost in admiration and amazement, 
vvhen I entered this great city, seeing its numerous and splendid 



348 



NOTION OF BUSINESS. 



buildings ; but being, as yet, a stranger in this place, I must defer 
giving you a detailed account of what I see, till I get a little ac- 
quainted. My master is very kind to me, and says that I please 
him. Anxiously wishing to fill my situation to the satisfaction of 
my Master, and to prove to you, by my conduct on all occasions, 
that I endeavour to walk according to your kind advices, and 
worthy of your parental care and affection ; and, above all, to be 
directed by God. With kind love to yourself, and my dear 
Mother, brothers, and sisters, 
I am, 

My dear Father, 

Your very affectionate Son, 

John Grant. 

*GIascho, an t-S-mh de 'n Mhàigh 1843. 

Athar Ionmhuinn, 

'Rainig mi an tìr sò air di-sathuirne so 'chaidh gu sàbhailte. 
Bha mo thurus, gu dearbh gle fhàbharach fad na slighe. Cha d'- 
amaladh an Toitear a bheag le gaothan aghaidh. Fhuair mi Caipt- 
ean T. agus na làmhan uile, air bòrd fior chaoineil rè an astair. 
Bha mi gu h-àraid iar mo thoileachadh, leis na seallaidhean ùra 
agus àillidh a bha 'g an nochdadh fèin do m' shùil air gach taobh, 
mar bha sinn a' seòladh suas air caolas Chluaith. Ach O, Athar, 
's ann a bha mise iar mo làn-shlugadh suas le h-iongantas, agus 
uamhas 'nuair a dh'-imich mi stigh do 'n bhaile mhòr so ; a' faic- 
inn 'aitreabhan lionmhor agus dealrach. Ach iar dhomh a bhi fath- 
asd 'nam choigreach 'san aite so, fèumaidh mi dàil a chur ann am 
min-chùnntas a thoirt dùibh air na tha mi 'faicinn, gus am fàs mi 
na 's eòlaiche. Tha mo Mhaighstear fìor chàirdeil rium, agus ag 
radh gu'm beil e toilichte leam. A' miannachadh gu cùramach m' 
aite Tionadh gu taitneas mo Mhaighsteir, agus a dhearbhadh dhùibh- 
se, le mo chaith-beatha air gach àm, gu'm beil mi 'g o'irpeachadh 
imeachd a rèir bhur n-earailean càirdeach agus airidh air bhur 
cùram 's 'ur gràdh pàrantail-se ; agus os-cionn gach ni, gu bhi iar 
mo threòrachadh le Dia. Le rùn-gràidh dhùibh-fèin, do mo 
Mhàthar gbaolaich, do mo bhràithribh, 'us do mo pheathraichibh, 
Is mise gu bràch, 

Athar lonmhuinn, 

Bhur Mac fior ghràdhach-sa, 

Iain Grannd. 



* Each English letter, &c. is followed by its Gaelic version. 



BEACHD GNOTHAICH. 



349 



No. 2 A Business Letter. Air. 2 Litir Gnothaich. 

Sir, Inverness, lQth May 1843. 

I shall be obliged to you to send me, next week, twelve 
fat wethers, two fat cows,(for killing)one milch cow, for the family. 
At the same time, forty stones of hay, four bolls good oat meal, 
one sack of fine flour, six stones butter, and two of cheese, making 
their prices as moderate as possible, since I purpose paying ready 
money. — I am, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient Servant, 
To Mr George Thomson, \ James Fraser. 

Farmer, Culloden. J 

Shir, lonarnis, an 10 •mh de 'n Mhigdh 1843. 

Bithidh mi 'nur comain airson dà mhult dèug reamhar, 
dà bhò reamhar (gu 'm màrbhadh,) aon bho bhainne airson na 
teaghlaich, a chur h-ugam air an ath-Sheachduin. Aig an àm 
chèudna dà fhichead clach shaoidh, ceithir bolla de mhin mhath 
choirc, aon sac flùr mm. Sea clachan ime 'us dà chloich chàis' 
a' cur am prisean cho saor 's a ghabhas deanamh, o'n tha rùn orm 
am paigheadh le airgid ullamh. — Is mise, 

Shir, 

Bhur Seirch. Ro Umhal, 
Gu Mr Seòrus M'Thomais, \ Seumas Friseal. 

Tuathanach,* Cùillodair. j 

No. 3 The Reply. Air 3 — Am Freagairt. 

Dear Sir, Culloden, \2th May 1843. 

Agreeably to your esteemed order of the lOth inst. I have 
this day sent you the cows, wethers, and other articles which 
you reqiùred, as speciried in the enclosed account, which I trust 
you will find correct, and moderate in price. It will give me 
much pleasure to serve you, and pay prompt attention to all your 
commands on every occasion. 

I am, 

Dear Sir, 

Your obdt. Servt. 
To Mr James Fraser, > George Thomson. 

Merchant^ Inverness. J 



* The preposition ann a or 'an, is commonly expressed in Gaelic before the 
name of a person's residiug place ; as, S. M'Thomaìs ann a Cuillodair, or 'an 
Cùillodair. Wheu ann is not written, it is proper to iuaert a comina iu its place, 
as above, to discontinue the appositiou. 



350 



NOTION OF BUSINESS. 



Shir Ionmhuinn, Cùillodair, \1-ug den Mhàigh 1843. 

A rèir bhur n-òrduigh mheasail air an 10-mli de 'n mhios so, 
chuir mi h-ugaibh an diugh na mairt, na muilt ; agus na nithe eile 
'dh'-iarr sibh, a ta ainmichte 'sa chùnntas iom-dhùinte, a gheibh 
sibh, tha dòchas agam, ceart, agus saor 'am prìsean. 

Bheir e mòr thaitneas domh-sa bhur toileachadh agus deas-aire 
a thoirt do bhur n-uil' iarrtasan air gach àm. — Is mise, 

Shir Ionmhuinn, 

Bhur Seirch. Umhal, 
Gu Mr Seumas Friseal, ) SeÒrus M'Thomais. 

Marsanta, Ionarnis. J 



ACCOUNT8. 
In every account there must 
be two parties, viz. the Creditor, 
Cr. or the person who sells, 
and the Debtor, Dr. or the per- 
son who receives the goods. 

1843. Mr James Fraser, Dr. 

May 12. To 2 Fat Cows, 

« " To 1 Milch do. 

« « To 12 Fat Wethers, 

« " To 40 stones Hay, 

" " To 4 bolls Oatmeal, 

" " To 1 sack Flour, 

" " To 6 st. Butter, 

" " To 2 st. Cheese, 



CUNNTASAN. 
Fèumaidh dà phàirtidh a bhi 
anns gach uile chùnntas, eadh. 
Creidear, Cr. no an neach a 
reiceas, agus Fiachair, Fèichear, 
Fr. no an neach a gheibh am 
bathair. 

To George Tromson. 



at £10, lOs. 


- £21 








at £12, 


12 








at £1, 5s. 


15 








at 8d. 


1 


6 


8 


at 18s. 


3 


12 





at 56s. 


2 


16 





at 18s. 6d. 


5 


11 





at 6s 6d. 





13 






« 14. 



Cr. 

''By Cash in full, 



£61 18 
61 18 



George Thomson. 



1843. Mr Seumas Friseal, Fr. 

Màigh 12. Do 2 bhò reamhar, 

" " Do 1 Io. bhainne, 

" " Do 12 Mhult Reamhar, 

« " Do 40 clach Shaoidh, 

" " Do 4 bolla Mhin-choirc, 

" " Do 1 sac Flùir, 

" " Do 6 cl. Ime, 

" " Do 2 cl. Chàise, 



Do Sheòrus M'Thomais. 
air £10, lOs. 
air £12, 
air £1, 5s. 
air 8d. 
air 18s. 
air 56s. 
air ISs. 6d. 
air 6s. 6d. 



Cr. 

14. Le Airgid gu làn, 

Seòrus M'Thomais, 



£21 








12 








15 








1 


6 


8 


3 


12 





2 


16 





5 


11 








13 





£61 


18 


8 


61 


18 


S 



BEACHD GNOTHAICH. 



351 



Mr John Ross Shepherd, Larkdale, 

Bought of Colin Manner, Merchant, Fort-Augustus. 

1843. 

July 8. 14 yards Cotton, at 9|d. £0 11 1 

« « 3 Glengarry Bonnets, at 2s. 8d. 8 

» « 2| lbs. Tea, at 5s. 6d. 13 9 

" « 20 « Sugar, at 9d. 15 

« « 6 " Soap, at 7d. 3 6 



2 " Tobacco, at 4s. 6d. 9 



Paid £3 4 

C Manner. 

Cheannaich Mr Iain Ros, Cibear, Dail-na-h-uiseig, 

Bho Chailean Manner, Marsanta, Cille-Chuimear. 



1843. 












Iuli 8. 


14 slat. Cotain, 


air 9|d. 


£0 


11 


1 


« u 


3 boineidean Biorach, 


air 2s. 8d. 





8 





U CC 


2ì phùnnd Tì, 


air 5s. 6d. 





13 


9 


cc « 


20 pnd. Siucair, 


air 9d. 





15 


(» 


« u 


6 " Shiabunn, 


air 7d. 





3 


6 


cc cc 


2 " Tombaca, 


air 4s. 6d. 





9 






Paighte £3 4 

C. Manner. 



A RECEIPT. 
A Receipt is a written ac- 
knowledgmentof having received 
a certain sum of money or goods. 
All sums above £2 must be 
written on stamped paper, to 
make the receìpt valid in law. 



RASET. 

Is ei?ase?aideachadh sgriobhte, 
iar faotainn suime àraid de dh- 
airgid, no bhathair. Fèumaidh 
gach sùim os-cionn £2, a bhi 
air pàipeir stàmpte gus an raset 
a dheanamh laghail. 



Fort-Augustus, 20th May 1843. 
Received from Mr James Barran, Thirty pounds twelve shil- 
lings, Stg. being payment of Twenty-eight quarters of Oats. 
^£30, 12s. A. Fraser. 

Cille-Chuimean, 20-mh den Mhàigh 1843. 

Fhuair mi bho Mhr Sèumas Barran, Deich pùinnd fhichead agus 
dà thasdan dèug Sasunach, mar phaigheadh airson Ochd cuartaran 
fichead de choirc. 

^30, 12s. A. Fbiseal. 



352 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



PART IV. 

PROSODY. 

Prosody* is that part of 
grammar which treats of 
Quantity, Accent, Versifica- 
tion, and Figures of Speech. 

The Composition ofwords 
in anj language is either 
Prose or Poetry. 

Prose is language not 
confined to a measured 
number of sjllables or har- 
monic sounds. 

Poetry or Verse is lan- 
guage confined to a measur- 
ed number of long and short 
sjllables to produce har- 
monic sounds. 

Quaxtity. — The quantity 
of a sjllable is the time oc- 
cupied in pronouncing it. 
Quantitj is either long or 
short ; as, tùbe, tùb. 

Accent. — Accent is the 
placing of agreater stress of 
the voice on one sjllable, 
than onanother; as, Rap'id, 
confer'. 



EAERAN IV. 

RANNACHADH. 

Is e Rannachadh* an 
earran sin de ghràmar a 
ta 'teagasg mu Thomhas, 
Stràc, Banndachd, agus mu 
Fhigearan Cainnt. 

Tha Co-Shuidheachadh 
f hocalan ann an cainnt air 
bith 'na Bosg, no 'na Bhàrd- 
achd. 

Is e Bosg, cainnt nach 
'eil iar a cur 'an àireimh 
shuidhichte de smidean no 
fhuaimean ceòlmhor. 

Is e Bàrdachd no Bànn, 
cainnt iar a cur 'an àireimh 
shuidhichte de smidean 
fad agus grad a' dheanamh 
fhuaiinean ceòlmhor. 

Tomhas. — Is e tomhas 
smide an tim a ghabhar 'g a 
fuaimeachadh. Thatomhas 
aon chuid faclnograd; mar, 
càs, càs. n 

Strac. — Is e Stràc, toirt 
buille na 's mò dè 'n ghuth 
do dh-aon smid na do smid 
èile ; mar, Eal'amh, buil'- 
ich. 



* Prosody strictfy denotes only that agreeable tone or melody which is in 
speech, but grammarians attach a wider signification to the term. Also its cor- 
respondent, Rannachadh, meaning the art of making verses, is here adopted, in 
the abseiice of a more comprehensive word, to embrace all the points treated of 
in the fourth part of grammar. 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



353 



VERSIFICATION. 

Versification is the art of 
arranging words into lines 
of corresponding length, so 
as to produce harmonj bj 
the regular recurrence at 
fixed intervals of sjllables 
differing in quantitj. 

In poetrj, everj sjllable 
is either long or short, from 
its position in a foot, and 
not from the peculiar sound 
of its vowel. 

Verse is of two kinds, viz. 
Rhyme and Blank Verse. 

Rhyme is the name bj 
which we distinguish verses 
or lines, whose fìnal words 
or sjllables end bj a simi- 
lar sound ; as, 

" Listen for dear 
Goddess of the 
Blank Verse is poetrj | 
without Rhjme. 



POETIC FEET. 

Everjline*of poetrj con- 
sists of successive combina- 
tions of sjllables called 

feet 

A poetic foot generallj 
consists of two, and some- 



RANNTACHD. 

Is e Rànntachdalt suidh- 
eachaidh fhocalan 'nan 
streathan co-fhreagarrach 
'am fad, gu tlàth-cheòl a 
dheanamh, le tachairt òrd- 
ail smidean ag eadar-dheal- 
achadh 'nan tomhas, 'an 
eadar-àitibh suidhichte. 

Ann am bàrdachd tha 
gach smid aon chuid fad no 
grad, anlòrgaseasaimh ann 
a' cois agus ni h-ann o 
fhuaim àraid a' fuaimraige. 

Tha Rànn de dha sheòrsa, 
eadh. Màim&gus Du-Rànn. 

Is e Ràim an t-ainm leis 
an eadar-dhealaichear rann- 
an no sreathan aig am beil 
am focail 110 an smidean 
deireannachd a' dùnadh le 
fuaim co-ionann ; mar, 
honour's sake, 
silver lake." 

Is e Du-Rànn bàrdachd 
gun Ràim. 

CASAN BARDAIL. 

Tha gach sreath* de 
bhàrdachd a' co-sheasamh 
ann am prasganaibh òrdail 
de smidibh, ris an canar 
casan. 

Tha cas bhàrdail gu 
cumanta a' co-sheasamh 'an 



A hue is a certain number of f'eet, a | • Is ì line, àireatnh shonruiehte de 

Stanza is a certain number of lines. | chasan,is e Stansa aireamh shonruichte 

Two liues arecalled ZLCOuplet or distich, I de lineachan. Theirear cvplan ri àk 

three a trìplet, and four a quatrain. \ Wnè, tridan ri tri, agus ceirdan r ce thir. 



Z 



354 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



times of three syllables, one 
of whieh is always accented. 

It is called foot, from the 
tongue stepping along by mea- 
.sured pace in reading verse, as 
the feet in walking. 



dà agus air uairibh 'an tri 
smidean de 'm beil a ghnà 
aon stràcta. 

Theirear cas ris, o imeachd 
na teanga air aghaidh le cèum 
socrach 'an lèughadh rainn, mar 
na casan 'an coiseachd. 



There are eight kinds of feet used in English and 
Gaelic poetry, named and exemplified in the following 
order : — 



DISSYLLABIC FEET. 

làmbus, - - as, àdore. 
TrocMe, - - as, noblè, 
Phyrric, ~ ~ as, ònthè(sea.) 
Spondee, — as, 15 ng pole ; 

TRISSYLLABIC FEET. 

Anapaest, ~~ -ìntèrcede. 
AmphibracA,--- dòmèstic. 
TribracA, ~~~(mis)èràblè 
Dactyl, ---possiblè. 

The Iambus, Trochee, and 
Anapaest, are the feet most 
commonly used. 

An lambus is a poetic 
foot consisting of two syl- 
lables, of which the first is 
short, and the second long ; 
as, èxplòre. 

Scanning. — To scan a 
verse, is to divide it into 
its component feet. 

IAMBIC MEASURE. 
Verse of this measure is the 
most common, andalso the most 
dignified, being adapted to seri- 
ous and lofty subjects. It is of 
various lengths ; thus^ 



CASAN DA-SMIDEACH. 

Iàmbus, mar àd ùr. 
Trochè, " ord-àg. 
Pirric, " càb-àr. 

Spondè, " bord mor. 

CASAN TRI-SMIDEACH. 

Anapest, mar èad-àr-fàs. 
Amphibrach,' 4 do lù-dàg. 
Tribrach, " tog-àm-aid. 
Dactil, " 5ig-èar-àn. 

Is i an Iambus, an Anapest 
agus an Trochè na casan a's ro 
thric' a ghàthaichear. 

Is cas bhàrdail an Iam- 
bus a' co-sheasamh 'an dà 
smid de 'm beil a' chèud 
grad, agus an dara fad ; 
mar, rì-bord. n 

Sgaradh. — Is e rànn a 
sgàradh,'eadar-dhealachadh 
gu 'chasaibh co-dheante. 

TOMHAS IAMBIC 
Is e rànn de 'n tomhas so a's 
cumanta agus mar an cèudna a's 
urramaiche, o bhi freagarrach ri 
pùngaibh stòld' agus àrd. Tha e 
de chaochla fad ; mar so, 



PROSODY. 



h 

bles ; 



2. 

bles . 



Of two feet, or four sylla- 
as, 

Exàlt | his name, 
For mùcli I his fàme. 



RANNACHADH. 355 

1. De dhà chois, no ceithir 
smidean ; mar* 



Of three feet, or six sylla- 

OS, 



2. De thri chasaibh, no sea 
smidean ; mar, 



Aloft | in àw | ful stàte 
The god' | like hè | ro sat'. 



3. Of four feet, or eight syl- 
lables ; as, 

The joys | above | 
And rel' | ish'd on' 

4. Offivefeet or ten syllables, 
caìled Pentameter ; as, 



3. De cheithir chasaibh no 
ochd smidean ; mar, 

are ùn | derstòod, 
ly by' | the good'. 

4. De chuig chasaibh no deich 
smidean, ris an canar Penta- 
meter ;* mar, 

their ùse | fùl toil, 



Let not | àmbi | tion mock 

Their home' | ly joys' | and des' | tiny' obscure', 
Nor gràn | deùr hear | wìth à | dìsdàin | fùl smile 
The short' | and sim' | ple an' | nals of | the poor' 



This is English heroic mea- 
sure, so called from its having a 
majestic march, well suited to 
heroic argument. It is the most 
suitable measure forblank verse, 
and admits of variety, especially 
at the beginning and end of a 
line. The first foot is often a 
Trochee instead of an Iambus, 
and the last has often a short 
supernumerary syllable added to 
it; thus, 



| Is e so an tomhas Mor Beurla, 
ainmichte mar sin o'n tha cèuni 
àrd aige fior fhreagarrach air son 
argumaid moire. 'S e tomhas a's 
freagarraiche air son Du-Rainn, 
agus gabhaidh e mùth, gu h-ar- 
aidh aig tùs 'us deireadh linè. 
'Si Trochè tba gu tric 'sa cheud 
chois an aite na h-Iambuis, agus 
tha smid chòrr' ghrad gu tric 
ris a' chois dhèireannaich „• mar 

i so, 



Adàm, | well may' we la'bour still' to dress' 

This gar'den, still' to tend' plant, herb', and flow' | èr. 



5. Of six feet or twelve syìla- 
bles — Hexameter, also called 
Alexandrine verse ; as, 

Thy rèalm | for èv | er làsts 

6. Of seven feet or fourteen 
syllables, called Heptameter ; 
as. 



The Lord 
ens hTgh. 



5. De shea chasaibh no dà 
smid dheug — Hexameter,^ ris 
ancanar fòsRànnAlastair; mar, 
| thy òwn | Messl | ah rèigns. 

6. De sheachd chasaibh no 
ceithir smidean deug, ris an 
canar Heptameter^ ; mar, 



descènd | ed from | above, | and bòw'd | the heav- 



* L'uig chasach. 



\ Sea chasach. | Seachd-chasaci). 



356 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



Modern poets have divided 
this kind of verse into alternate 
lines of four and three feet, and 
that is the Measure commonly 
rtsed in the psalms ; thus, 



Roinn bàird neo-shean a gìinè 
ràinn so gu sreathan de cheithir 
's de thri casan mu seach agus 
'se sin an tomhas a ta gnàth- 
aichte, gu cumanta, anns na 
Sàlmaibh ; mar so, 
Biit who | of glo | rj Is | thè king ? 

Thè might | y Lord | is this, 
Ev'n thàt | same Lord | that gièat | ìn might, 

And stròng | ìn hàt | tlè Is. 
Co è | sìn fèin | Ard-Righ [ na glòir ? 

An Tigh j earn làid | Ir trèun, 
lèhò | bha nèàrt J mhor, crùàidh | an càth, 
Bhèir bùaidh I à màch I dhà fèin. 



TROCHAIC MEASURE. 

A Trochèe is a poetic 
foot, consisting of two syl- 
lables, of which the fìrst is 
long and the second short ; 
as, noblè. 

This measure is brisk and 
animated. It is also of various 
lengths; thus, 

J . Of one foot and a long 
syllable, called Single Rhyme ; 

J8.S, 



TOMHAS TROCHAIC. 

Is cas bhardail an Trochè, 
a' co-sheasamh ann an dà 
smid de'm bheil a' cheud 
fad agus an dara grad ; 
mar, ùasàl. 

Tha 'n tomhas so brisg agus 
beothail. Tha e mar an cèudna 
de chaochla fad ; mar so, 

1. Dh-aon chois agus smid 
fhad, ris an canar Ràim Shing- 
ilt ; mar. 



cease, 



2. 

bks 



dhà chois, 
mar. 



no ceithir 



Tùmiilts 
Sink r to | pèace. 
Of two feet or four sylla- I 2. De 
as, I smidean ; 

On thè | mòuntaìn, 
By r a | foun'tain. 
Single Rhyme. Ràim Shingilt. 

In thè | days of | òld, 
Sto'ries J plaii/ly j told'. 
Of three feet ; as, \ 3. De thri chasaibh ; mar, 

Whèn our | heàrts àre | mourning. 
Offonr feet ; as, | 4. De ceithir chasaibh ; mar, 

Idlè | àftèr | dTnnèr | In hìs | chàir, 
Sat' a j far'mer J rud'dy, | fat', and | fair. 



PROSODY. RANNACHADH. 357 

5. Of five feet ; as, ( 5. De ckàig chasaibh ; mar. 

Virtue's j bright'mng J ray shàll J bèam for J èver. 

6. Of six feet ; as, 6. De shea chasaibh ; mar, 
On à | mòuntaìn, | strètch'd be J nèath a J hòary | wlllovv, 
Lay' a J shep'herd | svvain', and J vievv"d the J rol'ling [ bil'lovv. 



ANAPAESTIC MEASURE. 

An Anapaest is a poetic 
foot consisting of three 
sy llables, of which the first 
and second are short, and 
the third long ; as, contrà- 
vène. 

In this measure the vocal 
stress is laid on every third syl- 
iable. 

Anapaestic verse is, in com- 
mon vvith Iambic and Trochaic, 
of various lengths ; thus, 

1. Of two feet or six sylla- 
bles ; as, 

When I look ] 
They renew | 
Or of two feet and a short 
syllable ; as, 



TOMHAS ANAPESTIC. 

Is cas bhàrdail an Ana- 
pest, a' co-sheasanih ann an 
tri smidean, de 'm beil a' 
cheud 's an dara grad agus 
an treas fad ; mar, do-mo- 
rùn. n 

'San tomhas so leigear buille 
de 'n ghuth air gach treas smid. 

Tha rànn Anapestic, mar tha 
Iambic agusTrochaic, a cbaochla 
fad ; mar so, 

1. De dhà chois no sea smid- 
ean ; mar, 
on my boys, 
all my joys. 

No 'dhà chois agussmid ghrad; 
mar. 



Biit hìs cour | age 'gan faìl | him, 
For no arts [ could avail [ him. 

2. Of three feet ; as, | 2. De thri chasaibh ; mar, 

O ye vvòòds | spread your brànch [ es àpàce, 
To your deep J est recess | es I fly. 

The first foot of an Anapaes- 'Si Iambus a tha air uairibh 
tic line is sometimes an Iambus ; anns a' cheud cois de linè Ana- 
thus, pestic; mar so, 

Yè shep | herds so chèèr J ful ànd gày, 
Whoseflocks | never care | lessly roam. 

3. Offourfeetj as, | 3. De cheithir chasaibh ; mar, 
Mày I gòv | ern my pàs | sion with àb | solùte swày, 
And grovv wis | er and bet | ter as life J wears avvay. 



358 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



EXERCISES ON SCANNING. 

Scan the following verses, dividing each line into feet, and 
marking the accented syllables : — 

IAMBIC MEASUBE. 

Assist me O ye tuneful nine 
With ease to form the flowing line* 

Declare O Muse in what ill-fated hour 

Sprung the fierce strife from what offended pow'r 

TROCHAIC. 

Round a holy calm diffusing 
Love of peace and lonely musing 

Sweetest warblers of the skies 
Soon as morning's purple dies 

ANAPAESTIC. 

I would hide with the beasts of the chase 
I would vanish from every eye 

From the knaves and the fools and the fops of the time 
From the drudges in prose and the triflers in rhyme 



GAELIC VERSIFICATION. 

The Gaelic, which is a branch 
of the primeval tongue, pos- 
sesses poetical qualities of trans- 
cendent beauty. It is the lan- 
guage of nature herself, and has 
been, in all ages, distinguished 
for its power and success in 
descriptive poetry, and for ef- 
fectually addressing and im- 
pressing the passions. 



RANNTACHD GIIAELIG. 

Tha aig a' Ghàelig, a ta 'na 
gèug de chànain na sean-aimsire, 
buadhan bàrdail sàr-mhaiseach. 
Is i cainntnàduir fèin ; agus tha 
i ainmeil anns gach linn air son 
a' cumhachd/s a h-àgh 'am bàrd- 
achd dhealbhaich ; agus gu co- 
labhairt ri càilibh na h-inntinn, 
'us gu druidheadh orra le buaidh 
agus èifeachd. 



The ancient Gaelic Bards had peculiar facilities in composing 
their verses, and in describing their subjects, because they were 
not so much fetlered by fixed laws of versification as modern 
poets. In pouring forth their poetical strains, their chief aim 



• These verses are left unpointed, in order to be used as exercises for the learner 
on Punctuation. 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 359 



seems to have been to select suitable words of similar sounds for 
the preceding and succeeding lines.* 



GAELIC RHYME. 
Rhyming words or syllables 
in Gaelic occur often in some 
intermediate foot or feetas well 
as at the end of the line ; thus, 



RAIM GHAELIG. 
Gheibhear focail no srnidean 
ràimeachaidh 'sa Ghàelig gu tric 
ann a' cois no casaibh eadar- 
mheadhonach èigin, cho maith 
's aig ceann na linè; mar so, 
Oir saothair seòl no obair glilic 
Cha deanar leat gu brath fo'n lic. 

Togaibh bharda bron nam fonn, 
Mu thalla nan tonn, a bh' ann, 
Thuit na trèuna fada fo thom, 
Thig làithe nan sonn a nàll. — Ossian. 

IAMBIC MEASURE. TOMHAS IAMBIC. 

1. Offour feet ; as, 1. De cheithir chasaibh ; mar, 

Chà n-'èil | aon nèach | o thriòb | laid sàor, 
Am mèasg j à chln | ne dàoin' | aìr fàd, 
'S co lion | mhor os | na aig j an Righ 
ls aig [ an neach | is ìs | le staid- Buchanan. 

'Nuair thig | àn sàmh | ràdh gèug | àch oirnn 

Theid siann | nàn spèur | ò'n ghrùam ] àichè — M'Intyre. 

TROCHAIC MEASURE. TOMHAS TROCHÀIC. 

Fàilt ort j fèin, à | Mhor-thìr | bhòidheach, 
Anns àn | og-mhìos j Bhèaltaìnn. Macdonald. 

ANAPAESTIC MEASURE. TOMHAS ANAPESTIC. 

Thugàdh làgh | leis àn Triath | dhuìnn d'àr riàgh j làdh 6 thùs 
Lagh nam buadh j anna ciat j ach gun fhiar j adh gun lùb. 

M'Gregoi;. 

In the foregoing examples^ the same foot prevails throughout 
each line, but in the following there is an intermixture of feet. 

» " The ancient Bards do not appear to hàve composed under any rixed Ìaws 
of versirìcation, yet the wildest eti'usions vvere not witliout a certain rule ; their 
poerns, although in blank verse, had a peculiar adjustment of cadeuce and leet, 
easily discoverable to a practical ear. 

" Polymetra, or verses of different measures, employed according to the poet's- 
taste or feeling, — a style capable of being reudered extremely effective, — is held 
to be the first form of composition, and has been frequently used by both the 
aucient and modern Gael. ìt was adopted by other nations, and successfutly 
practised by the French aud Spaniards, — in England, it is first seen in the wot k 
o( Ben Jonson." — Scoltish Gael. — See Beauties qf Gaelic Poetry, p. 48—54. 



360 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



There are many beautiful pas- Tha iomadh roinn àluinn araoii 
sages in both our English and ann ar bàrdaibh Beurla 'us 
Gaelic poets, especiaily in the Gàelig, gu h-àraid 'sa Ghàelig, 
Gaelìc, which cannot be scanned nach gabh sgaradh gun chaochla 
without the use of a variety of casan a ghnàthachadh ; mar, 
feet ; as, 

A J Nigheàn j bhoidheàch 
An | òr-fhùilt j bhàchàlàich 
Nàn | gòrm shùil j miogàch 

'S nà | min bhàs j snèachdà-gheàl -Ross. 

Tha sgeùl | àgàm | dhùibh r'à | Innseàdh 

Aìr ceol | 's aìr eànain ; 

A toìrt | cliù aìr | clùiche | Pìobà, 

'S aìr labh J airt Gàelig. M'Intyre. 

Gùr blnn [ e leàm | do cho j ràdh 
Nà smeoràch | nàn gèugàn. 

Bhà mi | 'n dè 'm Beinn j douraìn 'snà j coir chà j robh mi | alneolàch 
Chùnnà j mi nà | gleànntàn 'snà | beànntaich|èàn à | b'aithne'dhomh 
B'e j sln àn^seàllàdh j èibbìnn bhi | 'gimeàchd | airnà | sleibhtibh 
'Nuàir | bhiòdh à' | ghriàn àg | èiridh 'sà j bhiodh nà j fèidh à j 
làngànaìch — Id. 



■ POETICAL LICENSE. 

In poetry there are used 
several words and phrases dif- 
fering in their grammatical con- 
struction from thecommon form, 
in order to fit them the better 
for regular numbers. This liber- 
ty is called poetical license. 

ì . Words may be transposed 
to a greater extent in poetry 
than in prose. 

2. Some vvords are lengthened 
by a syllable.and others are cur- 
tailed, in order to fill up the 
poetic measure exactly. 

8. In poetry, nouns are often 
used for adjectives, and adjec- 
tives for adverbs ; as, 



SAORSA BHARDAIL. 
Tha mòran fhocal agus sheòl- 
lairtean gnàthaichte 'am bàrd- 
achd, a ta dealachadh 'nan suidh- 
eachadh gràmarail, o'n staid 
chumanta, chum an cur 'an 
òrdugh na's fearr air son àir- 
eamhan rialtach. Ris a' chomas 
so, theirear saorsa bhàrdail. 

1 . Faodar focail atharrachadh 
cèum na's mò 'am bàrdachd no 
ann an rosg. 

2. Sìnear cuid a dh-fhocail 
le smid agus giorraichear cuid 
èile,chum lionadh suas an tomh- 
ais bhàrdail, gu h-eagarra. 

3. ' Am bàrdachd gnàthaichear 
gu tric ainmearan an aite bhu- 
adharan agus buadharan an aite 
eho-ghniomharan ; mar, 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 361 



Amid the yreenwx>od shade 
This boy was fed." 

And the god-like hero answer'd mild." 



4. Of the conjunctions that 
go in pairs, nor is often used 
for neither, and or for either ; 
as, 

" To them nor stores nor granaries belong, 
Nought but the woodland and the song." 

" Not man alone, but all that roam the wood, 
Or wing the sky, or roll along the flood." 



4. De na naisgearan a thèid 
'nan cupuill gnàthaichear gu tric 
nor an aite neither, agus or an 
aite either ; mar, 



5. There is a great variety 
of elliptical expressions to be 
found in poetry ; tbus, 

Two words or syllables are 
often contracted into one ; as, 
' Tis for it is ; 'twas for it was; 
'twill for it will ; we'lt for we 
wilì. 

6. Vowels, and sometimes 
consonants, are elided, to run 
two syllables intò* one. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF P0ETRY. 

1 . An Epic Poem is a fanci- 
ful discourse, invented, to give 
an exalted description of some 
great achievement or event. 

2. A Dramatic Poem is one 
in which some action is repre- 
sented, or somedesign unfolded, 
only by the plays and speeches 
of stage-actors. 

3. A Lyric Poem is one that 
may be sung or set to music. 

4. A Pastoral Poem is one 
which describes the loves and 
joys of shepherds, and pictures 
out rural life. Also called 
Bucolic or Eclogue. 



5. Gheibhear moran sheòlì- 
airtean bearnach 'am bàrdachd ; 
mar so, 

Giorraichear gu tric dà fhocal 
no dà smid gu aon ; mar, Is e, 
is i, is iad, gu 'se,* y si, siad ; 
bu gu ò' ; is àill, bithidh, gu 
'sdill, bPdh. 

6. Tilgear fuaimragan, agus 
air uairibh cònnragan, gu dà 
smid a ruith gu aon. 



CAOCHLA SEOESA BARDACHD. 

1. Is e Ddn-Mòr còradh 
smuainteil iar a chur ri chèile, 
gu àrd chunntas a thoirt mu 
ghniomh trèun, no aobhar àraid. 

2. Is e Ddn- Cluiche aon anns 
am beil gniomh àraid riochd- 
aichte, no rùn àraid iar fhosg- 
ladh a-mhain le ^alaidhean 'us 
cainnt chleasaichean. 

3. Is e Ddn-Cruite aon a 
dh-fhaodar a shèinn^, no chur ri 
ceòl no fonn. 

4. Is e Ddn-Aodhaireil aon 
anns am beil gaol 'us aiteas 
bhuachaillean iar an airis, agus 
àbhaistean dùchail foillsichte. 
Ris an canar fòs Bò-choilleag. 



* These, and other Gaelic contractions, 
ki prose,— For bu, see Gaelic Construction. 



are much used, but with no proprietv^ 
, Rv.le 30. 



362 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



5. An Elegy is a poem, in 
which the loss of deceased 
friends is affectingly lamented, 
and their virtues recounted and 
extolled. 

6. An Epigram is a short 
poem of a few pointed lines, 
generally of a sarcastic or severe 
nature, to taunt or mock some 
particular person or act. 

I. FIGURES OF SPEECH. 

A Figure in grammar is 
an intentional deviation 
from the ordinary form, 
construction, or application 
of words. 

There are three classes 
of grammatical figures, mz. 
fìgures of Etymology,figures 
of Syntax, and figures of 
Rhetoric. 

FIGURES 0F ETYMOLOGY. 

The principal figures of 
Etymology are seven, viz. 

A-phaer-e-sis,* A-poc-o-pe 
Pros-the-sis, Syn-co-pè, and 

1. Aphaeresis is the omis- 
sion of some of the initial le t- 
ters of a word ; as, 'gainst, 
'gan, for against, began. 

2. Apocopè is the omis- 
sion of some of the final let- 
ters of a word ; as, th' for 
the, tho for though. 



5. Is e Cumha, no Marbh- 
rdnnAìxi anns am beil càll chàir- 
dean a dh'-èug iar a chaoidh gu 
trom agus an subhailcean ainra- 
ichte 's iar an àrd-mholadh. 

6. Is e Gearr-Dhuan dàn 
beag anns am beil beagan lineach- 
an geur-fhoclach, gu tric de 
nàdur bèumach a bhèumadh, no 
'mhagadh neach no gniomh' 
àraid. 

I. FIGEARAN CAESTsT. 

Is e Figear 'an gràmar 
claonadh deònach, o staid, 
o shuidheachadh, no bho 
cho-chur suidhichte fhocal- 
an. 

Tha trì roinnean a dh- 
f higearan gràmarail ann ; 
eadh. figearan Foclachaidh, 
fìgearan Riaitachaidh, agus 
figearan Oir-chainnt. 

FIGEARAN FOCLACHAIDH. 

Is iad priomh fhigearan 
Foclachaidh seachd, eadh. 
, Di-aer-e-sis, Par-a-go-ge, 
Syn-aer-e-sis. 

1. Ise Apheresis*fELg&ila- 
mach cuid de litrichibh tùs- 
ail focail ; mar, 's, 'eil, air- 
son is agus beil.n 

2. Is e Apocopè, fàgail 
a-mach cuid de litrichibh 
deireannach focail ; mar, 
ge, aithriche, airson gecl, 
aithrichean. n 



• If any should demur to the use of these arid other woHs in both languages 
without a Gaelic version of each, let him observe, that tiiese and aeveral other 
technical terms, used in gramniar, are not EnKlish words, but words derived 
cliietly from the Greek and Latin, put into an English dress, and that the Gaelic 
is, in tlie ahsence of a more -uitable term, equally entitlfcd to their use, and also 
Xo cast them in its own mould. — "iee Gram. voc. 



FIGEARAN CAINNT. 363 

3. Diaeresis. — See this o.Dàlid. — Faic am fio-ear 
fìgure on p. 329, — 11. 



4. Paragogè is the an- 
nexing of an expletive sjl- 
lable to a word ; as, 

Casten for cast. 

5. Prosthesis is the pre- 
fixing of an expletiye sjl- 
lable to a word ; as, 



so air t. 329,-11. 

4. Is e Paragogè ìceadh 
srnid lionaidh ri focal ; 
mar, 

Deary for dear. 

5. Is e Prostesis roimh- 
iceadh smid lionaidh ri 
focal ; mar, 



Yclad, bestir, for clad, stir. 



6. JSyncojuè is the omis- 
sion of some of the middle 
letters of a word ; as, o'er, 
lov'd, for over, loved. 

7. Synaeresis, the oppo- 
site of Diaeresis, is the 
throwing of two sjllables 
into one ; as, 

Seest for se'èst. 

II. PTCFUBÈS OF SYBTAX. 

The principal fìgm-es of 
^Svntax are four, viz. — 



6. Slncojcè fàgail a-mach 
cuid de litrichibh meadh- 
onach focail ; mar, fa'near, 
airson fainear. 

7. Is e Sineresis no 
Aonlid fear aghaidh Dàhde^ 
bualadh dhà smid gu aon ; 
mar, 

Looked for look-ed. 

IL-FIGEAHAX RIALTACHAIDH. 

Is iad priomh f higearan 
Rialtachaidh ceithir, eadh. 



El-lip-sis, Ple-o-nasm, En-al-la-ge, and Hy-per-ba-ton. 

1. Is i Bearn, fàgail a- 
mach focail no cuid a dh- 
f hocal no pàirt de chiallairt 
a ta fèumail a lionadh suas 
a'cho-rianachaidh, achnach 



1. Ellipsis isthe omission 
of some word or vords, or 
clause of a sentence, vhich 
are necessary to complete 
the construction, but not 
necessarj to convej the 
meaning.* 

Such words as are omitted 
in a sentence are said to be un- 
derstood. 



iarrar a ghiùlan an t-seadh.* 

Theirear gu 'n tuigear-as, a 
leithid a dh-fhocail 's a dh'-fhàg. 
ar a-mach à ciallairt. 



In the following examples of the ellipsis of each of the parts of 
speech, the words placed within parenthesis need not be expressed 
to convey the sense. 



• See EDglish Ar. Rule 17 and 18. 



364 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



1. A boy and (a) girl. 
The wind, ( the ) rain, and 

( the ) snow. 

2. Adozen (bottles ) of wine. 
The upper ( mill-stone ) and 

nether mill-stone. 

3. The times are favourable 
to me and (favoarable ) to you. 

4. I advised the boy and ( I) 
encouraged the girl. 

5. Who broke the window ? 
I (broke it.) 

6. ( Being ) satisfied with my 
qualifìcations, the gentleman en- 
gaged me. 

7. He acted ( prudently ) and 
spoke prudently. 

8. ( On) this week. 

9. Alas ! our wicked hearts, 
and ( alas! ) the folly of men. 

10. The king, (and ) the 
queen, ( and ) the prince, and 
princess passed by, in noble 
state. 

2. Plèonasm or redund- 
ancy, is the using of more 
words than are necessary 
to conve j the meaning ; as, 

I saw it with my own eyes. 



1. () Giullan agus () caileag. 
A' ghaoth ( an t-*) uisge 

agus ( an ) sneachd. 

2. Dusan ( searrayan ) fiona. 
A' chlach mhuilinn uachdar- 

ach agus ( a' chlach-mhuilinu ) 
iochdarach. 

3. Tha na timean fàbharach 
dhomh-sa agus ( fdbharach ) 
dhut-sa. 

4. Thug mi earail do'n bhal- 
achan agus ( thugmi) misneachd 
do 'n chaileig. 

5. Co 'bhris an uinneag \ 
(bhris) mise (z.) 

6. ( Iar bhi) toilichte le m' 
ionnsachad ghabh an duin'- 
uasal mi. 

7- Rinn e (gu glic ) agus 
labhair e gu glic. 

8. ( Air* ) an t-seachduin so. 

9. Och ! ar cridheachan olc, 
agus (Och !) gòraich dhaoine. 

10. Chaidh an righ (agus) a' 
bhan-righ, (agus) am prionnsa 
agus a' bhana-phrionnsa seachad 
'an àrd inbhe. 



2. Is i Ldnachd gnàth- 
achadh na 'smò dh-fhocail 
na tha fèumail gus an seadh 
a ghiùlan ; mar, 

Chunnaic mi e le mo shùilibh 
fèin. 

This figure should be used only in animated discourse, where 
it is calculated to render the subject both elegant and impressive. 



3. Enallagè is the substi- 
tuting of one part of speech, 
or of some form of a word 
for another ; as, 

They fall successive (ly) and successive (ly) rise — Pope. 
Tuitidh iad (gu h-) òrdail 'us (gu h-) òrdail èiridh iad. 

* In most cases, it is necessary to repeat the article, the preposition, or con- 
junction before words in tìaelic, iu order to preserve and continue the construc- 



3. Is e Ionadach cur aoin 
fhocail cainnt, no aoin 
staide focail 'an ionad aoin 
èile ; mar, 



FIGEARAN CAINNT. 



365 



4. Hyperbaton is the 
transposing of words ; such 
as placing its object before 
a verb ; as, 

4 f The horse and his rìder hath 
he thrown into the sea." 



4. Is e Hiperbaton atharr- 
achadh f hocal, mar tha cur 
a'cuspair roimha ghniomh- 
ar fèin ; mar, 

" An t-each agus a mharcach 
thilg e 'san fhàirge." 



This figure is much used in poetical composition, and a proper 
application of it adds great strength, vivacity, and harmony to the 
subject, but care should be taken lest it produce ambiguity or 
obscurity. 

III. FIGURES OF RHET0RIC. 
A figure ofRhetoricis a mode 



of expression, in which a word 
or sentence is to be understood 
in a sense different from its 
ordinary and literal meaning. 

There are fourteen prin- 
cipal figures of Rhetoric ; 
namely, — 

Sim-i-lè, Met-a-phor, Al- 
le-gor-y, Per-son-i-fi-ca-tion, 
Me-ton-y-my, Sy-nec-do- 
chè", Hy-per-bo-le, Vi-sion, 
A-pos-tro-phè, Ex-clam-a- 
tion, In-ter-ro-ga-tion, I-ro- 
ny, Cli-max, and An-tith-e- 
sis. 

1. A Simiìè or Compari- 
son is a fìgure by which we 
compare one object to ano- 
ther, and it is generally in- 
troduced by like, as, or so, 
d'c. ; as, 

" Thine eye is Uke the star 
oi'eve." 

2. A Metaphoris a figure 
which substitutes the name 
of one object for another, 



III. FIGEARAN OIR-CHAINNT. 

Is e Figear Oir-chainnt dòigh 
labhairt anns am beil focal no 
ciallairt gu bhi air a thuigsinn 
ann an seadh dealaichte o 'chiall 
cumant' agus litireil. 

Tha ceithir priomh fhig- 
earan dèug Oir-chainnt 
ann ; eadhon, — 

Sàmh-ladh, Cos-lachd, 
Seach-labh-airt, Pear-sach- 
adh, Meton-i-mi, Si-nec- 
do-chè, Os-labh-airt, Seal- 
ladh, As-cair, Glaodh,Ceas- 
nach, Sgèig-each, As-nadh, 
agus Trasd-ach. 

1. Is e Sàmhladh no 
Coimeasachadh, figear leis 
ambeil sinn a' samhlachadh 
aoin chuspair ri cuspair èile, 
agus bheirear a stigh e gu 
tric le, coltach, mar, amhuil, 
<L'ce.\ mar, 

" Tha do shùil mar rèult an 
fheasgair." 

2. Is e Coslachd figear a 
chuireas ainmaoin chuspair 
'an ionad aoin eile, a nochd- 



3G6 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



to express the resemblance 
the one bears to the other ; 
as, 

" Thy word is a lamp to my 
feet and a light to my path.' 

3. An Allegory is a con- 
tinuation of one or more 
metaphors, so connected in 
sense, as to form a kind of 
parable or fable ; 



adh a' chòltais a ta aig an 
aon ris an aon eile ; mar, 

" Is lòchran d' fhocal do mo 
chois agus solus do mo chèum." 

3. Is e Seach-labhairt 
seasamh aoin no iomadh 
coslachd co-naisgte 'an 
seadh air mhodh 's gu 'n 
dealbhar leò gnè de cho- 
samhlachd, no dh-ùr-sgèul ; 

Mar so, tha clann Israeil 
riochdaichte fo shàmhladh fion- 



Thus the people of Israel are 
represented under the symbol of 
a vine. ain. 

" Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt, thou hast cast out 
the heathen, and planted it. Thou preparedst room before it, and 
didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. The hills 
were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof 
were like the goodly cedars." — Psalm lxxx. 8 — 10. 



4. Metonymy, or change 
of names, is a fìgure hj 
which we put the cause for 
the effect, or the effect for 
the cause, the container for 
the thing contained ; as, 

He reads Salust. i.e. Salust's 
works. 

The kettle boils, i.e. the 
water. 

5. Synecdochèis the nam- 
ing of a part for the whole, 
or the wliole for a part ; as, 

The head, for the whole body. 

The waves, for the sea. 

6. Ilyperbolè is a figure, 
whereby the imagination 
indulges itself in represent- 



4. Is i Metonimi, no màth 
ainmean, figear leis an cuir- 
ear an t-aobhar 'an ait a 
ghniomha, no an gniomh 
'an aite an aobhair, an ni, 
chumas an ait an ni a ta 
ann ; mar, 

Tha e 'lèughadh Shàluist/ue. 
obraichean Shàluist. 

Tha an coire 'goil, i.e. an t- 
uisge. 

5. Is e Sinecdochè, ainm- 
eachadh pàirte, an ait an 
iomlain, no an iomlain an 
ait pàirte ; mar, 

An ceann, an aite na coluinn 
uile. 

Na tùinn, an aite na fàirge. 

6. Is e Os-labhairt figear 
leis am beil an inntinn a 
ceadachadh dhi fèin nithe 



FIGEARAN 

ing objects as greater or 
less, better or worse, than 
thej reallj are ; as, 

"They were swifter than 
eagles, they were stronger than 
lions." 

7. Personijìcatìon or Pro- 
so-po-pae-ia, is a figure, bj 
whichweascribelife and ac- 
tion to inanimate objects, 
and the use of reason to 
irrational creatures, speak- 
ing of them as if thej were 
intelligent beings ; as, 

The ground thirsts for rain, 

The earth smiles with plenty. 

8. Vision or Imagery is 
a figure, bj which the 
speaker represents a past or 
future action or event as 
actuallj passing before his 
ejes, and present to his 
senses ; as, 

" Higli sight it is and haughty 
while, 

They dive into the deep detìle, 
Beneath. the caverned cliff, they 
fall, 

Beneatli the castle's airy wall." 

9. Apostrophè is a figure 
bj which the orator turns 
abruptlj from the subject 
to address some other per- 
son or object ; as, 

•f Death is swallowed up in 



CAINNT. 367 

a riochdachadh na 's mò, 
no na 's lugha, na 's fearr 
no na 's miosa, na tha iad 
gu fior ; mar, 

" Bu luaitheiad na iolairean, 
bu trèise iad na leòmhain. 

7. Is e Pearsachadh, 
figear leis am beil sinn a' 
cur beatha agus gluasaid 
as leth nithe neo-bheò agus 
rèusain asleth chrèutairean 
mi-rèusanta, a' labhairt 
ùmpa mar gu'm bu chrèut- 
airean tuigseach iad ; mar, 

Tha 'n talamh ag iarraidh an 
uisge. 

Tha 'n tìr rigàire le pailteas. 

8. Is e Sealladh fìgear 
leis ambeil am fear-labhairt 
a' nochdadh gniomha no 
cùis' a thachair no tha gu 
tachairt, mar gu 'm biodh 
e dìreach a'dolfo 'shùilibh 
agus 'an làthair a chàilean ; 
mar, 

" 'S mi faicinn an t-seallaidh 
àirdj 

Iad a tearnadh leis a' ghleann, 
A' tuiteam sios fo chreig nan 
sgàr 

Fo stuagh. nan tùr àrda fann." 

9. Is e Ascair figear leis 
am beil an t-òraidear a' 
tionndadh gu grad o 'n 
cheann-teagaisg gu co-labh- 
airt ri neach no cuspair 
èigin èile ; mar, 

" Shluigeadh suas am bàs le 



368 FIGURES OF SPEECH 

victory. O Death, where is thy 
sting ? 

10. Exclamation is a 
fìgure used to express some 
violent emotion of the mind ; 

as, 



that I had wings like a 
dove ! for then would I fly away 
and be at rest !" 

11. Interrogation is a 
ngure by which the speaker 
proposes questions, not to 
express a doubt, but to en- 
liven his diseourse ; as, 

" He that planted the ear, 
shall he not hear ? he that form- 
ed the eye, shall he not see ? 

12. Irony is a flgure in 
which a person sneeringly 
utters the very reverse of 
what he thinks ; as, 

When we say to a boy who 
neglects his lesson — " You are 
very attentive indeed !" 

And when Elijah said to the 
foolish worshippers of BaaL, 
mocking them, — 

<f Cry aloud, for he is a god ; 
suing, or he is on a journey, or 
awaked." 

13. Climax is a figure 
in which every succeeding 
object rises a degree in im- 
portance above that which 
precedes it ; as, 

«' Add to your faith virtue ; 



buaidh. O Bhàis c'ait am 
bheil do ghath ?" 

10. Is e Glaodh fìgear a 
ghnàthaichear gu gluasad 
gèur na h-inntinn a nochd- 
adh ; mar, 

' f Och, nach robh agam sgiath- 
an mar choluman ! (an sin) 
theichinn as air iteigagus gbeibh- 
inn fois!" 

11. Is e Ceasnach, figear 
leis am beil am fear-labh- 
airt a' cur cheistean, cha 
n-ann a radh teagaimh, ach 
a bheòthachadh a labh- 
airt ; mar, 

" An ti a shuidhich a' chluas 
nach cluinn e ; an ti a dhealbh 
an t-sùil nach faic e ?" 

12. Is e Sgèigeach, figear 
anns am beil neach ag radh 
gu sgèigeil, cha n-i a bhe- 
achd, ach a ceart-chaoch- 
lath ; mar, 

Their sinn ri giullan a dhi- 
chuimhnicheas a leasan — ' f Gu 
dearbh is cùramach thu !" 

Agus 'nuair a thuirt Eliah ri 
fàidhibh gòrach Bhààil, a' mag- 
adh orra, — 

either he is talking, or he is pur- 
perhaps he sleepeth, and must be 

13. Is e Asnadh no Dir- 
eadh figear anns am beil 
gach cuspair a leanas, ag 
èiridh cèum ann an inbhe 
os-ceann an aoin roimhe ; 
mar, 

" Cuiribh ri bhur creidimh 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 369 



aild to virtue knowledge ; and 
to knowledge teinperance ; and 
to temperance patience ; and to 
patience godliness ■ and to god- 
liness brotherly kindness ; and 
to brotherly kindness charity." 

14:. Antithesis is the 
placing of objects in oppo- 
sition, for the purpose of 
pntting them in a stronger 
light, by contrasting or 
eoinparing the one with the 
other ; as, 

" The wicked flee when no 
man pursuetb ; but the righteous 
are bold as a lion." 

Here, Solomon contrasts the 
courage of the righteous. 



deadh-bhèus ; agus ri deadZ? 
bhèus eòlas ; agus ri h-eò]as 
stuaim ; agus ri stuaim foighid-- 
inn ; agus ri foighidinn diadh- 
achd ; agus ri diadhachd gràdh 
bràthaireil ; agus ri gràdh bràth- 
aireil sèirc." 

14. Is e Trasdachd no 
Coimeas, cur chuspairean 
ri aghaidh a chèile chum 
am foillseachadh na's soill- 
eire le trasdàchadh an 
aoin ris an aon èile ; mar, 

f€ Teichìdh an t-aingidh gun 
neach air bith an tòir air, ach 
I bithidh na h-ionraic dàna mar 
leòmhan." 

tìmidity of the wicked with the 



GRAMMATICAL TOCABULARY 



FOCLAIR GRAMARALL. 



The following lucid explanation of the Grammatical Terms 
used in both Languages will at once instruct and amuse the 
learner. A portion of them should be got by heart with every 
lesson, till they aie all thoroughly mastered by the pupil. 

Words formcd from Greek roots are marked with an f. 

The English is indebted tc the Greek and Latin for its grammatieal terms ; _but 
it will be observed from this scheme, that the Gaeiic, in most cases, draws upon 
itself for such terms. 



ABSTRACT, a word or piinciple 
derived from ancther, (t'rom 
abs, from, and traetvs. drawn ) 

ADJECTIVE, a word added to 
a noun, (from adjectus, added 
to) 

ADYERB, a word joined to 

anotlier word, (from ad, to, 

and verbum, a word) 
AFFIRMATI VE, yes, asserting, 

'/rora arf, to, and firmo, to 

strenijthen 



Sgarta no Sgartach, focal no 
bunachur freumhaichte o aon 
èile, (bho sgar, dealaich) 

Buadhar, fr. (bua-yar) focal a 
chuitear ri ainmear,(bho buaidh 
gnè agusfear, aon) 

Co-GHNTOMHARjjfr. (co-yu'iov-ar) 
focal naisgte ri focal èile, (bho 
còmh ri chèile agus gniovihar) 

DEAKBBACH,{deam>-ach) ag radh, 
a' dcarbhadh, (bho dcarbìi, 
fèuch) 



k a 



370 GRAMMATICAL 



VOCABULARY, 



fALLEGORY, changing one 
name into another, (from alle- 
goria, a change) 

AMBIGUITY, uncertainty, hav- 
ing two or rnore meanings, 
(from amhigo, to doubt) 

-f-ANALYSIS, separating parts, 
(from analusis, loosing) 

fANALOGY, likeness between 
words or objects, (from ana, 
through or like, and logos, a 
wordi 

ÀNTECEDENT, a word going 
before, (from ante, before, and 
cedo, to go) 

fANTITHESIS, comparing or 
opposing the qualities of ob- 
jects together, (from anti, 
against, and tithèmi, to place) 

APPOSITION, placing two or 
more nouns or adjectives in the 
same case, (ad, to, and positus, 
placed) 

APOCOPE, cutting ofF, (apo, 

from, and kopto, to cut) 
fAPH^RESIS, taking from, 

(apo) and aireo, to draw) 
APOSTROPHE, cutting out, or 

turningaway,(aj?o) and stepìio, 

to turn) 

ARTICLE, the word which 
points outj (articulus, a point) 

ASPIRATE, to pronounce with 
full force or stress of the voice; 
to pronounce a Gaelic conson- 
ap with the letter h annexed 
tò'it, or with the mouth partly 
open, and the lips not touching 
one another, (ad, to, and spiro, 
to breathe or blow) 



AUXILIARY, a help, a helping 
verb to form compound tenses, 
(quxìuunì, help) 

CASE, the namc given to any of 



Seach-labhairt, b. mùth aoin 
ainme gu aon èile, (bho seach, 
èile agus labhair, abair) 

Da-Sheadh, fr. dùbailteachd, 
teagamh, (bho dà, dithis agus 
seadh, ciall) 

Snasadh, fr. dealachadh phàirt- 
ean, (bho snas, gearr, sgath) 

Co-chòrdadh, fr. coslas, no 
freagairt ri chèile, (bho co ri 
chèile agus còrd, freagair) 

Roimhan, fr. (roi-y-an) roimh- 
fhocal,(bho roimh, air toiseach 
agus aon, fear) 

Trasdachd, b. coimeasachadh, 
cur bhuadhan chuspairean ri 
aghaidh a chèile, (bho trasd, 
crois no crosg) 

Còrdadh, fr. cur dhà no tuille 
ainmearan no bhuadharan anns 
anaon char, (faic co-chòrdadh) 

•|-Apocope, 6. gearradh dheth, 

(apo, de, agus kopto, gearr) 
-|-Aferesis, b. toirt deth, (apo 

agus aireo, tarruing) 
Ascair, fr. gearradh a-mach no 

tionndadh air falbh,(«s, à, agus 

cuir, beir) 
Pungar, fr am focal comharr- 

achaidh, (pùng, brigh,'us fear, 

aon) 

Seidich, no Seid, fuaimich le 
làn neart no stràc a' ghutha ; 
cònnrag Ghàelig fhuaimeach- 
adh leis an litir h ri 'cùl, no 
leis a' bhèul gu math fosgailte 
's na lipean dealaichte o'chèile, 
(chitear gur e sèid, a cheart 
fhuaim a ni am bèul 'nuair a 
bhuailearananail a-mach eadar 
na fiaclan) 

Taiceil, taicear,gniomhar taiceil 
a chumadh thimean measgte, 
(taic, cobhaiv, 'us cil, amhuil) 

Car, fr. an t-ainm a thugadh do 



FOCLAIR GRAMARAIL. 



371 



the changes which a noun, ad- 

jective, or pronoun undergoes 

in declining or spelling it, 

(casus, a fall) 
CARDINAL, chief, principal, j 

(càrdo, a hinge) 
-f*CLIMAX, rising or ascending, j 

(klijnux, a ladder) 
-j-COLON, the name of a point j 

or pause, (kolon, an increase) | 
-|-COMMA, a point, (komma, a I 

particle) 

COMPARISON, comparing or 
likening of qualities, (con, to- 
gether, and paro to prepare) 

COMPARATIVE, a greater de- j 

gree of the positive 
COMPOSITION, placing words I 

in order, to make good sense, i 

(con and pono, to place) 
COMPOUND, set or placed to- ! 

gether, of more than one, (con ] 

and pono) 
CONCORD, agreeing, (con and 

cordi, the heart) 

CONDITIONAL, limited to cer- 

tain terms, not absclute, (condo 

to build) 
CONJUGATE, to give the prin- 

cipal parts of a verb, (conjugo, 

to couple) 
CONJUNCTION, the connecting 

word, (con, and jungo, to join) 
CONSONANT, a letter which 

cannot be sounded alone, (con, 

and sono j to sound) 

DATIVE, the giving case, 

(datum, to give) 
DECLENSION, bending down, 

the act of changing the termin- 

ation of a word, (de, down, and 

clino, to bend 
DEFECTIVE, wanting, not full, 

(deficio, to fail) 



aon air bith de na mùthan fo 
'n tèid ainmear, buadhar, no 
riochdar 'g a theàrnadh, no 'g 
a chùbadh, (car, lùb, mùth) 

Ardail, àraid, priomh, (àrd, 
mòr, 'us ail, amhuil) 

Asnadh,//-. ag èiridh, a dìreadh, 
(as, o, agus nath,(Ir. id.)eòlas ) 

Sgoiltean, ainm pùing, nostada, 
(sgoilt roinn, aon, fear) 

Snagan, fr. pùng, (snag, cnap, 
agus aon, fear) 

Coimeasachadh, fi'. coimeas, no 
coltachadh bhuadhan ri chèile 
(comh ri chèile agus ìneas, gabh 
beachd) 

Coimeasach, cèum ni 's mò de 

'n t-seasmhacb, no 'n seasach 
Co-sgriobhadh, cur fhocal 'an 

òrdugh gu seadh a dheanamh, 

(comh agus sgriobh, grabh) 
Measgta, suidhichte cuideachd, 

dùbailt, ni 's mò na aon, 

(measg, comhla') 
Co-chòrdadh, fr. a' freagairt do 

cheile, (comh, agus cordi, an 

cridhe) 

Teagmhach, fo chùmhnantan 
àraid, neo-iomlan, (teagamh, 
a g) 

SGEADAicn,priomhlùban gniomh- 

air a chur 'nan òrdugh fèin, 

(sgead, snas) 
Naisgear, fr. am focal aonàidh 

[iiaisg, ceangail agus fear acn) 
Connrag,Z». litir nach gabh fuaim- 

eachadh leatha fèin, (comh, 

cuideachd, fonn, fuaim, 'us 

radh, cantainn) 
Doirteach, an car toirte,( do, gu, 

ri, agus thoir, builich) 
Tearnadh, /;•. a' cromadh sios, 

altmùth dùnaidh focail, (tedrn, 

lùb, thoir sios) 

Gaoideach, neo-iomlan, (gaoid, 
dìth, easbhaidh) 



372 



GRAMMATICAL VOCABULARY. 



DEFINITE, certain, limited, 

(de, down, and finis, an end) 
DEFINITION, a short explana- 

tion of any subject, (de and 

finis, as above) 
DEMONSTRATIVE, pointing 

out,) de, out, and monstro, to 

show) 

f DI.ERESIS, the dividing of 
a diphthong into two syllables, 
(dia, through, and aireo, to 
draw) 

DISTRIBUTIVE, giving a por- 
tion to each, (dis, asunder, and 
tribuo, to give) 

fDIPHTHONG,(^-^o^) two 
vowels joined in the same syl- 
lable, (di, two, and phthongos, 
sound) 

fELLIPSIS, something left out, 

(elleipsis, leaving out) 
fEMPHATIC, forcible, strong, 

(en, upon, andphaino, toshine) 
ENALLAGE, placing of one 

word instead of another, (enall- 

atto, to cbange) 
fETYMOLOGY, the true form- 

ing of words, (etymos, true, 

logos, a word) 
-j-EUPHON Y,(eufony) an agree- 

able sound, (eu, well, phone, a 

sound) 

EXERCISE, practising given 

rules, &c. (ex, out, and arceo, 

to drive or drill) 
FEMININE, female, shee-one, 

(femlna, a woman) 
FUTURE, futuiuty, time to 

come, (from futùrus, about to 

be) 

GENDER, the distinction of ob- 
jects, in regard to sex, (genus, 
a kind) 

GENERAL, common, not spe- 

cial, (genus) 
GENITIVE, possessive, belong- 

ing to 



Cinnteach, soilleir, sonruichte, 

(cinnte, firinn) 
Brighard, b. gearr-mhineachadh 

air pùng sam bidi, (brigh, ciall 

agus àrd, mor) 
Dearbhach, a' comharrachadh 

a-mach, (dearbh, fèuch) 

Dalid, b. roinn dà-ghuth gu dà 
smid, (da, dithis, agus lid, 
smid) 

Roinneach, a' toirt a chòire fèin 
do gach neach,(roinn, pàirtich) 

Da-Ghuth,/?-. dà fhuaimraig a' 
coinneachadh a chèile 'san aon 
smid, (dà, dithis, agus guth, 
fuaim) 

Bearn, b. fagail-a-mach ni-eigin, 

(bearv, fosgladh) 
Neartail, neartmhor, làidir, 

(neart, treòir, agus ail) 
Ionadach, cur aoinfhocail 'an ait' 

aoin èile, (ionad, aite) 

Foclachadh, ceart - dheanamh 
fhocal, (focal, briathar) 

Binneas, fr. fuaim taitneach, 
fuaim binn, (binn, ceòlmhor) 

CLEACHDADii,gnàthachadh rialtan 
aidichte, (cleachd, gnàthaich) 

Boireanta, boirionn, tè, (boir- 

ionn, neach) 
Teacail, (tgek-aì) gu tighinn, 

tim ri tighhm,(teachd, a' tigh- 

inn) 

Gin, eadar-dhealachadh chuspair- 
ean a thaobh gineil, no gnè 

Cumanta, coitchionn, ni h-ann 
àraid 

Ginteach, sèilbheach, le neach- 
eigin, (gin, beir, biodh agad) 



FOCLAIR GRAMARAIL. 



373 



GOVERN, to act upon, to have 

one word to require another in 

a certain case 
•f GRAMMAR, the art of apply- 

ing letters aright in speech, 

(gra?nma, a letter) 
•f-HYPHEN, (-) joining 

fHYPERBOLE, going too far, 
(hyper, beyond, ballo, to throw) 

+HYPERBATON, changing or 
transposing, (hyper and batèn, 
gone) 

IMPERSONAL, not having a 
person or norninative, (in, not, 
and persòna, a person) 

IMPERATIVE, coramanding, 
(i?npero, to order) 

INDEFINITE, undefined, not 
limited, not pointing out, (in, 
not, and definio, to bound or 
limit 

INDICATIVE, declaring, show- 
ing, (index, an informer) 

INFINITIVE, unconfined to 
persons, expressing the action 
of a verb indeterminately, (in, 
not, and finio, to bound) 

INTERVENE, to come between, 
(inter, between, and venìo, to 
come 

INTERJECTION,awordthrown 

in, (inter, and jaceo, to throw) 
INTRANSITIVE, not going 

over to another, not acting up- 

on, (in, not, trans, over, and 

itum, to go) 
-J-IRONY, dissembling speech, 

(eiron, a dissembler) 
IRREGULAR, not according to 

ruìe, (in, and rcgula, a rule) 
MASCULINE, male, or the hee- 

kind, (mas, the male or the hee 

of any creature) 
fMETAPHOR, a change of 

names, (meta, change, and 

phero, to carry) 



j Spreig, buail air, a bhi 'toirt air 

aon fhocal fear èile 'chur ann 

a' car àraid 
S Gramar, alt co-chuir litrichean 

gu ceart 'an cainnt, (gràbh, 

sgriobh) 

Tathan, (-) fr. aonadh, (tàth, 

cuir ri chèile) 
Oslabhairt, b. labhairt ro ard, 

(os,fior ard, agus/aèAair,abair) 
•f Hiperbaton, fr. mìith, ath- 

arrachadh, (hyper os, agus 

baten, iar dol) 
Neo-phearsantail, gun phearsa, 

no gun ainmeach, (neo, gun 

agus pearsa, neach) 
Aineach, ag àithneadh, (àithn, 

òrdugh) 

Neo-chinnteach, neo- shonruich - 
te.gun chrioch, gun bhi 'comh- 
arrachadh a-mach 

1 Taisbeanach, a' foillseachadh, 
(taisbein, fèuch) 

Feartach, tarbhach, stuthail, 
neo-naisgte ri pearsa, a' nochd- 
adh gniomh' a' ghniomhair gu 
neo-shuidhichte,(/ffl7/,buaidh) 

Eadar-thig, thig eadar, (eadar, 
anns a' mheadhon agus thig) 

Clisgear, fr. am focal-giuasaid, 

(clisg, crith, agusjfcar, aon) 
Anasdolach, nach cuir a-mach 

as, nach buail, nach tèid gu 

cuspair, (a?i, neo, as, uaithe, 

agus dol, a' gluasad) 
Sgeigeach, cainnt bhèumach, 

(sgelg, fanoid) 
Neo-rialtach, àriaghailt, claon, 

(neo, mi, 'us riaghailt, lagh) 
Fearanta, firionn, de 'n ghnè ris 

an canar eè, (fear, duine) 

Coslachd, b. mùth ainmean, 
(fow//,cuideachd,agus sàmhla'', 
coltas) 



374 GRAMMATICAL 



VOCABULARY. 



fMETONYMY, changing a 

name, (meta, and onoma a 

name, See Fig. 4) 
MODIFY, to changethe mean- 

ing or form of a word, (modus, 

order, andfg, make) 
MOOD, or mode, order or man- 

ner of a verb 
NEGATIVE, no, denying 

NEUTER, implying no sex, ex- 
pressingneitheraction nor pas- 
sion, neuter, neither) 

NOMINATIVE, naming, sub- 

ject, (nomen, a name) 
NOTE, mark, notice, observe 
NOUN, substantive, name of any 

object, (nomen) 

NUMERAL, consisting of num- 
ber, (numero, to number) 

OBJECTIVE, accusative, the 
case in which a noun or pro- 
noun is put by an active verb 
or preposition, (ob, for, and 
jrctns, thrown) 

ORDINAL, counted in their 
order ; as, first, second, third, 
&c. 

fORTHOGRAPHY, true writ- 
ing, or forming letters into 
words, ( orthos, true, and 
graphe, writing) 

+PARAGOGE,lengthening/^a- 
rago, to prolong) 

PARTICIPLE, partaking of, 
( pars^ a part, and capio, totake) 

PASSIVE, suffering under the 
verbal action, (passus, having 
suffered) 

PAST, preterite, gone, time past 
or gone, (passer, fr. to pass, 
to go over) 

PERFECT, complete, within a 
period of time not yet fully 
past, (perfectvs, finished) ; as, 
I have seen him to-day 



f Metonimi, b. mùth ainme, 

(meta, muth agus onomù, ainm 

Faic Fig. 4) 
Atharraich, mùth staid, no 

seadh focail, (ath, rìst, agus 

càraich, tionndaidh) 
Modh, doigh, no glèus gniomh- 

air 

Diultach, cha, aicheadh, òbadh, 

( dìùlt, òb) 
Neòtair, gun ghineil, nach 'eil a' 

nochdadh aon chuid, gniomh' 

no fulaing, (neo, ni h-eadh, 

agusfear, aon) 
Ainmeach, ainmeachadh, cùisear, 

(ainm, gairm) 
Nod, comhar, aire, beachdaich 
Ainmear, fr. ainm cuspair sam 

bith, (ainm, gairm, agus fear 

aon) 

Cunntach, co-sheasamh 'an àir- 

eimh, (cùnnt, àireamh 
CusPARACH,an car anns an cuirear 

ainmear,no riochdar legniomh- 

ar asdolach, no roimhear,(c«^- 

air ni, no neach) 

Ordail, air an cùnntadh 'nan 

òrdugh ; mar, a' cheud, an 

dara, an treas, &ce. 
Litireach adh, fr. cur litrichean 

gu focail, ceart chùbadh fhocal, 

(litir, ball-focail) 

Paragoge, fr. meudachadh, 

(parago, cuir am' fad) 
Pairteaf.,//-. pàirt-fhocal(^àir/, 

roinn, agusfear, aon) 
Fulangach, a' fulaug, no a' 

giùlan gniomha ghniomharail, 

( fuiling, giùlain) 
Seachadail, iar dol seachad, 

an trath bha, (seachad, thairis, 

agus ail, mar) 
Lan, lionte, an taobh a stigh do 

chuairt ùine nach 'eil fathast 

iar làn-dol seachad ; mar, Tha 

mi iar 'fhaicinn an diùgh 



FOCLAIR GRAMARAIL. 



375 



PERSONAL, belonging to per- 

sons, or to raen and women, 

(personti) 
tPHRASE, (fraze), a mode of 

speech, (phrazo, to speak) 
tPHRASEOLOGY, style of 

speaking, diction, (phrazo and 

logos) 

PLUPERFECT, more than 
perfect, at some stated past 
time; as, / had seen him be- 
fore / met you — (plus, moie, 
and perfectus, finished) 

PLURAL, many, more than 
one, (pluris, of more) 

POTENTIAL, having powcr 
or liberty, (potens, able to do) 

POSSESSIVE, belonging to, 
or possessing; thegenitive case 
(possessìo, property) 

POSITIVE, the quality with- 
out increase, (positus, placed) 

PRECEDE, to go or place be- 
fore, (pre, before, and cedo, 
to go) 

PREDICATE, whatisaffirmed 
or said of the subject of a 
verb, (predico, to affirm, to 

say) 

PREPOSITION, a word placed 
before, (pre and pono, to 
place) 

PROGRESSIVE, going for- 
ward, advancing, (pro, for- 
ward, and gressus, going) 

PRONOUN, a word put for a 
noun, the representative word 
(pro, for, and nomen, a name) 

PROPOSITlON,somethingex- 
pressed, or proposed for con- 
sideration, (propono, to set 
forth) 

' lomadh and Aonar are i 



Peabsantail, buntuinn do 
phèarsaibh, no do dhaoine agus 
do mhnathan, (pearsa, neach) 

Seòllaibt, fr. seòl-Jabhairt, 
(seòl,dòìgh, agus labhair, ah'dir) 

Gnath-chainnt, alt-labhairt, 
stàil cainnt ; briathrachas 

Roìlan, tuille 'us làn, 'an tim 
eigin ainmichte seachad ; mar, 
Bha mi iar 'fhaicinn-sa mu'n 
do choinnich mithusa, (roirnh, 
air toiseach, agus làn, lionte) 

Iomadh,* moran, ni 's mò na h- 
aon, (ioma, lionmhor) 

Comasach, aig am beil comas 
no cead, (comas, neart) 

Seilbheach, le sèilbh, bun- 
tuinn do, an car ginteach, 
(sèilbh, còir) 

Seasmhach, a' bhuaidh gun 
mheud, (seas, stad, fan) 

Roi-chitib, rach, no cuir roimh, 
(roimh agus cuir) 

Feabt, abairt ; na theirear mu 
chùisear gniomhair, an gniomh 
a nitear 

Roimheab, //*. am focal a chuir- 

ear roimh, (roimh, air tùs, 

agus fear, aon) 
Aghartach, 'dol air aghaidh, 

a' gluasad suas, (aghart, agh- 

aidh) 

Riochdab, fr. focal a chuirear 
'an ait' ainmeir, an riochd- 
fhocal, (riochd, aite, crutb, 
agus fear) 

Smuanoirt, b. ni àraid iar airis, 
no iar a chur an cèill gu 
beachdachadh air, (smuain, 
beachd, agus thoir, tairg) 



376 GRAMMATICAL 



VOCABULARY. 



tPROSODY, proper pronun- 
ciation, or'right utterance of 
speech, (prosodia, a song) 
PROSTHESIS, prefixing 
PUNCTUATION, the art of 
placing the stops or pauses in 
sentences, (punctus, a point) 

RADICAL, original, of the root 

(radix, a root) 
REGULAR, according to rule 
RELATIVE, relating to ano- 

ther word 
fRHETORIC, the art of speak- 

ing elegantly, (rheo, to speak 

or flow) 
fRHYME, verse having lines 

endiug in like sounds, (rhyth- 

mus, sounds) 
ROOT, the stock from which 

other words are derived ; the 

radix of a word 
RLTLE, a law of language es- 

tablished hy usage 
SENTENCE, a numher of 

words making complete sense, 

(sententia, an opinion) 
SIMILE, likeness, comparison, 

(similis, like) 
SINGULAR, denoting one 
SUBJECT, thenominative, the 

person or thing spoken of, 
(sub, under, waùjectus, thrown 

SUBJUNCTIVE, joined to 
SUPERLATIVE, the greatest 

degree of the quality, (super, 

above, and latus, carried ) 
f SYNCOPE, cutting out, (syn, 

together, hopto, to cut) 
fSYNECDOCIIE, taking to 

gether (syn, and decomai, to 

tàke 



Rannachadii, fr. ceart fhuaim- 

eachadh, no fiòr ghuthcainnt, 

(rdnn, Òran) 
f Prostesis, fr. roi-iceadh 
PungachaDh;//-. alt suidheach- 

aidh nan stadan no nan an- 

ailean ann a' ciallairtibh, 

(pàng, stad) 
Bunail, priomh, stocail, tùsail, 

(bun, stoc, tùs) 
Rialtach, a rèir riaghailte 
Roimhan, fr. buntuinn do dh- 

fhocal èile a ta roimhe 
Or-chainnt, b. alt labhairt gu 

grinn, (òr miotailt glan, agus 

cainnt, cànain) 
fRAiM, b. rànn aig am bheil 

lineachan a' dìmadh 'am 

fuaimean co-ionann 
Freumh, hun, an stoc o'n toir- 

ear focail èile, stèigh focail 

Rialt, b. lagh cainnt suidhichte 

le àbhaist 
Ciallairt, fr. àireamh fhocal 

ag airis cèille, (ciall, brigh, 

agus labhair, airis) 
Samhladh,//-. coltas, coimeas 

Aonar, aon, a' ciallachadh aoin 
Cuisear,//*. an t-ainmeach, an 

ceann-teagaisg, an ni no neach 

mu'n labhrar, (càis, gnothach, 

fear, aon) 
Leantach, leantàinn ri 
Anardach, an cèum a's mò 

de 'n bhuaidh, (an, os^ agus 

drd, mòr) 
Sincofe, b. gearradh as, (sin, 

comblath, agus kopto, gearr) 
Sinecdooiie, b. a' gabhail gu 

chèile, (sin, còmh, no co, 

agus decomai, gabh) 



FOCLAIR GRAMARAIL. 



377 



fTAUTCLOGY, repeatingthe 
same word or meaning too 
often, or oftener than the 
sense requires, (tautun, the 
same, and logos, a word) 

TENSE, time of acting or 
suffering (temps, pr. tang, 
time) 

TRANSITIVE, passing to, j 
having an effect upon some i 
object ; active, (trans, and I 
itunì) 

fTRIPHTHONG, three vowels 
in the same syllable, (tres, 
three, and phihongos, sound) 

VERB, the word, the working 
word, (verhum, a word 

VOCATIVE, the addressing 

case, [voco, to call) 
VOWEL, a letter which makes 

a full open sound of itself, 

(voco, to call) 



Ionlairt, b. ag airis an fhocaiì, 
no an t-seadh chèudna ro-thric. 
no ni 's trice na tha 'n seadh 
ag iarraidh, (ionann, cèudna 
agus labhair, can) 

Tm,fr. àm deanaimh, no ful- 
aing ; (Is focal priomhach e 
so) 

AsDOLACH,a' cur as, a' deanamh 
tùirn air cuspair eigin, (as, a- 
mach, agus dol, a' falbh) 

Tri-ghuth, fr. tri fuaimragan 

anns an aoin smid, (tri ogus 

guth, fuaim) 
Gnio^ihar, fr. (kniov-ar) an 

gniomh-fhocal, (gniomh, ob- 

air, agus fear, aon) 
Gairmeach, an car co-labhairt 

ri, (gairm, ainm) 
Fuaimrag.ì. litir a ni fuaim làn 

leatha fein, (fuaim, guth, 

agus radh, cantainn) 



a chrioch. 



edinrurgh : 
Printed by Thornton <fe Collie. 



DCNEDIN • 
Clò-Bhuailte le Thornton agus Collie. 



ERRATA. 



Page. line. 


for 


read. 


Taobh 19 Sreath 16, 


airson Fochlachadh, 


leugh Foclachadh. 


28 Sreath 16, 


, airson ri, 


leugh 'n. 


47 Sreath 30. 


i airson focal, 


leugh focail. 


50 Sreath 14. 


airson tomhas-fear, ainn, 


leugh tomhais-fhearainn. 


80 Sreath 26, 


, airson Eagair, 


leugh Eagar. 


87 Sreath 22 


, airson, aoin, 


leugh dhà. 


88 Sreath 15 


, airson a cluas, 


ìeugh a chluas. 


92 Sreath 17, 


i airson bigg, 


leugh bige. 


100 Sreath 31, 


, airson Ge be, 


leugh Ge b'e. 


117 Sreath 2, 


airson Dh'-fhaodadamaid, leugh Dh'-fhaodamaid. 


244 Sreaih 2, 


uirson pheara, 


leugh phearsa. 


258 Sreath 11, 


airson now, 


leugh snow. 


268 Sreath 33, 


airson from ever, 


ìeugh from fever. 


317 Sreath 11, 


airson ghniomharan, 


leugh gniomharan. 


319 Sreath 37, 


airson fiodh, 


leugh fiadh. 


320 Sreath 10, 


airson ruit, 


leugh riut. 


322 Sreath 10, 


airson tha, 


leugh thu. 


324 Sreath 11, 


airson sgnagan, 


leugh snagan. 


349 Sreath 11, 


airson Mhigàh, 


leugh Mhàigh. 



Airson A', leugh A, roimh an Fheartach, air taobh 152, 155, 159, 161, 163, 164, 
agus 165.